Explain about the Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health?
In modern times, migration is considered to be one of the most important issues regarding social and political prospect. People migrate from one country to another for several reasons. These reasons include political misbalance, economical disaster and other social and cultural issues (Ronda et al 2013). According to the United Nations, migration is defined as the movement of people across a specific border or boundary. This border or boundary can be both national and international. In case of migration, people move to establish a new permanent residence. According to the United Nations, migration can be categorized into different segments. These segments are, internal migration, international migration, chain migration, relay migration, impelled migration, step migration. The primary aim of this essay is to highlight the causes behind the events of migration on a global social and political aspect and the consequences of such events with respect to a country’s social economical structure. With respect to the migration events of The United Kingdom, there are several such examples. First example, which can be highlighted, is the event where Jews and Pilgrim fathers migrated to England. This event can be pointed out as forced migration. Another current migration event regarding the United Kingdom is the migration of the UK doctors towards The United States for the better pay scale. These sort migration event can be categorized as the voluntary migration. Migration events such as mentioned earlier provides an strong impact on both the host and the origin country. The primary focus of this essay is to establish the factors and consequences of these impacts with suitable examples. There are several factors which influence the event of migration. These factors include, Unemployment, lack of safety, lack of services, poverty, crop failure, drought, war or civil unrest, hazards and isolation (Duchêne, Moyer and Roberts 2013). The effect of migration in a particular country can be also of different types. These effects are categorized as economical impacts such as positive and negative, social effects such as positive, negative, and political impacts. The essay emphasizes on the migration event due to cause of health and health services. Due to the poor health condition and health services, many people around the world migrate to the United Kingdom. It is seen, that mainly people from African region migrate towards United Kingdom, as health condition in the African region is not so developed. A example which can provided is that, during the period of Ebola virus outbreak many people migrated from African countries to European countries such as The United Kingdom (Dahinden 2012). Recently there has been an outbreak of Zika virus in the Latin American region. There is also a phenomenon of migrating people from Latin American countries to European countries such as the United Kingdom. The later part of the essay emphasizes on the effects of these sorts of migration and their impact on the social, cultural and economical impacts on the particular country, which is in this scenario is the United Kingdom.
Migration is considered as a movement of people from one destination to another for taking up a permanent or semi-permanent residence. This is usually associated to the movement across the international border of a country. Taking an example of Migration, it can be clearly analyzed that the semi-permanent residents might seek for seasonal movements. It is often observed that migration takes place on a voluntary note (based on the individual’s own will) and involuntary note (forcefully shifted due to certain political or environmental issues). Migration occurred throughout the human history (Wilkinson et al. 2013). It initiated from the movement of the first human groups, which originated from the Eastern regions of Africa to all other regions of the contemporary world. Migration tends to occur at a variety of scales. This ranges from intercontinental (i.e. between one continent to another, e.g. from Africa to Asia), intra-continental (between one country to another belonging from the same continent, e.g. France to Germany) and interregional (within the countries, i.e. Eastern England to Western England. One of the most significant pattern associated to the factor of migration highlights towards the movement from the rural regions of a country to the urban sectors. This is mainly due to economic and health opportunities, which attract thousands of migrants every year to settle from rural to the urban segments of a country.
