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The text discusses conventional binary computing architecture.  However, an emerging field of research focuses on the development of quantum computers.  Find and summarise a resource that explains why there is so much interest in this type of computing (for example, the potential applications). 

The text briefly makes mention of the Linux operating system, an open-source Unix variant developed in the 1990s.  There are many popular Linux distributions (look up “Linux Distribution” if you don’t know what that means).  Find and summarise a resource that describes the features and advantages of ONE of these distributions.

The text discusses the concept of virtualisation.  There are several “type 2” or hosted virtualisation products (software) on the market (both commercial and open source).  Find and summarise a resource that describes the features and advantages of ONE of these products.

TCP and UDP are examples of two Layer Four (L4) transport protocols that are discussed in the text.  Find and summarise a resource that describes the features and uses of ONE other L4 protocol that is not discussed in the text (i.e. NOT UDP or TCP).

Cyber-attacks on governments or government assets are receiving increasing publicity and media attention.  Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE recent cyber-attack (within the last 3 years) against a government website or asset.

Flood, fires and earthquakes are events beyond our control, yet impact heavily on ICT infrastructure.  Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE example of an organisation’s ICT infrastructure being impacted by such an event and the resulting effects on the business and/or its operations.  For example, you might want to search for “data centre fire” or “network cable earthquake” to find suitable resources.

The text briefly mentions crowdsourcing which is a form of social business that organisations employ to engage with the public to achieve a goal.  Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE example of an organisation using crowdsourcing and the outcomes of the engagement.

With the advent of mass data collection and storage has come a surge of instances of data theft.  Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE example where data has been stolen from a private company or corporation and explain the impacts on the customers.

The failure to adapt business processes and embrace technology, particularly ICT, has led to the downfall of many previously successful companies.  Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE example of an organisation that failed to adapt to changes in technology and explain what the organisation failed to do/respond to.

Large, complex ICT projects are more likely to fail than succeed.   Find and summarise a resource that describes ONE example of a large ICT project that failed and explain the impacts of the failure.

Growth and Potential of Quantum Computers

The use and application of computers along with the computing technologies has expanded and spread to a large number of population. The world can no longer imagine absence of computers and its related technologies any longer. It is because of this reason that there are ongoing developments that are taking place in the field of computers and computing technologies. Many of the computing technologies are in existence and one of the recent and much in demand technology is quantum computing technology. Quantum computers are available and are being used by the people for a variety of operations. There are several potential applications that can be developed and have already been deployed that run on quantum computing platforms. Applications such as development and creation of advanced medical drugs, smart traffic control in an airlines system, weather monitoring etc. can be easily done through quantum computers. Calculations that are involved in these applications can be quickly, accurately and correctly done through these computers. There are various advantages that are also associated with these in terms of the ease of usage, reliability of results, uncompromised performance and convenience of understanding. These reasons contribute and make up for the demand that these computers have in the field of computing world. It is because of these reasons only that people are making shift from other computing technologies towards quantum computing and the same has been specified in the article that was used as a resource for this topic.

Computer systems essentially work with an integration of three major components as hardware, software and networks. Software that is installed in the computer systems which acts as an interface between the computer system and the end user is known as an operating system. There are various operating systems that have been developed and are in existence in the present times. Linux is one of the most popular operating systems that are being used by the users from every part of the globe. Linux distributions have been released in the market and there are several options provided to the users to select from. Ubuntu is one such distributions from Linux that is one of the most customizable and flexible package that add to the agility of the organization that implements it. For the individual and home users, the dynamic scaling that comes along with Ubuntu is of great use. All the automated tasks and activities are carried out through a medium which is an application that the users access. There are numerous applications that are compatible and can be accessed through Ubuntu. These applications are very usable that allow the users to easily carry out the desired tasks. The user interface is also rich, advanced and user friendly. Also with all of these features, Ubuntu is also extremely adaptable and affordable in nature which make up as the two most demanded system qualities which are necessary for every user type such as home users and business users.  

The use and application of technology along with information has increased and expanded at such a wide scale that it is no longer possible to physically reach out to the location or a system to perform certain task and activity. Also, for the storage and management of information, it has now become necessary to have virtual storage space and locations for the execution of various operations. Virtualization is a technology that is very much in demand and in order to make use of the technology, there are various packages and software that have been developed and are available in the market. Among the available virtualization software, the one that is highly available and demanded is VMware. It is the package that scores high in terms of the virtualization functionalities and features that are provided and is also known for a number of advantages that come along with it. The software has a strong architecture that is based on bare-metal architecture which increased the performance and reliability of the package. The storage capability that comes along with the software is also excellent and there are no compromises done on the accessibility and availability as well. There are numerous security vulnerabilities that are present which cannot do any damage to the information and processes associated with VMware as it has control and protection mechanisms installed within it. These mechanisms are installed and have been developed in such a manner that all the categories of security risks and attacks such as the ones on confidentiality or availability can be avoided and prevented.  

