The kali Linux is used for perform the penetration testing. Before using the penetration testing, the white box testing, black box testing, and gray testing are used. The kali Linux and also the other tools are used for perform the penetration testing. The penetration testing is done by the following steps.
The intelligence of the network is finding out by using target system. The identified targets are used for gather the information. Before we start the survey part we must need to identify the target, and also provide the details about the customer. In this data tells how you can find the best way to get the effective solution. The kali Linux provide different types of tools like network investigation, data centers, wireless network, and host system.
The major goal of reconnaissance is use applications and services, acknowledge the types of system, social engineering information, and also document information. We know that, in kali Linux we are using several tools and these types of tools are also known as vulnerability analysis. The assessment objectives are done the below resources, such as asses the target system vulnerability, priority of vulnerable system, mapping the vulnerable system, and problem discovery.
The net server is analyzed by using kali Linux. Net server is known as the main server and it contains the services and this is used to the products. And these kind of server is used as the framework. And this server appear like generic server and also it includes the single connection server. We need to study the important objectives for analyze the net server. So in this situation we are using the penetration testing. The major for using this system is the weak points of the system is easily recognized. After the penetration analysis is completed by using the kali Linux, and then we need to perform the Boot to Root activity. The target range is known as 10.222.0.251 and 10.222.0.252.
Reconnaissance is the first action, carried out to identify the key vulnerabilities, and easy attacking of the system is done by this action. The genuine action carried out to find the security vulnerability of the system. And also is used for take the corrective action, this action is fully against the security breach. It is done by the security administrator. The cyber-attacks conducted from the outside of the server, and this analyses is used for avoid the cyber-attack. This parse is used for analyze the target environment and characteristics of the system. The targeted information are easily identified and also very fast done by the penetration testing. Compare to white box testing, the black box testing needs more reconnaissance, because the testers do not get any additional data. The network IP addresses are scanned; not only the IP address and also the social engineering services are scanned. We want to perform the penetration testing, the first step is reconnaissance.
In this process the security test was carried out to check whether the system have any flaws. So the main objective of the scanning is flaws checking of the system. Here we check the confidentiality of the system. Also the authentication system undergoes to the test. In this stage we can easily identify and analyze the weakest part of the network. The next one is access the vulnerability of the target; it provides the knowledge about the target and this knowledge is used for the tester. So we can learn the details about how the vulnerabilities are analyzed. The test vulnerabilities includes so many things like how to run the web applications, which types of informations are used, what are port communications are used, and so on. We want to improve the potential vulnerabilities, and also avoid the exiting security then we need to use the scouted information. The owner of the asset in the web application is worn by the generic vulnerability scanner. The target is completed in two different ways one is manually completed and another one is using some tools.
This is the process of using the things for our own usage. In our case we need to find the software or tool, which exploits the data for attackers. The weakness of the system software (OS) is easily identified and solves it. Exploration is used for check the vulnerability is available or not. And also it is used for check the current status of the vulnerability. There are two different types of passive services are used one is assessment and another one is auditing. The vulnerability exploits and all the subsequent steps are accessed without any proper authentication, so we need to get the permission from the owner of the system. These kinds of situations are avoided by using exploitation.
It’s fully depending upon the above twp steps. Exploitation is the most famous technique for identify the vulnerability and also incorrect performance. In the target system use two different ways for exploits their vulnerable, one is manual and another one is automated. In SQL injunction we are using different gain administrative access are used for the web application development.
In this test is used for find any traces of the exploiting software or bugs. For this test we simply perform the IP configure command. That shows all the established connection of the system. So we can able to find the details about the system attackers. Only the restriction data and resources are allowed in vulnerable system. The evaluation of privilege includes password cracking, user account, unlicensed IT space, and so on. If you want to gain the privilege evaluation, then we need to have some vulnerable toolkits. This toolkit is provided by kali Linux. The post exploitation goals are obtain the highest privilege, reveal the user account information, and other system access.
In this penetration testing method the last stage is reporting. The reporting phase is one of the most important phases, it includes two parts one is management and another one is technical part. It provides the effective information about the graphs, and figures. The vulnerable presentation is providing by the penetration tester, and the technical description is providing by the document. The client requirements of the document are meeting by the tester. And also provide the detailed information about the document.
In the risks analysis the list of vulnerabilities are shown and the solution for the vulnerabilities are found, explained about the vulnerability result. And the attacks are shown using the kali Linux and also the risks are analyzed by the range. And in that each risk has own value and specified based on each criteria. And the penetration has implemented using the kali Linux with VMware. And also the attacks are analyzed through the implementation.
