Background information on mental health
When talking about mental health, it includes the psychological, social, and emotional well-being of an individual as it affects how we act, feel, or think. Caplan, Little, and Garces-King (2016) affirm that in the process of life, any individual experiencing mental challenges will have problems with their behavior as well as their thinking mood. The same study denotes that the major causes of mental health challenges include life experiences such as abuse and trauma, biological factors such as the brain capacity or the genes, and family history concerning mental health challenges in the historical bloodline. In their study, Baxter et al. (2014) point out that identifying an individual living with mental health is often a challenge to many people especially at the early stages of the complication whether the affected individual is a family member, a friend, or a total stranger.
A systematic review, Marsella (2011) identifies different warning signs that often vary from one person to another and can be an indication that a person is suffering from a mental challenge. These issues include minimal or little sleep or eating accompanied with little or no energy in the body. Such an individual will often be seen pulling away from people as well as the usual daily activities. Tribe and Melluish (2016) also denotes that individuals with mental health issues often have unexplained aches or pain while feeling numb in the body as though nothing matters or causes any sensitivity, an aspect that indicates hopelessness and helplessness. In serious cases, people with mental health issues often feel unusual forgetfulness and confusion accompanied with worry, anger, sacredness, and being upset all the time without a proper reason. Severe mood changes often causing problems in relationships can at times result into fighting or yelling with friends and family members. To some individuals, excessive drinking, smoking, or unusual use of certain drugs can often be identified as a result of having persistent memories and thoughts that once cannot get off their heads. Severe cases are also accompanied by the inability of performing daily tasks, believing things of hearing voices that are not real or even thinking of self-harm.
Rational of the Report
This report evaluates and presents a deep analysis of the mental health as a global health and social issues affecting different individuals, countries, and regions on a global scale. With an exhaustive literature analysis, the paper will focus on the critical debates behind mental health as well as the impacts of the regional and global policies affecting the monitoring, management, and response to mental health by the relevant stakeholders. The report provides a brief overview of mental health while looking into the possible signs and symptoms of the complication. The study presented is carried out using secondary sources such as peer-reviewed journals that from EBSCOHOST and Google Scholars available on the Web.
Critical debates relating to mental health
Wide intervention varieties are often adopted in the global contemporary mental health cares that are aimed at limiting, removing, or relieving the suffering in association to mental distress. Caplan, Little, and Garces-King (2016) point out that a general idea is often adopted between the psychological interventions such as psychotherapy and counseling and physical interventions such as the use of psychiatric medication. However, while employing both psychological and physical interventions in response to both global and regional health distress based on a contemporary mental health, recognizing that there are a number of critical debates that surrounds the practical employment and theoretical assumptions of the interventions is essential. As the debates are often being conducted by researchers, mental health practitioners, and academics, individuals using the mental health are increasingly questioning the purpose, legitimacy, and effectiveness of both the physical and psychological interventions that are adopted in response to mental health. Schiavo (2016) denotes that there has been an increase in the involvement of mental health service in the evaluation, provision, and the development of the services globally.
As a global and regional social health issue, many countries have recorded an increased participation as well as a collaborative action of different service user groups within the mental health service arena according to O'Donnell (2012, p. 56). However, there still exist various critical considerations that surround the notion of recovery as well as the service user involvement that can be understood to have a direct implication on the mental health practice. As a result, critical debates on the global health surround the following factors;
Psychiatric Medication Debate
As a response to mental distress, using medication as an intervention has been central to the contemporary health services and is still an intervention that is adopted by many individuals both regionally and globally. Parker, Jerrim, and Anders (2016) point out that mental health nurses are often learning on the various classes of drugs used in psychiatry within the academic and clinical settings. The nurses gain skills and knowledge in accordance with the established guidelines, standards, and procedures for safe usage or administration and storage of medicine. However, despite the centrality of psychiatric medication and the reported effectiveness of the use of these drugs from various sources, there still exist critical debates that surround this form of intervention.