Ubuntu – Benefits, Features and Applications

It is necessary for the networking and communication systems to have a set of rules and guidelines defined in order to make sure that the steps that are required to be followed and implemented are known to all. There are several standards that have been defined for the purpose along with the creation of numerous protocols so that the execution of operations is convenient and without any ambiguities. Every layer in the TCP/IP and OSI models plays an important role and the activities of these layers are carried out by the protocols that are used and applied. In the layer 4 which is the transport layer in the networking and communication model, there are several protocols that are used. Datagram Congestion Control Protocol which is commonly referred as DCCP is one such L4 protocol that performs the major task of setting up and maintaining a reliable network connection. There are data packets that are necessary to be delivered in a specific timeframe which are handled by this protocol by ensuring the deliveries on time. There is also acknowledgement that is associated with this protocol which makes sure that there is real-time information available with all the parties. There are also several security threats that are attempted by the attackers which are prevented and controlled by DCCP. There are protection mechanisms that come along with DCCP that make sure that the security attacks along with any attempt to violate the security is handled and the information regarding the same is provided to the relevant entities.  

Information is something that has become a key asset for the organizations in the present times. An organization or an agency deals with huge clusters of information in the current times which is a mix of various types of information such as private, public, confidential, sensitive, critical etc. Exposure of any of these information sets to the incorrect entity at incorrect time can have some serious repercussions. Security of the applications and information that is contained in them is of prime importance and concern. With the increase in the use of networks, there are cyber crimes that have increased at a rapid rate. The victims of these crimes can belong to any of the user categories. Cyber security occurrences are not rare in the current times and there are Government agencies that often become the victim of these occurrences. The primary reason behind increase in the security attacks at Government bodies is because of the type of information that is associated with these bodies. One such case was reported by Statistics Canada as it became the victim of information breaching and data theft which are the prime forms of cyber security attacks. The malevolent and notorious entities could gain access to the servers of the government body and could capture the information that was present. The Government had to face adverse effects because of the attack and it became necessary to upgrade the systems and enhance the vigilance to make sure that such attacks are not repeated again.  

Virtualization Software - VMware

Data that is associated with an organization has become a key asset for the organizations in the present times. An organization or an agency deals with huge clusters of information in the current times which is a mix of various types of information such as private, public, confidential, sensitive, critical etc. Loss or leakage of the data at any time can lead to some sever impacts on the bodies that are affected by it. Information is the key asset for the organizations and users all across. There are cases in which the intruders and attackers attempt to violate the security protocols to have unauthorized access to the information. These attacks are deliberate and man-made. There are certain accidents and accidental attacks in the form of natural occurrences and mis-happenings such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes, fire etc. that cannot be controlled and have a negative impact on the ICT services and infrastructure. One such case was reported in 2008 by a data centre in Green Bay, Wisconsin that had to face close to eighty percent of the data loss because of fire that broke out. There was loss to information along with other assets such as software, equipment, surveillance tools etc. The damage that was caused took a long time to recover and none of the disaster recovery mechanisms could succeed as the loss was too huge to cover. Even after several attempts, the Government could not succeed in recovering 100% of the data and information that was affected and damaged during the fire that took place. The damage that resulted was too huge to handle.  

There is a lot of competition among the business organizations and users n the current times. This competition has increased because of the presence of a huge number of organizations along with the aim to fulfill the needs of the customers in a better way so that better profits can be achieved. Companies are therefore exploring new vistas and mechanisms so that they may lie ahead of the other. Innovation is something that is being applied, researched and demanded by one and all. Business organizations are also actively working to make sure that they reflect innovation in their operations and the services and products that they offer. The best way to include innovation in the services is through analyzing and gathering the expectations and demands from the consumers only. A technique called Crowdsourcing can be applied in this area to reach out to maximum people and allowing them to provide feedback on the specific offering. One company that gained extremely positive results through the practice of crowdsourcing is Coca Cola. It is an organization that manufactures and retails beverages and edible items and the adaptation of crowdsourcing enhanced the customer base that was associated with the firm. There were also various advantages that were offered in terms of the improvement of reputation in the market along with the introduction and adaptation of innovation as well. There are various companies that have tried their hands at crowdsourcing but the success in this case could be achieved because of the correct strategy and the correct use of time to implement the same.

