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ITSU1001 Introduction To Computer Systems And Networking

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  • Course Code: ITSU 1001
  • University: Victorian Institute Of Technology
  • Country: Australia

Question:

Overall project

Propose a suitable computer system for an organization of your choice. You may propose a mainframe, supercomputer, cluster, client-server or any other system depending on the requirements and budget limitations of the organization. The proposed system should be complex enough and approved by lecturer at the proposal stage. In the final report and presentation you must explain the easons for your choice and hardware, software, and networking specifications with an approximate cost analysis.

Examples:

  1. A mainframe based system for a bank
  2. Three-tier client server system for a small business
  3. Supercomputer system for a space research organization
  4. Beowulf cluster for a university research group
 

Answer:

Introduction:

Flight management System or the FMS is the fundamental component that is included in the modern airliners avionics. This is one of the specialized computer systems which is associated with the automation of the various in-flight tasks along with helping in the reduction of the workload upon the flight crew up to a point where the modern civilian aircrafts no longer need to carry the flight engineers or the navigators (Zheng & Zhang, 2018). One of the primary functions of the FMS incudes the in-flight management of the flight plan by making use of numerous sensors for the purpose of determining the position of the aircraft. Additionally, the FMS is also capable of guiding the aircraft all along the planned flight. The FMS is generally controlled from the cockpit by making use of the CDU or the Control Display Unit which is incorporated with a small screen along with a keyboard or a touchscreen. The FMS is then associated with sending the flight plan for display to the EFIS or the Electronic Flight Instrument System, the ND or the Navigation Display and the MFD or the Multifunctional Flight Instrument System. So, the FMS can be summarized as the dual system that consists of the FMC, the CDU and a cross talk bus.

Computers have been acting as the integral part of the aviation industry since the beginning when the airplanes were associated with featuring the on-board analog computers. The Flight management system is associated with the usage of super computers so as to automate the various in-flight tasks. Besides the super computers are associated with the usage of the sensors so as to reduce the workloads of the pilot as well as the rest of the crew.

 

Name of the Super Computer and the specifications: 

The super computer that is to be used for this purpose is the Tianhe-2A. the major reason lying behind choosing Tianhe-2A is that in the FMS it provides simulation along with analysis and government security application. This would be having almost 16000 computer nodes along with a two Intel Ivy Bridge Xeon processors along with Xeon Phi coprocessor chips. Each of the 16000 nodes would be processed by the 88 gigabyte of the memory and the total CPU plus coprocessor memory is around 1375 TiB.

Discussion:

The Supercomputers have been associated with resulting in an incredible feat of the aviation engineering. The usage of the super computers makes the airplanes larger and faster than any other which are predated. The usage of the super computers has also been associated in helping in saving a lot of money as they are mainly used for the purpose of managing the millions of calculations per second. FMS acts as the fundamental for the operations conducted by the modern avionics system and has the aim of automating some of the in-flight tasks which in turn is associated with reduction in the workload of the flight crew. The major reason for designing the FMS is for increasing the flight safety as well as the efficiency by providing the crew of the flight and the onboard avionics system with the data which are necessary for the effective aircraft operations (Altava et al., 2018). The fundamental function of the information system proposed is enabling of the flight crew to program the route right starting from the takeoff till landing. Additionally, the autopilot along with the flight directors is considered to be set which is associated with following the path that is designated for the destination (Altava et al., 2018). This FMS can be used by the small private aircrafts as well as by the large commercial jetliners. The FMS would be consisting of variety of controls as well as instrumentation and the four major components of the FMS includes the following:

The automatic Flight control or the Automatic Flight Guidance System: This are the two systems which would be associated with the utilization of the various sensor information that are collected by the supercomputers from the aircraft systems and besides this the systems would also be responsible for automatic maneuver of the aircraft by making use of the mode that would be selected by the crew members in cases if the autopilot is engaged (Ramasamy, Sabatini & Gardi, 2015). Whenever the autopilot is disengaged the guidance commands that would be displayed to the pilot would help in flying the aircraft manually along the path that has been assigned.

Flight Management Computer: This mainly includes the computer system which is associated with the utilization of a database by the super computers of the FMS which are responsible for the facilitation of the routes which are pre-programmed and are then added to the system by making use of the data-loader. The system is also associated with the continuous updating of the information related to the position of the aircraft by referring to the navigation aids that are accessible (Tian, Liu & Zhang, 2018). After this the aids which are applicable are selected automatically at the time of updating the information.

The Auto-pilot is another feature provided by the super computers so as to be utilized for flying the planes at longer distance by taking very small amount of help from the pilots. The super computer of the FMS would be assisting in the taking off and landing of the airplanes without taking assistance from humans making the entire aviation automated.

