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Describe about PAR?



Introduction: Participatory action research

Longabaugh (2009) says that PAR is an approach where the research is made in the community that emphasizes on the participation and the action. It makes a way to understand the world in the manner that it will try to change the world collaboratively and following the reflection. PAR  emphasizes more on the collective inquiry and also on the experimental grounded on the experience and the social history and with in this process, the communities are present there that involves the inquiry and the action evolves and address the questions and issue that are very much significant to the co-researchers and PAR contrasts with the many research methods that which mainly focuses on the disinterested kind of the researchers and also it includes that of the reproducibility of the findings.


PAR practitioners always makes a concerted efforts that deals with the three aspects of the work like the participation; that is in the society and democracy, action; involving the engagement with the experience and history, and also that includes that of the research; soundness of the thoughts and the growth of the knowledge. Action unites with the research and it is the collective process of the self investigation. In all the way, each of the component is understood and the relative emphasis is receives nonetheless PAR theory to another.

Constantinou (2009) says that PAR means participatory action research where the community consisting of the various people assemble together and the experience of them are shared in the manner that will give the root to the understanding of the facts and the circumstances. These researches are related to the social, political and health concern. been the authors like Mary Brydon-Miller, Michael Kral, Patricia Maguire, Susan Noffke, and Anu Sabhlok' have assembled at one place to resolve the crafted music.

Angelides (2009) is of the view that PAR is like a jazz and we know that in the jazz there is the knowledge collaboration where the experience is shared. Jazz is the better example of the democracy where the people are able to express the freedom till they are acting with the groups. So, in the case of the PAR THERE is mentioned the thing that there is the prices of the improvisation.PAR combines the theory and the practices all way and it resembles to the cycles of the action and the reflection in the manner that will give the demonstration of the understanding of the social, political and the economic forces that are present.


Lentz (2008) says that one of the most accomplished Indian authors Sri Rabindra Nath Tagore has compared the banyan tree to the knowledge, significance and learning with the meditation. So, is this PAR that is related to the knowledge and the learning? In this respect it can be said that the banyan tree means that there are the gathering of the common people and do they also share the same opinion in the community. With its deep roots, the banyan tree reaches to the depth and this very PAR also reaches to the deep of the all conditions that prevails.

Alexiadou (2001) says that the roots of the PAR is limited to the fact that there are various ways by which the democracy and the such like things will emerge and this was firstly emerge in the African and American voices .the democracy is the matter of where the people have freedom and in it the diverse knowledge is thus shared where people are giving the various notions with the familiarizing knowledge. It has also contributed to the development of the adult education whew the common and ordinary man is able t get the shape of the knowledge through the opinions and the rsearches.PAR has emerged like the challenge to all the social problems. It is know that with the education and such like activities the ordinary man is capable of making the best products to the people so that they will be able to get the piece of the work done in this manner.

PAR-theory and method

Allen  (2008) says that the theory and the methodological difference is offered, in the par there is always seen that with the notion and the time, the theory and the practical or the methodological approach is very different in the nature and it will thus become like something that brings the framework to the greater contrast. The method part consists of the practical dimension.


ldhous (2009) says that the PAR is related to the knowledge and the exploring of the problems. When it is compared to the jazz and the banyan tree, then it shows that this filed is deeply concerned with the democratic problems that arise in the society and country.



Alexiadou, N. (2001) Researching policy implementation: interview data analysis in institutional contexts. International Journal of Social Research Methodology4(1), pp. 51-69. 

Allen, T. D., Eby, L. T., O’Brien, K. E. and Lentz, E. (2008) The state of mentoring research: A qualitative review of current research methods and future research implications. Journal of Vocational Behavior73(3), pp. 343-357. 

Andersen, N. A. A. (2003) Discursive analytical strategies: understanding Foucault, Koselleck, Laclau, Luhmann. Bristol, The Policy Press. 

Angelides, P., Constantinou, C. and Leigh, J. (2009) The role of paraprofessionals in developing inclusive education in Cyprus. European Journal of Special Needs Education24(1), pp. 75-89. 

Apodaca, T. R. and Longabaugh, R. (2009) Mechanisms of change in motivational interviewing: a review and preliminary evaluation of the evidence. Addiction104(5), pp. 705-715. 

ldhous, P. (2009) Psychiatry's civil war 


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