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L370 Criminology

tag 1 Download 19 Pages / 4,550 Words tag 03-06-2021
  • Course Code: L370
  • University: Coventry University
    icon is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

  • Country: United Kingdom


Part 1: Type of crime

Law Violation

  • Violation of The 1989 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (Basel Convention)
  • Violation of the 1995 amendment to Basel Convention- by not following the obligations set out that ensure developed countries don’t just ‘dump’ e-waste in lower economic developed countries that are without the correct facilities.
  • This is a law violation

Part 2: The role of the state

State-facilitated state corporate crime/ Explicit action of omission

The Chinese State

  • The Chinese state failed to control the amount of e-waste that was arriving from the United States
  • Furthermore, computers and electronic waste were processed using primitive operations, these processes lacked pollution control measures and released pollutants that were toxic to the environment
  • The Chinese state has failed to create an infrastructure capable of dealing with vast amounts of recycled waste arriving from developed countries
  • Chinese state didn’t comply with the Basel Conventions

The United States

  • The United States exported electronics without regulating
  • Didn’t consent with the Basel Convention, therefore, they weren’t obliged to regulate
  • Waste traders who export, re-label as recycling (Clapp, 2002)

Part 3: The Underlying causes and context


  • Globalisation-countries deregulate in order to attract countries. This leads to a ‘race to the bottom’ phenomenon (Baram, 2009)
  • The anthropocentric conception of social order placing human beings above the ecological systems which they inhabit (Aas, 2013: 220)
  • The issue of e-waste is potentially a failure of manufacturers who include hazardous material within the design of components.
  • “recycling” industries claimed to recycle domestically, ship 50%-80% of e-waste to destinations such as China (Puckett et al., 2002)
  • Rather than dealing with the problem which was costly, the US sent it to the Chinese state who pursued economic growth (capitalism)


  • The inadequate regulation of materials being imported into the country
  • No existence of treatment facilities that could deal with the waste

Part 4: Culpability

  • In the US it is legal to export hazardous waste
  • Companies dealing with such waste pretended the materials weren’t hazardous.
  • Also, as it’s exempt from any controls of any kind, exporting hazardous material appears to be encouraged.

Part 5: Evaluate the Response

  • The import of e-waste was banned by the government in 2000, although e-waste still appeared to make its way into the country.
  • In 2014, the Chinese Government declared “War on Pollution”. Compensation was provided to those affected and harsher punishments for those who violated existing pollution laws (Blanchard, 2014).
  • Who is responsible- is it the manufacturers?, the American state for permitting the trade of hazardous waste or China for deregulating in order to achieve ecpnomic growth?
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Total 19 pages

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