The Aircraft Navigation System: This is considered to be the integrated package that is associated with tracking the position of the aircraft in a continuous way. This would be featuring the GPS or the Global Positioning System and the IRS or the Inertial Reference System data along with which the receivers that would gather the Input from the ground-based flight navigation aids.

Automation technology is long way off but the use of the super computers is considered to be the technology that is being developed so as to assist the pilots and crew by providing them with information regarding various things like the immediate areas that needs attention and many more. The

Electronic Flight Instrument System or equivalent: This is the system that would be displaying the status of the aircraft and is generally based upon the received navigation inputs by making use of the attitude as well as the heading referencing system, the effects of the FMS aircraft system can be viewed in the status that would be displayed on the system or the conventional aircraft instrumentation (Murrieta-Mendoza & Botez, 2015).

 

Backing up the Super Computer

Backing up of the FMS super computer is needed so as to eliminate any kind of unavoidable situations. The usage of the cloud solution is one of the best options for storing the backup files. Besides this there is always a need of keeping a regular backup of each and every aspects of the FMS. The cloud storages are associated with handling large amount of data and for this reason this solution is considered to be the best. In case of any kind of disaster recovering  the lost file would become very easy as the cloud solutions are very easy to use and are also less expensive.

Reasons for being most Efficient and Effective

Some of the major reason that makes the proposed system most efficient and effective for the organization have been listed below:

  1. Navigation: The FMS that has been proposed would be responsible for providing navigational information and this information is very much necessary for the purpose of constructing the flight plan of an aircraft from one specific destination to another destination (Adams & Merrett, 2016). the FMS is also associated with including the navigation database for the enabling this particular function. As discussed earlier the supercomputers which are used by the FMS would be helping in directing the flights. The FMC is generally considered to be the computer system which consists of super computers which are associated with usage of the large database in order to prepare eth routes which are fed into the system later. The database would also be consisting of the elements which are generally defined by the ARNIC 424 Standards that are used in constructing the route of the flight. the updating of the navigation database after every 28 days would be helping in capturing the information related to navigation. The FMS would be responsible for suppling ARNIC data which are relevant to the functionality and the capabilities (Ramasamy, Sabatini & Gardi, 2016.  The Navigation database would be consisting of the certain information that would be making the FMS effective as well as efficient and the information mainly includes the following:
    1. Airways
    2. Features of Radio Navigation Assistance like the VHF Omnidirectional Range or the VOR, the ILSs or the Instrument Landing Systems, the DME or the Distance Measuring Equipment and lastly the NDBs or the non-directional beacons
    3. Ways, points or the intersections
    4. Airports
    5. Availability of runways
    6. The holding patterns
    7. The IAP or the Instrument Approach Procedure
    8. STAR or the Standard Terminal Arrival
    9. SID or the Standard instrument departure
 


The plan for the flight is generally determined on the ground before the departure by the professional dispatcher for airliners or the by the pilots in case of small airplanes. The typical directing of this into the FMS that is selected from the library of the common flight routes or are generally entered manually by making use of the ACARS datalink with the airplane dispatch center. Besides this all other relevant data related to management of the flight like the weight of the fuel or the gross weight would be entered into the FMS before taking off (Moallemi & Towhidnejad, 2016. A pilot might be associated with the usage of the FMS for the purpose of altering the flight plan if it is necessary. The flight plan would be presenting itself on the navigation display of the EFIS in the form of magnetic lines.

  1. Determining of the position: The FMS system is having the primary objective of determining the aircrafts position while in flight along with assessing the accuracy of this type of education (Adams & Merrett, 2016). The FMS Is associated with the usage of a single sensor along with a GPS for the purpose of calculating the position along with different sensors which includes the VORs for the purpose of obtaining and validating the information that are precise in nature. The navigation system is considered to be one of the integrated packages of the supercomputers which would be assisting in the process of calculating the position of the aircraft. This might be consisting of the IRS or the Inertial Reference System and the GPS or the Global Positioning system inputs along with the receivers so as to receive aids that are ground based. Some of the most common integrated sensors that helps in increasing the efficiency of the system includes the following:
    1. The GPS receivers of airline quality that is responsible for serving as the primary sensor assisted by their high performance and the accuracy of their standards.
    2. The radio aids which are built so as to eb utilized by the aircraft navigation and to serve as secondary sensors and this includes the following:
      1. The DME scanning devicesassociated with depicting the simultaneously reference distances that are gathered form five DME stations that are unique for the purpose of calculating the position in every 10 seconds.
      2. VORssupply bearings. The two VOR stations is associated with helping in the determination of the position of the aircraft however this is generally done with limited accuracy.
  • Inertial reference systems (IRS): This are the system which is associated with the utilization of the ring laser gyros along with the accelerometers for the purpose of determining the position of the aircraft'. These devices are generally associated with providing of highly accurate readings and it is seen that this readings are generally not dependent upon any of the outside sources (Carmona, Rudinskas & Barrado, 2015). Beside this the computing of the "triple mixed IRS" bearing by usage of the weighted average of three independent IRSs also makes this system effective and efficient.