According to Rubin (2014), psychiatric medication has a number of adverse negative effects that have resulted in a very extensive critical debate on the degree in which the effects outweighs the benefits that are potentially found in the use of the drugs. Dealing with a mental health issue, the same study denotes that there are more debates on the extent at which individuals using psychiatric medication have information about or their active involvement in the discussions. In support of these assertions, Au (2017) points out a critical debate on the employment of the medications in the clinical settings and mainly on the specific practices like over-prescription and use of excessive or mega dosage of certain classes of the medication depending on the complexity of the mental issue. Researcher, clinical practitioners, and academics are as well debating on the effectiveness research conducted on the efficacy and efficiency of the psychiatric medication with the major focus on the provocatively analyzing the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the research and its resulting influence.
While debating on how these drugs work, Parker, Jerrim, and Anders (2016) denote disease-centered model suggesting that psychiatric drugs target specific underlying disease process in a similar manner to which insulin compensates for the inability of the body to produce hormones in control diabetes. In contrast, other studies suggest the adoption of the drug-centered model which suggests that psychiatric drugs do not target the underlying chemical imbalances and biological abnormalities (Baxter et al. 2014, p. 422). According to drug-centered model, psychiatric drugs are often psychoactive and directly act on the central nervous system hence producing a range of altered physical and mental status that can result in effects that can alleviate the symptoms in association to mental health and distress. In other words, like insulin example in the case of the disease-centered model, the drug-centered model can be demonstrated using alcohol consumption as a way of relieving pain, depression, social phobia, and anxiety.
Psychological Intervention Debate
In a systematic review, Yu et al. (2016) point out that the use of psychiatric medication remains the most dominant intervention method adopted in the management and control of mental health. However, the same study denotes that those in need of mental health services also often voice for the use of psychological interventions, an aspect that calls for the commitment of increasing the access to different psychological therapies. Caplan, Little, and Garces-King (2016) assert that mental health practitioners often adopt the use of a wide range of psychotherapeutic techniques and counseling skills when dealing with the affected patients. Therefore, mental health nurses are required to continue developing the ability to incorporate the relevant skills into the practice to achieve effective interventions even if the nurse ahs to attend a supplementary training. Despite the general regional and global preference of psychological therapies as an essential aspect of mental recovery as well as the increased commitment to increasing the provisions of a range of interventions, there are many critical debates in its adoption from varying perspectives.
According to MacLachlan (2014), there are debates concerning the quality of the study, research, and analysis into the evidence base for the therapeutic effectiveness of the intervention. The same study reports critical discussions on the way in which psychological therapies are adopted in the clinical settings while considering challenging but sensitive issues such as trust and power imbalance. There are philosophical, political, and sociological critics questioning the apparent expansion of the therapeutic confessional health culture into widening different areas of our lives. Pleasant (2011) also affirms that critical debates exist on the functionality of the individual psychotherapy in response to the mental distress when the distress is the most appropriate response to an inequality or a social disadvantage.
From a multiplicity of perspectives, the key issue of discussion on the regional and global perspective is the fact that there are many psychological intervention perspectives and it is often hard for an individual to choose the best intervention that can fit the mental health condition. In their study, Woods and Dawkins (2016) denote that research evidence for the general psychological intervention effectiveness as well as the effectiveness of a particular intervention over the other are both contested and complex. However, there is a repeated assertion that comparing the various therapeutic intervention results to a very minimal difference based on their effectiveness. Despite the influence of any psychotherapeutic intervention adopted, the most influential factor is the quality of the therapeutic relationship, mainly the presence of empathy, installation of hope, warmth, and understanding the patient will experience the process of the intervention will be a major determinant of the effectiveness of the intervention adopted.
Debate surrounding the service user involvement
According to Schiavo (2016), the collective action of the affected individuals using the mental health services in the development and provision of the services have emerged as among the most significant features of contemporary care for the regional and global mental health. The service user groups often form initiatives that are essential to the decision-making process as well as policy and standard reforms concerning healthcare. For instance, they are often contacted concerning their experiences in healthcare by the mental health service providers, a consultancy work that is essential in the evaluation and monitoring of the existing regional and global mental health services.