On a large scale, it can be assumed that there are nine type of migration. One of the most common types is the Internal Migration, which focuses towards the movement to a new residence within a state, country or continent. This is the most observed migration occurring quite frequently in the world. On the other hand, External Migration highlights towards the movement to a new resident in a different state, county or continent. The occurrence rate of External Migration is much lower than the Internal Migration. The third type is the Immigration, which focuses towards the movement to a new country (e.g. the pilgrim movement, which migrated to the United Stated of America). The fourth type includes Population Transfer, where the government of a certain country forces large group of people out of a region, usually based on religion or ethnicity. This is also known as involuntary or forced migration. Example of this type includes the migration of Hindus from Pakistan and the Muslims from India during the partition of Indo-Pak in 1947. The sixth type of migration highlights towards the Impelled Migration, which is also known as reluctant and imposed type. In this type, the individuals are directly not forced out of their country, but leave because of unfavorable situations, such as political issues, warfare or religious prosecutions. For example, the migration of the Jews from Germany to England during 1940s is an effective example associated to the context. The Step Migration is considered as a series of less extreme and concise manner from the individual’s origin place to the final destination. This usually associated in moving from a farm to a village, town or a city. The Chain Migration focuses towards a series of migration, which occurs with a well-defined family or a group of people. The chain of migration tend to begin with a single family member who sends money to bring other family members to a new location. The chain migration generally results in migration fields. The clustering of people forms a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns are usually found to be associated to this context. On the other hand, the return migration highlights towards the voluntary movements, which are associated to the immigrants who tend to return their own origin. This is also known as the circular migration. Finally, the Season Migration takes place in most of the region of the world. In this type, the movement of a period in response to labor or the climatic variation (i.e. aiming the farm workers following crop harvests or working in the cities during off seasons) is commonly observed in this context.
Positive economic impacts are the phenomenon where the migrants come into the country take up the jobs, which the native would not take. As a result, the country’s work force increases. Another aspect of this event is that the country gains a large amount of skilled work force. If there is a labor shortage in the country then this gap will be easily met. The negative impact is that with the large amount of people coming into a country or region, the money, which these migrant earn, are sent back to their native country (Schwartz et al. 2015). Adding to these, the migrant children are needed to be educated using the country’s infrastructure and framework. There is also a vast social impacts caused by these sort of migration events. Population density of the origin country decreases which results in the reduction of the workforce and human resource of the origin country. Remittances, which are sent back home to the origin country increases their economic condition. Another aspect of such migration on the positive social impact is that returning migrants often increase the social expectations of the communities. There are also some negative social impacts regarding migration. Marriage rates fall in the country, which are effected through the events such as migrations. Men who migrate left their wives alone, as result producing a generation of single mothers. People migrating sometimes also increase the dependency ration of country. Another negative aspect of such migration is that when the migrants return after retirement, social costs as the community support mechanism do not cover them. Another aspect, which should be also evaluated, is that migration also sometime causes loss of cultural traditions and leadership. As a result, this negative impact can effect drastically in a particular community. Another major impact caused by the event of migration is the political impacts. In recent times, there are several political factors, which influence migration of a certain people or community. These political factors include discrimination among different ethnic groups and minorities. Caste problem is also a fact, which ignites the event of migration. These events lead to civil unrest resulting in migration of people who suffer or try to ignore such atrocities. Another aspect of such migration due to political reason is entrenchment of different attitudes, which may encourage fundamentalism. This aspect rise to migration; another aspect is when a particular region is under war, the people of that particular region become war refugees and migrate to another places. To overcome the effects of such migration events it is important to broadly discuss about the reasons and factors, which are responsible for migration event. According to W. Peterson, migration occurs for mainly five reasons. These reasons are Primitive, Forced, Impelled, Free and Mass. Primitive reason is considered as the previously occurred migration at the primitive time for cultivation and other sources. These factors are considered as the physical factors, which are sufficient rainfall, soil fertility, etc. For example, in case of Mongolia, most of the country’s population belonged to the community, which conducted migration for finding good environment for their sheep, cattle, yaks and goats. Due to unsteady rainfall, they migrated frequently. The second reason highlighted is Forced migration. In this case people are force or have no other choice other than to migrate to another region. Sometimes a particular community or people belonging to a particular caste or religion are forced to migrate to another country. There could be a political reason, natural disaster or environmental disaster behind such events. For example, During the period from 1900 to 1950, around 500,000 Indonesian’s were moved from over populated islands to the less populated islands. The Government also offered them proper equipment and land to sufficiently begin their livelihood. Later on, there were some conflicts with the native local of those regions making the situation more complex and violent. Impelled migration is another type of migration where they are migrated under a perceived threat. Other groups of human, government, physical factors, etc can give this threat. In this scenario, the people who are given threats have more freedom choices with comparison to other causes of migration such as forced migration. For example, In case of Libya in the year of 2011, A civil uprising began which resulted in a civil war. During this time, many people tried to migrate in order to avoid violence and secure their lives and the loved ones. The forth reason behind the event of migration is Free; in this case, the migrants migrate for their own will and freedom. There might be many reasons or factor behind this such as economic reason or family. For example, in recent times, doctors residing in the United Kingdom have started to migrate towards the United States of America. The reason behind such migration is better pay roll, a bright future prospect, and career options. The fifth ad last reason behind migration is pointed out as Mass. In this case, a large amount of people migrates for their will. For example, at the time of formation of the state named Israel, many Jewish all over the world, mainly the survivors of the holocaust (Survivors of the atrocities on Jewish in different camps situated in Germany, Austria and Italy) were among them. At this time over a certain period time of three years, the population of Israel was double due to these migrants.
