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Journal Of Advanced Computer And Technology

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IoT outlines the next big advancement of the internet where connectivity will be taken to the next level to include all devices and objects. In essence, IoT will provide a worldwide connectivity through anonymous systems that will require minimal human intervention in their operations, an outcome that essentially will promote the intelligence of technological devices. In all, unlike the modern internet infrastructure that is characterized by electronic devices, IoT will include any object whether electronic or not [1]. Furthermore, it will collaborate the elements of smart systems into its structures which will also facilitate the growth of smart cities. Although the actual implementation and development are yet to take their full effect, the foundational elements of the technology are already in place as exhibited by the existence of the internet. Now, this report highlight IoT as a technology and analyses the security threats/challenges facing it.

Literature revie

So, the genesis of IoT can be traced back to the inception of the internet where the various networking technologies were designed with a worldwide objective that would seamless connect all existing devices [2]. At the time, researchers through the basic technologies that led to the development of the internet focused on the establishment of protocols that could support extended connectivity with limited resources. This requirement led to the growth of packet-switched technologies such as ARPANET and later the modern internet. Nevertheless, today’s systems and technologies seem to promote this initial objective where the growth of anonymous systems is widely exhibited. Now, consider the technologies of today such as smart watches, smart television and smartphones. In essence, these devices/technologies have increased the intelligence of common household devices, an outcome that facilitates extended connectivity since minimal human intervention is required in the overall networking objective [3].


IoT defining technologies

For the objectives of IoT to be fulfilled its defining technologies must facilitate the implementation of smart systems. To start with, the devices connected to the wider network of IoT must be able to identify themselves by sharing information autonomously. Moreover, the same devices will require a centralized control system which will improve the overall management outcomes [4]. Now, identification requirement outlines the importance of sensors and actuators in the implementation of IoT. In essence, sensors will facilitate the mutual identification of devices in the networks of operation. These sensors will perform their roles by collaborating the functionalities of worldwide connections through technologies such as RFID and barcode identification [5]. However, based on the prevailing conditions, RFID (radio frequency identification) presents the best solution for this application as it's widely integrated with the modern internet infrastructure more so, the IP. Moreover, its application requires fewer resources which will minimize the overall implementation cost [1].

On the other hand, IoT will require other facilitating technologies to collaborate its functionalities. For one, the internet will serve as its foundational element owing to the existing extensive connections. Furthermore, the defining parameters of the internet such as access model and protocols will also facilitate the functionalities of IoT as it will require certain operation standards to maintain a constant operation outcome. In addition to this, the existing networking infrastructures will be transformed into wireless networks to facilitate the rapid growth of the IoT network because most devices will exist as mobile systems [6].

IoT architecture

Now, consider the number of devices that will be connected into the IoT after the defining elements of the technology have been established. In all, like the existing internet infrastructure, many devices having a wide range of standards and technologies will be used. Therefore, a common defining model will be needed to standardize operations, a role that will be facilitated by the following architecture/structure. This structure will consist of five layers, each having a specific and unique responsibility in the greater workings of the technology [7]. These layers are; Application layer, management layer, networking layer, access layer and the sensory layer.

The sensory layer – the lowest layer the IoT which among its many responsibilities will host the sensory devices that will facilitate the identification process of the devices. Moreover, the same layer will hold system actuators which will enable end users to control the devices from centralized locations. Therefore, the layer will have elements and devices such as detectors, accelerometers and pulse rate monitors.

Access layer – this layer will provide the gateways for accessing the technology’s connections. These gateways will, therefore, consist of networking structures such as localized networks (LANs) which will collaborate the functionalities of devices by connecting them to a common local network. These localized networks will then extend to include other wider networks such as WANs [8].

Networking layer – the basic networking infrastructures i.e. LAN and WAN will require a common integrator to support a worldwide connection [9]. In essence, various networks from different regions will have to be connected, a role that will be performed by the network layer. Now, similar to the existing network layer of the internet, embedded protocols such as IP and TCP will be used.

