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L70 Master Of Disaster And Emergency Response

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  • Course Code: L70
  • University: Edith Cowan University
  • Country: Australia


1. Justify the need to take action following an OH&S audit to address non-conformances and to continually improve OH&S performance.
2. Explain the structure of an Audit Corrective Action Plan
3. Clarify the critical factors required for an Audit Corrective Action Plan such as:

• Risk ranking and priority of the actions and controls required
• Roles and responsibilities
• The response and timing of such corrective actions
• Tracking the progress and effectiveness of the corrective actions
• Review/monitoring of the corrective actions, plus a

The criteria that the report will be marked against is as follows:

1. An Introduction which provides background information of the report and discusses its purpose and structure
2. Identification of the sections/criteria of ISO 45001 which relate to improvement generally, and more specifically the need for an Audit
Corrective Action Plan and process 
3. Evaluate the importance of planned Internal Audits on the structure, implementation, monitoring and review of a OH&S safety management
4. Discussion to justify the need for an Audit Corrective Action Plan and the process used to derive such actions
5. Discussion of the importance of an effective consultation and communication process to ensure the results of the audits are reported to managers, workers and other interested parties 
6. Conclusion which brings together the outcomes of the report.




Over seven thousands peoples die as a result of work-related incidences such as fire emergencies, accidents or diseases. The burden that results from injuries for both employees and employers has led to losses, a rise in workers absence and an increase in insurance premiums. To avoid this issue the ISO developed occupational health and safety management standards that organizations must meet. The standards are aimed at improving employee safety, reduction workplace risks and the creation of safer working conditions. These standards were developed by experts and it applies to all nations in the world (ISO 45001, 2018).

The corrective action plan can be defined as management activities which are carried out to alter the task that may have deviated from the pre-specified direction (Plan & Number, 2007). The direction is well documented and should direct the project in a way that aligns with the objectives and expectations of the laid project. Corrective action can be implemented at any time while the project is being carried out. It is encouraged that early intervention of corrective action plan is effective as it plays a significant role in preventing dangerous incidences from happening (Frolick, & Ariyachandra, 2006).


Structure of an Audit Corrective Action Plan

The structure of the Audit Corrective action plan is structured into different features which are represented on the common basis for management systems. One of the key features found in the audit corrective action plan is the management review. This feature involves all changes to the standards of risks and opportunities, contexts, consultation and participation of employers, and the needs and expectations of interested parties among other standards. The other common feature in the corrective action plan is performance evaluation and evaluation compliance. The feature involves management activities such as analysis, monitoring, evaluation, and measuring of performance. The performance is defined by evaluating and implemented in reference to the legal requirements. It also evaluates whether there is progress made towards meeting the standards that are set towards occupational health and safety objectives.

The measures are aimed to enable businesses to be able to evaluate its compliance with legal and other applicable standards. The other feature in the corrective action plan is operational planning and control which requires the covering of the workplace (Frolick, & Ariyachandra, 2006). It prioritizes management, preventive measures, and purchasing. The firm is supposed to make sure all outsourced processes.

The third crucial feature is the hazard, risk, and opportunities which are based on the general context of the businesses’ requirements.  There are standards which have been set to find out the hazards and assess risks and opportunities for occupational health and safety for best management of the organizations. The firm is supposed to find out the actions needed in order to implement the control and limit the risk (Armistead, Pritchard, & Machin, 1999).

The other important feature in the corrective action plan is incidents and corrective action.  This involves the concept of prevention action which is replaced by the risk-based process. It involves a response to any incidents or non-conformities of an organization (Zanko, & Dawson, 2012). After responding to these incidents, the feature also examines the effective ways or actions which can limit or reduce these incidences.