It has been observed that immigration often tend to be associated to political affairs of the United Kingdom. According to the 2014 Immigration Act formulated in the United Kingdom, it was clearly mentioned that the country would reduce the net immigrations. This included the factors of reviving the right of non European Economic Area migrants in order to access free health care services within the premises of the country. The change in the risk factors often tended to widen the existing health and social inequalities, which are effecting the political scenario to a huge scale (Gagnon 2013). The experience of the undocumented migrants, who tend to access the primary health care within the premises of the United Kingdom, focuses their perspective on the proposed access restrictions. Based on various studies associated to the inductive thematic analysis, it can be clearly stated that there were several effective challenges, which were faced by the respondents. It was highlighted that most of the migrants were completely deprived from accessing the primary health care facilities, which are efficiently available for the European members. These migrants preferred to wait for a longer duration of period, but the often led to severe circumstances. Most of the migrants focused in accessing the Accident and Emergency Services (A & E service, the United Kingdom). The limiting access associated to the primary health care included threats to the personal and public health consequences. This in turn added additional burden on the National Health Service, which was efficiently monitored by the policymakers. Moreover, most of the researchers during this session highlighted towards the depletion of the country’s legislations, which targeted the vulnerable group. This entire movement associated to the health care premises for the migrants of the United Kingdom was completely a social gain and thereby was not much of the economic benefit associated to the context.
There are various theories associated to migration along with economic growth of a country. The macroeconomic theories are found to be associated to the per capita incomes, which is mainly triggered by the factors of migration. According to the concept of Heckscher-Ohlin Model related to trade and migration for health care perspectives, it can be clearly analyzed that the movement of the productive factors tends to raise the world income and thereby attains income gains (Ford and Holumyong 2015). This is generally shared between both the host and the source countries Moreover it holds mutual gains from migration, which is found to be similar to the conventional terms of trade.
It has been clearly observed that the migrants of England suffer a lot for their accessibility of primary health care services. On the other hand, some of the other countries are found to be quite effective towards the response of the migrants for the health care perspectives. Observing closely it can be analyzed that the migrants targeting the premises of the United States of America are considered to be in a much healthy condition. They are provided with ample primary health care facilities, which are monitored by the Health and Welfare Department of the United States of America (Castañeda 2012). On the other hand, countries such as South Africa, China and India have very limited facilities for the migrants to provide primary healthcare facilities. Thus, there is a very vivid perspective observed regarding the concern for the migrants, which depends from the health care facilities from country to country.