In his study, O'Donnell (2012) denotes that the service user groups are often acknowledged as experts by experience and are often involved in the recruitment, awareness creation, and training of mental health practitioners with the aim of promoting an alternative understanding of distress behind mental health and alternative responses. They as well engage in conducting research based on service-user-led focus with the aim of doing a comparison on the facts of the research results and their practical experiences. As a result, it is has become impossible to effectively adopt a significant discussion concerning the evaluation, provision, and development of mental health service without involving the service user groups, an aspect that has brought a critical debate on the level of research that best suits the group.
As a recovery-oriented approach, service user group intervention is debated to originate from the individual profound influence of persons having a direct experience of the mental distress and have used services focusing on mental health. In their review, Tribe and Melluish (2016) denote that there are critical debates on the extent to which the intervention can be applied in various forms of mental distress and whether the approach can be adopted realistically in various facets of mental health care. The same study also denotes that professional arguments still exists on the social, personal, and organizational conditions necessary in facilitating the recovery process in accordance with the monitoring, measurement, and evaluation of mental health intervention standards. Other researchers and mental health professionals argue that the service user groups have the experience it takes to ensure effective mental health care maneuver through the cultural norms, values, and beliefs that often affect act as a barrier to the effective recovery process.
Impact of global and regional social policy
A social policy is a collective intervention that has a direct effect on the transformation of social relations, social institutions, and social welfare. According to Deacon, Ortiz, and Zelenev (2011), regional social policies are often aimed at addressing issues that can benefit from intergovernmental corporations of cross borders, for instance, the states within and surrounding the United Kingdom. According to the study, these policies are often focused on the social distribution mechanisms within the region, regulations involved, the right of the citizens in challenging abuse, social cross-border investments, and technical social policy corporation within the region. As a result, Marsella (2011) denotes that the social policies help in protecting the region from other global forces, ensure proper economics of scale on issues affect the social well-being of the people, brings an international pooling of risks, as well as a stronger voice both the national and global negotiations.
In a systematic review, Frost et al. (2017) denote that adopting the regional and global social policies in healthcare has increased the level of accountability concerning mental health due to the increase in the social and the legal actions. With the social policies, the global health industry has accepted the existence of the ethnoculturally diverse patients as well as the acceptance of the responsibilities to understand and know the effect of mental health, an aspect that has to lead to a great reduction in the healthcare errors to such patients. Wahlbeck and Mcdaid (2012) also denote that adoption of the social policies within the regional and international boundaries has enabled mental health professionals to work hand in hand with cultural brokers and consultants who have a clear familiarity with the culture of the patients. This aspect has not only helped in providing solutions to the existing debates on cultural perspectives on mental health but has also promoted effective person-centered care for the affected persons.
According to the regional and global social policies and mental health standards, Au (2017) points out that there are specific competencies that govern the health and social industry on matters concerning mental health with a major focus on the nursing decision-making and practice as well as their professional values. On the professional values, mental health nurses should work with individuals in a manner that respects, values, and explores the meaning of lived experiences in relation to mental health challenges with an aim of providing recovery-focused and person-centered practice. On the decision-making and nursing practice, nurses dealing with mental health must assist individuals experiencing mental health complications to make informed decisions about physical and pharmacological treatments. Sharpe and Shafe (2016) point out that the objective can be achieved through education and information on the unwanted effects and benefits, choices, as well as alternatives as the mental health nurses support victims to identify only actions that can promote the well-being while balancing the consequences and the benefits.
In their practice and decision-making, mental health nurses must as well practice in ways that can promote the expertise and self-determination of persons with mental health complications while employing a range of models as pointed out by Elias and Paradies (2016, p6). The models and approaches adopted must be focused on aiding the recovery and wellness through self-management and self-care. The same standards require the nurses to adopt recovery-focused approaches in carrying in situations that offer potential challenges like time of acute distress. Jain and Orr (2016) also denote that using compulsory services within a forensic mental health setting requires the nurses to maximize therapeutic engagement and service user involvement while adopting interventions that balance the need of positive risk-taking and safety.