Need for a Corrective action plan

There is the need for a corrective action plan in any organization as the process acts as a problem-solving mechanism for many businesses. Also, the corrective action document plays a crucial role in providing detailed steps for solving a particular issue that is facing business. The corrective action plan also adds transparent to business activities thereby empowering employees as one team. Additionally, there is a need for corrective action in an organization as it captures experience and changer for future business events and development (McKinnon, 2017)

Effective consultation

Effective consultation on health and safety is a two-way process and should be seen as an important factor in promoting good decision making. The inclusion of employees in the occupational health and safety management system plays a key role in OH and S management as it encourages informed decision of the organization (ISO 45001, 2018). For small and medium-sized enterprises, consultation among workers can be effective by involving all workers in discussion and decision making. On the other hand, consultation can be effective in large businesses by appointing some workers representatives.  Effective consultation in organizations will also play role in identification of hazards and assessment of risk and opportunities. Besides, effective consultation will help in the determination of corrective actions in an organization (Alexander, 1985).

There are critical factors that are required for an audit corrective action plan. Such critical factors include risk ranking and priority actions, roles and responsibilities, the response and timing of the corrective actions and tracking of the progress of the corrective actions. Another important factor considered in the corrective action is the review of the corrective actions.

The roles and responsibilities involve the stakeholders who will be involved in the corrective action plan. It also includes every stakeholder’s role and responsibility in ensuring corrective action plans are met as required. Risks ranking and priority of actions involves the ranking of every corrective action plan in order of its agency (Zanko, & Dawson, 2012). High prioritized corrective actions are ranked ahead of less prioritized corrective action plans. Besides, response and timing of corrective actions are recorded to provide more information on when is the best time for such corrective action. The other critical factor which is tracking the progress and effectiveness of corrective action involves evaluating these actions by checking whether they are progressing well with the business operations. The last critical factor is reviewing the corrective actions which involve monitoring these corrective actions and trying to make adjustments where needed.



Effective corrective action plan in business is essential in any organization as it is one of the systems is used to solve nonconformities in business. It gives details the assets required to correct the business issues in cost effective and efficient manner. The objectives of the corrective action plan include the standard way to address deficiencies. Besides it gives procedures to research and implement business issues and, gives clarification of ever team player in an organization (Lutchman, Maharaj, and Ghanem, 2016). The corrective action plan involves all stakeholders, constraints, due dates, assets available and progress o update (Alexander, 1985). The main objectives and benefits of corrective action are to address deficiency requirements. It also gives the procedure for initiation, development and the reviewing of these requirements. Thus, in conclusion, every business or organization should emplace the benefits of the corrective action plan for its success.

Furthermore, effective consultation on health and safety is a two-way process and should be seen as an important factor in promoting good decision making. The inclusion of employees in the occupational health and safety management system plays a key role in OH and S management as it encourages informed decision of the organization.

As per the Audit report represented by ABC resources Pty Ltd, the recommended actions required include leadership and worker participation, consultation and participation of workers, competence, documented information, Incident corrective action, emergency preparedness and response and, management review. While looking at the emergency preparedness and response as one of the recommended actions required in at ABC Company, It is suggested that an emergency analysis is required which should be conducted in order to determine a planned response to all emergency incidences while utilizing the best management systems (ISO 45001 ,2018). The planned management systems will also be useful as it will provide direction and coordination of emergency preparedness and response (Majchrzak & Hollingshead, 2007).

Developing an emergency preparedness and response corrective action plan can be helpful as it can help employees think clearly and avoid emergence situation thus keeping the business operating (McKinnon, 2017). Emergence in businesses can exist anywhere and it can be difficult to predict when such incidence will occur. Thus emergency preparedness and response to businesses like ABC resources Pty Ltd are very important for business success (Funston, 2003).  In emergence, there is what we call mitigation which can be defined as measures that are set in place to ensure there is reduced chances of emergence happening or reduced effects of unavoidable emergencies in an organization. There are also emergency preparedness activities that are put in place to increase the ability to response especially when an emergency occurs (Manghani, 2011).

As per the National Incident Management Systems, emergency preparedness refers to the continuous cycle of organizing, planning, evaluating and taking the corrective action in order to make sure there is effective coordination during the period of emergency (Stallings, & Quarantelli, 1985). Emergency preparedness can involve many forms of measures such as the installation of warning devices, construction of back up lifeline or rehearsing evacuation plans.