The epidemiological analysis associated to illness along with the occurrence of diseases in the migrants is found to be maintained in two distinct ways. The first protocol includes highlighting the health issue of the concern in terms of status at the time of migration. On the other hand, the secondary factor highlights towards studying the evolution associated to health characteristics over time. The quarantine, which is found to be associated to the historical basis of migration, and health practices generally tend to ensure the interest rate in terms of health migration towards the communicable diseases. The migrant medial screenings are found to focus on various conditions, which differentially is prevalent between the host population and the migrant. Diseases, which were observed for the migrants within the premises of the United Kingdom, include tuberculosis, syphilis and leprosy (Crisp 2010). The factor resulting to Medical Screening often tends to quantify and thereby document the aspects of health and disease in the migrant cohorts. This is found to be related to the national public health statistics of the United Kingdom. Based on the recent factors, it can be clearly analyzed that there is an effective growth of the international importance associated to migration regarding health issues in the premises of the United Kingdom (Burgoon 2014). Adding more to this, the communicable diseases are more effectively focuses on the pre existing non-infectious diseases. For example, the attack of Ebola in the eastern regions of Africa resulted in a huge migration of the patients in England (Bradby et al. 2015). Apart from the diseases, the other health domains which are found to be equally important includes morality, behavior and the influence of generic and ethnic profiles in the migrant population of the United Kingdom. Recent studies shows the example that most number of malignancy patients along with renal failure, severe cardiac disorders, mental and psychological health disorders and the maternal or child health are consulted efficiently in the UK. This tends to attract more number of migrants from all across the world in the country. The lifestyle associated health issues includes the factors of tobacco consumption, along with alcohol and drug abuse factors which are examined efficiently and resulting in higher migration rate from the developing countries, especially from Asia and Southern parts of Africa.
As stated previously, the outbreak of Ebola in the eastern regions of Africa resulted in a million of casualties all across the world. However, the spread of the disorder from Eastern region of Africa to other parts of country such as Asia and Europe was observed to occur mainly due to high rate of migration in the Asian and the European countries. Countries, which were drastically, affected due to this factor included England, Germany, France, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Most of the affected people were shifted to these countries for medical or residential purposes. As a result, the virus was efficiently spread to all across the country resulting in severe contamination (Almeida et al. 2014). Thus, migration had an drastic effect on the factor of contamination, which resulted in drastic consequence.
The impact of immigration have a considerable impact on the host country The host country quite often is found to be associated to both advantages and challenges resulting due to immigration. Larger migrations often tend to create huge population surges. This higher population number focuses towards the strain on infrastructure and service of the host country (Abebe, Lien and Hjelde 2014). Whenever an immigrant move to a new country, it can be clearly analyzed that the individual has been associated to various constraints, which includes employment, housing, adjustment to innovative and effective laws, cultural norms and adaption of new language. Immigration results in increase in labor force. Immigration tends to provide effective advantage to country’s economy and society as a whole. However, most of the authors tend to believe that the high factors of immigration numbers tend to threat the national identity and thereby increase the dependence on the welfare. The national security is threatened largely. Often it is observed that medical immigrants tend to have a motif of terrorism and other illegal activities. Other arguments suggests that immigration rates cheapens the labor cost to a great extent. According to the data of Brooking Institute, it can be analyzed that there is a depression of on the wages of the price of the United Kingdom by 2.3% (during 1980 – 2007).
Evaluation and Discussion
Migration has an effective global perspective. It has been often observed that migrants from various third world countries tend to settle in the United Kingdom for accessing the primary health care facilities. Often this tends to monitor the global impact of the country to a huge scale. The demand for effective medical facilities tends to attract these migrants to a huge scale. However, it is often registered that there is often evidence for the entrance of non-documented members within the premises of the United Kingdom. This affects the national security to a huge extent. This is considered as one of the most challenging situation, which had a negative impact in the Western Europe. Moreover, it is observed that there is a increase in the internationalization of health risks within the country. This moreover had an impact on the political, scientific, cultural, technological, social and other related factors. The major factor which is associated to the liberalization of the international trade is found o be associated to World Trade Organization. It is often seen that examples of reducing tobacco, alcohol along wit the effect of non-communicable diseases in the premises of the United Kingdom tends to effect the social impact of the country to a huge scale.
From the above discussion, it can be clearly concluded that there are various global effects on the factors of migration, and countries such as the United Kingdom are highly affected. One of the serious factor includes the wide spread of communicable diseases such as Ebola and Tuberculosis. Moreover, it has been observed that there are often unregistered migrants, which affects the political security of the country to a huge scale. Moreover, as per the perspective of national economy, it is often observed that there is a minimum impact on the country’s financial benefit. The current models which re associated to the relations, movement of goods and people are found to have an impact on the health risks. These developments increase the health risk directly or indirectly. Hence, it can be stated that an effective international cooperation should be entitled, which places national self-interest in context of global mutual interest and thereby promotes international goodwill and cooperation.
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