Management layer – this layer will facilitate the roles of the end users where management and control functionalities will be conducted. This layer will manage the system’s security, objects and analyze the collected data to facilitate the roles of the IoT devices.

Application layer – the uppermost layer in IoT which will deliver the services and functionalities of the technologies to the end users. Now, APIs (application presentation interfaces) will facilitate these roles by delivering data and system control to the end users through graphical systems [1].


Security vulnerabilitie

IoT like any other new technology presents many benefits that will advance the users way of life. However, at the same time, the technology will also present a wide range of challenges particularly its security as it will extend the structures of the existing internet infrastructure which to date still holds many security vulnerabilities. Furthermore, most of its functionalities are still untested and thus will lack the necessary robustness to withstand attacks and intrusions. In all, IoT holds the following security vulnerabilities [10].

Extensive networks and device autonomy

Let’s consider the internet as a rudimentary version of the IoT where devices are connected to a worldwide network thus are able to exchange a wide range of information. This networking infrastructure cannot adequately identify all the users of its system as many elements are used. Furthermore, it’s pervasive and anonymous nature makes it a suitable environment for promoting sinister actions such as attacks and intrusions. Now, IoT aims to extend this infrastructure to a higher level where all devices and objects will be a part of the overall networking infrastructure [11]. This extensive network will limit the accountability measures which will affect the overall security of the system used. Moreover, the end users will not be able to adequately track their resources which again may affect the security of the resources more so, the data.

Minimal network isolation

Isolation is a critical component of the security of devices connected to worldwide networks. This isolation facilitates the accountability of resources where administrators are able to identify and track resources based on certain predefined parameters. Moreover, the same tactic also minimizes the intrusion levels when attacks do occur. However, with IoT, this isolation element is lost as the defining protocols of IoT require extensive connections [12]. Furthermore, different devices having different standards will be used which will affect the overall security procedures. For instance, a network and its corresponding devices will have the necessary security features only to be compromised by a rudimentary system having substandard security measures e.g. a smartwatch.


User and manufacturer’s ignorance

According to security experts, the end users are responsible for the highest number of cyber intrusions owing to their ignorance and negligence. In essence, they will apply substandard security features in an attempt to save their overall expenditures [13]. A similar outcome is experienced by system developers and manufacturers who will implement substandard security structures in an attempt to increase the overall revenues.


In the first vulnerability, IoT’s extensive networks will facilitate the growth of the security problems facing the modern networking infrastructures. Therefore, it will be difficult to track and manage resources online. As a solution, the technology must implement extensive security features in the form of encryption and authentication. These security measures will maintain the integrity of the resources used more so, the data which as per the existing infrastructure will be difficult to manage while in transit. Now, these security features should thoroughly protect the channels of communication by providing end to end encryption and user authentication based on verified access policies [14].



IoT is not a new technology but an advancement of the existing networking infrastructure which aims to increase the intelligence of the participating devices. This objective will promote the growth of networking infrastructure which will increase information availability and access. However, at the same time, the extended access will facilitate several limitations and vulnerabilities because the resource will be difficult to track. Nevertheless, a wide range of security features can and will be used to minimize these limitations, among them being adequate authentication and encryption standards.



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Mattern and C. Floerkemeier, "Fro m the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things," Distributed Systems Group, Institute for Pervasive Computing, ETH Zurich, pp. Available:, 2012

Vatsa and G. Singh, "A Literature Review on Internet of Things (IoT)," International Journal of Computer Systems , p. Available:

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Rimavicius, "Literature Review of the Internet of Things: Anticipating Tomorrow’s Challenges for Privacy and Security," pp. Available:, 2015

Sharma and R. Tiwari, "A review paper on “IOT” & It?s Smart Applications," International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), pp. Available:, 201

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MIT, "The Internet of Things," MIT technology review, pp. Available: , 2017.


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