The FMS is generally associated with cross-checking the sensors so as to obtain the final and the position of the aircraft which is accurate. Besides this the RNP or the required navigation performance mainly related to the accuracy that the navigation equipment is having for the purpose of determining the exact position (Ramasamy, Sabatini & Gardi, 2015). FMS is associated with calculating he routes by considering the plan of the flight along with the position of the aircraft. The pilots would be associated with following the routes manually or under the auto pilot.

 

Vertical navigation:

Equipping the aircrafts with the VNAV systems along with the supercomputers would be helping in the accurate estimation as well as optimization of the vertical path of the aircrafts. The system is responsible for providing guidance so as to control the pitch axis and the throttle. The FMS system would eb requiring a complete detail of the flight along with the model of the engine for the purpose of creating the vertical path that is entirely dependent upon the lateral plan of the flight. the FMS is associated with the creation of a vertical profile in the pre-flight mode by usage of the initial weight of the aircraft, the weight of the fuel and many more variables (Murrieta-Mendoza et al. 2017). The Vertical path generally begins with a climb for the purpose of cruising at a certain altitude. This integration of the VNAV might be considered to be expensive but this would help a lot in saving fuel while cruising of during descending. With the burning of the fuels the aircraft having light weight would allow the aircraft to fly at higher altitudes which would make it more fuel efficient (Lee, 2017). This system would also be responsible for the determination of the speed by having the lowest rate of fuel burn which is known as the ECON speed. The system generally requires RTA or the required Time of arrival for eth purpose of achieving an arrival at a specific waypoint which would be responsible for helping the airports in scheduling the slots of arrival time. The AFCS or the AFGS are the form of supercomputers that are responsible for the receiving of information from the systems present in the aircraft and this is dependent upon the mode that is if the aircraft is in auto pilot mode or is being controlled manually. The computing of the VNAV on the top of the decent point might help in determination of the place where the efficient descent might begin.

Below is the figure of the FMS that makes use of the super computer.

 

Fig 1: The Supercomputer based FMS

Source: (Lee, 2017)

Specifications of the System:

Processor

POWER7

Core

Eight Core Processor

Speed

3.5 Ghz

RAM

16 terabytes

Operating System

SUSE Linux Enterprise

Software

DeepQA

Cost analysis:

Processor

POWER7

Cost

Core

Eight Core Processor

$450

Speed

3.5 Ghz

Included with the Core

RAM

16 terabytes

$30,000

Operating System

SUSE Linux Enterprise

$0

Hardware

Hardware system

Network equipment

Security equipment

Other devices

$500

Database

Database construction cost

$2,000 to $4,000

Software

DeepQA

$60-80

Others

 

$ 500

 
 

References:

Adams, J. W., & Merrett, C. (2016). Combined flight management system and flight data recorder for general aviation using tablet computers: Student paper.

Altava, R. A., Mere, J. C., Delahaye, D., & Miquel, T. (2018, September). Flight Management System Pathfinding Algorithm for Automatic Vertical Trajectory Generation. In 2018 IEEE/AIAA 37th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC) (pp. 1-9). IEEE.

Carmona, M. A. A., Rudinskas, D., & Barrado, C. (2015). Design of a flight management system to support four-dimensional trajectories. Aviation, 19(1), 58-65.

Lee, A. T. (2017). Flight simulation: virtual environments in aviation. Routledge.

Moallemi, M., & Towhidnejad, M. (2016, April). B-737 autopilot design and implementation for simulated flight management system. In Proceedings of the 49th Annual Simulation Symposium (p. 7). Society for Computer Simulation International.

Murrieta-Mendoza, A., & Botez, R. (2015). Aircraft vertical route optimization deterministic algorithm for a flight management system (No. 2015-01-2541). SAE Technical Paper.

Murrieta-Mendoza, A., Beuze, B., Ternisien, L., & Botez, R. M. (2017). New reference trajectory optimization algorithm for a flight management system inspired in beam search. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 30(4), 1459-1472.

Ramasamy, S., Sabatini, R., & Gardi, A. (2015). Novel flight management system for improved safety and sustainability in the CNS+ A context. In Integrated Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance Conference 2015 (pp. G3-1). IEEE.

Ramasamy, S., Sabatini, R., & Gardi, A. (2016, September). A unified approach to separation assurance and collision avoidance for flight management systems. In Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), 2016 IEEE/AIAA 35th (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Tian, P., Liu, Y., & Zhang, S. (2018). MBSE based integrated navigation design for civil flight management system.

Zheng, J., & Zhang, L. (2018, May). AADL-Based Flight Management System Modeling. In 2018 International Conference on Network, Communication, Computer Engineering (NCCE 2018). Atlantis Press.

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