Mental health is also essential in determining an individual handles issues such as stress, make choices, as well as their relationship to other individuals, aspects that makes it essential in all the life stages, from children and the adolescence all the way to adulthood. In both the regional and global arena, mental health has become a serious social and health concern affecting a larger population irrespective of their race, color, age, sex etc. Like climate change, Ebola, concern on refugees, Homelessness, Youth and Alcohol, and Air Pollution among other global issues, mental health has been ranked the 7th globally. It is hence a concern that requires the attention of both regional and global stakeholders to ensure it is effectively managed.
Au, A 2017, 'Low mental health treatment participation and Confucianist familial norms among East Asian immigrants: A critical review', International Journal Of Mental Health, 46, 1, pp. 1-17, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Baxter, A, Vos, T, Scott, K, Norman, R, Flaxman, A, Blore, J, & Whiteford, H 2014, 'The regional distribution of anxiety disorders: implications for the Global Burden of Disease Study, 2010', International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, 23, 4, pp. 422-438, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Caplan, S, Little, T, & Garces-King, J 2016, 'Stigma about mental illness among multidisciplinary health care providers in the Dominican Republic', International Perspectives In Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 5, 3, pp. 192-206, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Deacon, B, Ortiz, I & Zelenev, S 2011 ‘Regional Social Policy’, Journal of Economics and Social Affairs, 46, 1, pp. 1-17, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017. Retrieved from https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.643.3278&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Elias, A, & Paradies, Y 2016, 'Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination', BMC Public Health, 16, 1, pp. 1-13, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Frost, B, Tirupati, S, Johnston, S, Turrell, M, Lewin, T, Sly, K, & Conrad, A 2017, 'An Integrated Recovery-oriented Model (IRM) for mental health services: evolution and challenges', BMC Psychiatry, 17, pp. 1-17, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Jain, S, & Orr, D 2016, 'Ethnographic perspectives on global mental health', Transcultural Psychiatry, 53, 6, pp. 685-695, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
MacLachlan, M 2014, 'Macropsychology, policy, and global health', American Psychologist, 69, 8, pp. 851-863, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Marsella, A.J 2011, ‘Twelve Critical Issues for Mental Health Professionals Working with Ethno-Culturally Diverse Populations’ Psychological International Journal, 46, 1, pp. 1-17, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017. https://www.apa.org/international/pi/2011/10/critical-issues.aspx
O'Donnell, KS 2012, 'Global mental health: A resource primer for exploring the domain', International Perspectives In Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 1, 3, pp. 191-205, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Parker, P, Jerrim, J, & Anders, J 2016, 'What effect did the global financial crisis have upon youth wellbeing? Evidence from four Australian cohorts', Developmental Psychology, 52, 4, pp. 640-651, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Pleasant, A 2011, 'Health Literacy: An Opportunity to Improve Individual, Community, and Global Health', New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, 130, pp. 43-53, Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Rubin, LC 2014, 'Introduction: Mental Health and Illness in American Culture', Journal Of American Culture, 37, 1, pp. 1-4, International Bibliography of Theatre & Dance with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Schiavo, R 2016, 'Training the next generation of global health communication professionals: Opportunities and challenges', Journal Of Communication In Healthcare, 9, 4, pp. 233-237, Communication & Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Sharpe, J, & Shafe, S 2016, 'Mental Health in the Caribbean', Caribbean psychology: Indigenous contributions to a global discipline pp. 305-325 Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association PsycBOOKS, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Stein, D, & Giordano, J 2015, 'Global mental health and neuroethics', BMC Medicine, 13, 1, pp. 1-6, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Tribe, R, & Melluish, S 2014, 'Globalization, culture and mental health', International Review Of Psychiatry, 26, 5, pp. 535-537, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Wahlbeck, K., & Mcdaid, D 2012, ‘Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis. World Psychiatry, 11(3), 139–145, Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449359/
Woods, M, & Dawkins, S 2015, 'Managing Employees With Mental Health Issues: Identification of Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge for Development Within Management Education Curricula', Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 14, 1, pp. 50-68, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.
Yu, Y, Mi, H, Zi-wei, L, Hui-ming, L, Yang, J, Liang, Z, & Shui-yuan, X 2016, 'Recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Chinese rural sample: a cross-sectional study', BMC Psychiatry, 16, pp. 1-9, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2017.