Emergency response, on the other hand, can refer to a well-rehearsed plan which can be created as the main part of emergency preparedness (Ritchie & MacDonald, 2010). It plays a key role in ensuring efficient coordination of resources. The response action in the organization is aimed at reducing the loss of property, alleviating suffering and saving lives of the occupants (Perry, Lindell, & Tierney, 2001).


Recommended action plan for emergence preparedness and response template

Action Number



Priority date

Performance Indicator

Date Completed


List of emergence contacts

The list will include all contacts of insurance companies, police, employees and suppliers.

05/11/ 2018

The number of calls per day



Review of evacuation procedures

All evacuation procedures will be reviewed to evaluate the changes required.

Expansion of current evacuation procedures (Kleinová, & Szaryszová, 2014).


Ask workers questions regarding the evacuation procedures and determine whether they have knowledge about these procedures.



Creation of an emergency kit

Emergence kits should be set and include all helpful items and information which may be required during an emergence incidence like plastic bags, first aid kit and torch.


Check whether workers have knowledge about these emergence kits and how they are required to use them in case of emergence.



Set up an emergence action team

The emergence team will communicate to workers and train workers on their roles and responsibility when an emergence incidence occurs.


Ask workers different questions concerning their roles and responsibilities when an emergence occurs.



Rehearse emergence management plan

Will include expansion of fire evacuation drill (Gamboa et al., 2012)





How workers will evacuate the emergence incident.





Alexander, L. D. (1985). Successfully implementing strategic decisions. Long range planning, 18(3), 91-97.

Armistead, C., Pritchard, J. P., & Machin, S. (1999). Strategic business process management for organisational effectiveness. Long range planning, 32(1), 96-106.

Frolick, M. N., & Ariyachandra, T. R. (2006). Business performance management: One truth. IS Management, 23(1), 41-48.

Funston, R. (2003). Creating a risk-intelligent organization: using enterprise risk management, organizations can systematically identify potential exposures, take corrective action early, and learn from those actions to better achieve objectives. Internal Auditor, 60(2), 59-64.

ISO 45001 (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems – Requirements with guidance for use.

Gamboa-Maldonado, T., Marshak, H. H., Sinclair, R., Montgomery, S., & Dyjack, D. T. (2012). Building capacity for community disaster preparedness: a call for collaboration between public environmental health and emergency preparedness and response programs. Journal of environmental health, 75(2), 24.

Kara, A., Spillan, J. E., & DeShields Jr, O. W. (2005). The effect of a market orientation on business performance: A study of small?sized service retailers using MARKOR scale. Journal of small business management, 43(2), 105-118.

Kleinová, R., & Szaryszová, P. (2014). The new health and safety standard ISO 45001: 2016 and its planned changes. International Journal of Interdisciplinarity in Theory and Practice, 3, 43-47.

Lutchman, C., Maharaj, R, and Ghanem, W. (2016). Safety Management: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing a Sustainable System. Chapter 16 Auditing the Safety Management System.

Manghani, K. (2011). Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures. Perspectives in clinical research, 2(1), 34.

Majchrzak, A., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Hollingshead, A. B. (2007). Coordinating expertise among emergent groups responding to disasters. Organization science, 18(1), 147-161.

McKinnon, R.C. (2017). Risk-based, management-led, audit-driven, safety management systems. Chapter 6.

Perry, R. W., Lindell, M. K., & Tierney, K. J. (Eds.). (2001). Facing the unexpected: Disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Joseph Henry Press.

Plan, C. A., & Number, P. (2007). Corrective Action Plan. Target.

Ritchie, L. A., & MacDonald, W. (2010). Enhancing disaster and emergency preparedness, response, and recovery through evaluation. New Directions for Evaluation, 2010(126), 3-7.

Stallings, R. A., & Quarantelli, E. L. (1985). Emergent citizen groups and emergency management. Public administration review, 45, 93-100.

Zanko, M., & Dawson, P. (2012). Occupational health and safety management in organizations: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(3), 328-344.


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