Here the mentioned statement is descriptive in nature as it is mentioned in the referred text book that the business of the Plasma International was going good and smooth as well as it was very much profitable as the organization used to buy the blood at a rate of 15 cents per pint and it was used to put on sell by them to the United State and South America at the rate of $25 per pint. It enabled the company to earn a huge amount of profit by selling bloods; they sold around ten thousand pints at a total price of $25000.
The mentioned in the question is impliedly described in the referred context, in this purview, commercialism in blood marketing is not new in United State, there blood used to be sold and purchased. It not only demoralizes the voluntary blood donors but it also affects the medical field of the nation as it takes place in the mind of the donors that others are selling the same what they are donating . In the countries like Britain, New Zealand, Australia, blood are not a commodity which may be put on for sale, the blood banks of those countries are completely depended upon the voluntary blood donors.
The mentioned statement is normative in nature as the entire article criticized the commercialism of blood, which is considered an inhuman business that a organization used to buy blood at a very cheap rate and sells them in a very high rate, it causes damage to the medical system of the country and it also deprives the persons who actually need blood for saving their life. Commercialism of blood discourages the volunteer blood donors, as it should not be a business with life of living human beings.
The mentioned statement can be considered as a normative nature of statement, as Dr. Arthur has enlighten some points relating to the commercialism of body parts of human beings, it involves great ethical demoralization. Body parts like kidney or blood or any other organ should be provided for the purpose of saving the life of a person, these body organs are not to be considered as a general commodity with a cash value. As a person sale his organ against some amount of money but the organ may not be used for any actual needed person who may be financially not very sound. Organs of the human body must be donated with the free consent of the donor voluntarily with an object of saving the life of any dyeing person, it should not be given for money or any other consideration by way of cash or kind.
B. As per the context, in selling of body organs like blood, kidney or any other part, the concept of ethical egoism comes into force, as the concept signifies that the moral agents should do in favor of their interest and the interest of the large (RabateÌ, 2001). Here the person selling their blood and other organs along with the organization that are purchasing such organs by giving a little amount of money and earning a huge amount of money, neither of them are thinking about the interest of the human behavior or the welfare of the human beings (Hills, 2010).
The rule of utilitarianism concerns about the rightness or wrongfulness of an action relating to interest of the large. In this regard it can be said that the prescribed rule is not being followed in the business of selling and purchasing human blood along with other body organs (Scarre, 2002). It is ethically shameful for the society that where a person is fighting with death for blood the same is put on for sale for some amount of money which may be utilized for satisfying their addiction (Bykvist, 2009).
In this doctrine it is mentioned that rule imposes obligation upon the human beings. It deals with a position from where it can judge the morality of an act. In the business of human organs there is no ethics at all, they all are busy in earning money, and they don’t even think that these organs are necessary for saving the life of a human being. Regardless, they are conducting their inhuman way of earning profits (Tichy and McGill, 2003).
According to my opinion, the process used in Britain, Australia and New Zealand is much better from the procedure of USA as far as blood collection system is concern. Not only moral perspective but also in a general form, blood is not a commodity that can be produced by any company, it is a natural blessing to us. Blood and other body organs are very essential in saving the life of a person, it should not put into a business for an aim of earning money, which is done in USA, but in other mentioned countries these is not a business, where the blood banks of these countries are mainly depended upon the volunteer donor, they neither have to buy bloods nor have to put them on for sale like a general commodity (Mordini and Green, 2009).
From ethical point of view it can be said that business are used to be done with general commodities not with the life of the leaving creatures of the society. Selling and purchasing blood is inhuman activity (White, 2005). Apart from that in USA Plasma International purchasing the bloods by taking advantage of the addicted and poor people, they even provide a minimum considerable portion to them from whom they buying the blood that are going to be sold by them more than 100 times price. Businesses of human organs are unethical but here the Plasma International Company crossed all the levels of ethics as they are not only doing inhuman business but they are also doing it in a inhuman way. It is nothing but taking advantage of the poor and helpless people by infringing their basic right to life (Fichtelberg, 2008).
Bykvist, K. (2009). Utilitarianism. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Fichtelberg, A. (2008). Law at the vanishing point. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
Hills, A. (2010). The beloved self. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mordini, E. and Green, M. (2009). Identity, security and democracy. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.
RabateÌ, J. (2001). James Joyce and the politics of egoism. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Scarre, G. (2002). Utilitarianism. London: Routledge.
Tichy, N. and McGill, A. (2003). The ethical challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
White, M. (2005). From a philosophical point of view. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
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