Layer 4 Protocol - DCCP

Data is something that has become a key asset for the organizations in the present times. An organization or an agency deals with huge clusters of data in the current times which is a mix of various types of information such as private, public, confidential, sensitive, critical etc. Exposure of any of these information sets to the incorrect entity at incorrect time can have some serious repercussions. Security of the applications and information that is contained in them is of prime importance and concern. With the increase in the use of networks, there are cyber crimes that have increased at a rapid rate. The victims of these crimes can belong to any of the user categories. There are various private companies that have been impacted because of such occurrences and one of the popular and devastating hack cases in history is the one that occurred at JPMorgan. The forms of attacks that were involved included information breaching along with the data theft. There were millions of JPMorgan customers, partners, employees and stakeholders that were negatively and devastatingly impacted by the hack. It took months and years for the company to recover from the damage that was caused and it could not recover from the loss in terms of the market goodwill and reputation that was affected. In spite of several efforts, the main culprits could not be caught and it was after a lot of time that the court announced its decisions on the probable accused. It did not result in complete recovery of the data and information that was impacted.

Projects that are carried out in the organizations vary from each other on a number of factors and the project size is one of the distinguishing factors that have been observed. There are certain projects that are carried out in the organizations that experience success whereas there are a few that go through the bitter taste of failure as well. However, the organizations attempt to carry out the projects so that they appear as a distinguished entity in the market and also achieve better customer response. Innovation has been a key element for all the business organizations in the current times. IBM is an organization that attempted to carry out an extremely large project which was named as Stretch and included the development of a Supercomputer. The project massively and badly failed and resulted in extreme damages for IBM. The major reasons of failure included inflation in the project scope along with the incorrect estimations of cost and schedule. There were also certain unrealistic expectations that were set. The primary reason behind the project failure was the use of inadequate and incorrect planning by the management which caused the project to suffer baldy. Also, the level of evaluations, reviews and validations that were required to be executed were also not as per the requirement. Poor management, incorrect planning and incorrect estimations were the prime reasons that led to project failure. It is because of these reasons that this project is still considered as a massive failure.  

Technology and competition in the market are two things that are expanding and enhancing with each passing day. There is a lot of competition among the business organizations and users n the current times. This competition has increased because of the presence of a huge number of organizations along with the aim to fulfill the needs of the customers in a better way so that better profits can be achieved. Companies are therefore exploring new vistas and mechanisms so that they may lie ahead of the other. Innovation has been a key element for all the business organizations in the current times. IBM is an organization that attempted to carry out an extremely large project which was named as Stretch and included the development of a Supercomputer. The project massively and badly failed and resulted in extreme damages for IBM. The major reasons of failure included inflation in the project scope along with the incorrect estimations of cost and schedule. There were also certain unrealistic expectations that were set. The primary reason behind the project failure was the use of inadequate and incorrect planning by the management which caused the project to suffer baldy. Also, the level of evaluations, reviews and validations that were required to be executed were also not as per the requirement. Poor management, incorrect planning and incorrect estimations were the prime reasons that led to project failure. All of these reasons collaborated to the failure which is still counted as one of the notable incidents of the past.  

References

arXiv, E. (2017). The first quantum search algorithm on a scalable quantum computer has important implications. [online] MIT Technology Review. Available at: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604068/quantum-computing-now-has-a-powerful-search-tool/ [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Linux (2017). Ubuntu 16.04 Review: What’s New for Desktop Users. [online] Linux.com | The source for Linux information. Available at: https://www.linux.com/news/ubuntu-1604-review-whats-new-desktop-users [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Vmware (2017). Features and Benefits. [online] Pubs.vmware.com. Available at: https://pubs.vmware.com/sddc-mgr-12/topic/com.vmware.vcf.ovdeploy.doc_21/GUID-FBEDD7F8-79EF-48BA-9230-603169631FD2.html [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Networksorcery (2017). DCCP, Datagram Congestion Control Protocol. [online] Networksorcery.com. Available at: https://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/dccp.htm [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Netsonic (2017). Colocation | Datacenter | Green Bay, Wisconsin | Netsonic | Netsonic, Professional Solutions for Server, Website and Domain Hosting. [online] Netsonic.net. Available at: https://www.netsonic.net/colocation.php [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Moth, D. (2017). How Coca-Cola uses co-creation to crowdsource new marketing ideas. [online] Econsultancy. Available at: https://econsultancy.com/blog/11098-how-coca-cola-uses-co-creation-to-crowdsource-new-marketing-ideas/ [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Blake, A. (2015). Joshua Aaron case: Final suspect in JPMorgan Chase hack, considered largest ever, arrested. [online] The Washington Times. Available at: https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/dec/15/joshua-aaron-case-final-suspect-in-jpmorgan-chase-/ [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Yasaki, E. (2010). IBM Stretch. [online] Chilton-computing.org.uk. Available at: https://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/p018.htm [Accessed 17 May 2017].

Yasaki, E. (2010). IBM Stretch. [online] Chilton-computing.org.uk. Available at: https://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/p018.htm [Accessed 17 May 2017].

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