Risk assessment criteria
The risk is identified based on the impact and it can be medium, low, high and extreme. And in that many risks are possible with low and medium. And in this analysis the medium and high risks are identified and there is an option unlike and it is mentioned for low chance to get a risk. And by the way the risks are analyzed and reported. And the risk described by moderate, low and critical based on the risk it analyze the impact level.
Likelihood (Weight Factor)
The threat-source is highly motivated and sufficiently capable,
and controls to prevent the vulnerability from being exercised
The threat-source is motivated and capable, but controls are in
place that may impede successful exercise of the vulnerability.
The threat-source lacks motivation or capability, or controls are
in place to prevent, or at least significantly impede, the
vulnerability from being exercised.
From the vulnerability analysis we have found the risks as high risk and also the medium risk. And the risks are analyzed depending on the vulnerablity and attack. If it is high risk it used to control the vulnerability and the medium has some range and in this threat source is capable.
In the high risk it analyzed through the conclusion as weak password for the system. So the risk is considered as high risk . And in the medium risk is analyzed through the conclusion as affects in the server.
Penetration test findings
Penetration testing is used to finding the vulnerabilities in the website or the system by using the tool such as nmap. In the nmap the testing has accomplished using the proper command. For finding vulnerabilities the commands are described below.
- nmap basic specification
- nmap -v -sS -p–A -T4 10.222.0.251
- nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 10.222.0.251
High Risk findings
- From the vulnerability analysis it seems to be high risk in the form has weak passwords for the authentication and the administration has the weak password. And here more techniques are used to solve the weakness in the password so resolving this by the way of making strong password.
The head or administration seems to be weak password.
The impact of this has to lead the usage of techniques and solved by using the interface. And the text of the password should be encrypted.
Make the interfaces with the complex passwords.
- Another risk findings made on the port no 445 analyzed through the running server. And the vulnerability known as ms17 and the attack such as wannacry in the exploit and create the vulnerable attack in the network.
And from the nmap scanning the port is analyzed as 49152 and it is described as a secret scanning reports. And this method is used as the web interface using the port no such as 49152 to run in the server. This affect as vulnerable attack to get the details about the data and files about the login details. And for the simple service 4915 ports are used.
Task 2- Boot 2 Root challenge
The boot to root challenge is used in security and also used in downloading as well as used to make the vulnerable. And it has more exploitation to get the access of the root as privileged.
Root access for the user
Exploit attack against target address
- Ftp brute
- Telnet brute
- SMB brute
- MYSQL brute
The kali Linux provide a set of exploit tools for avoid the vulnerabilities these tools are known as exploitation tool. And also it includes some social engineering packages. Exploiting vulnerabilities, gaining access, capturing access, unauthorized data, social engineering implementation, and system applications are known as major exploit goals. The defection of attacks is most difficult, and also reduces the security defense attack. It includes deletion of user log, exiting channel access, and deletes the corrupted message.
Maintaining access means directory of kali Linux. It is used to create a foothold on the target system. It allows multiple access point on the target network, evidence removing, and so many things. The communication method is hiding by encryption, and repairs the affected system. And also the boot to root challenge implemented through the kali Linux by the commands related to the networks. And the exploit attacks against the target address is implemented through msf console in Kali Linux.
Babincev, I. and Vuletic, D. (2016). Web application security analysis using the Kali Linux operating system. Vojnotehnicki glasnik, 64(2), pp.513-531.
Daly, P. (2000). Review: Linux (Installation, Configuration, Use). The Computer Bulletin, 42(1), pp.31-31.
Gebser, M., Kaminski, R. and Schaub, T. (2011). aspcud: A Linux Package Configuration Tool Based on Answer Set Programming. Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science, 65, pp.12-25.
Hunter, P. (2002). Network security architecture without perimeters. Network Security, 2002(12), pp.1-2.
Industrial Network Security. (2015). Network Security, 2015(3), p.4.
Kali Linux – Assuring Security by Penetration Testing. (2014). Network Security, 2014(8), p.4.
Kali.org. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.kali.org/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].
Kali.org. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.kali.org/downloads/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].
Network Security goes online. (2007). Network Security, 2007(12), p.20.
Network security needs numbers say CSOs. (2004). Network Security, 2004(3), p.1.
Patel, A. (2015). Network performance without compromising security. Network Security, 2015(1), pp.9-12.
The Practice of Network Security Monitoring. (2014). Network Security, 2014(10), p.4.