The Darfur Humanitarian Crisis
The present paper attempts to outline the chief reasons behind the Darfur Crisis and the extent of the violation of human rights. Further, the paper also tries to explain the role of the NGOs working during the crisis.
Prior to learning about the crisis, it is important to know about Darfur. Darfur is a small region located in Western Sudan in the African continent. The region is surrounded by the Marrah Mountains and entire eastern part is covered with sandy soils and hills of sandstone. Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur are the five federal states (Origins.osu.edu, 2018).
Experts have identified three chief reasons for the Darfur conflict and the resulting crisis – ethnicity, oil and desertification (Youtube.com). Due to multifarious ethnic population in Sudan, conflicts occurring from ethnicity are a common incident. Sudan is home to ethnically black and Arab and religiously Muslim and Christian population, which causes extreme tension in the region. The second reason is oil that South Sudan is abound with oil refineries and wells while the North Sudan has the port from where exports take place. Now, the people in Khartoum, the epicenter of the crisis have the hold over the payments that come in and thus they exert power over the South Sudanese. This led to the Second Sudanese Civil War in 1983 in which the South came out victorious against the North (Youtube.com). The revenues began to enter South Sudan now and the infrastructure started bettering but in West Darfur people started to question the government on its neglect of the region. This was largely due to their ethnically black and religiously Muslim majority in the region. Owing to the growing neglect of the region, the people started rebellion that resulted in the Darfur crisis in 2003 that is continuing even today (Youtube.com). The government, when unable to control the rebels, took help from China, the largest importer of oil, to help them. With advanced weaponry supplied by China, the government began its worst ever atrocity on its own people. It even instigated the Arab herders of the region to kill and rape their own people. The third reason for the crisis thus is desertification. It refers to the fight for supremacy of the deserts between the Arab herders and the black Muslims.
The perpetrators, mainly the Sudanese government, involved in the Darfur conflict have massively violated all forms of human rights. The right to live, the most important of all human rights, has been largely violated in the conflict (Ohchr.org). Other than that, rape, displacement of thousands of civilians violates the rights articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the Sudanese culture and constitution.
Several international and national NGOs are providing consistent aid to the Darfur victims amidst the conflict. Apart from the African Union and United Nations, numerous humanitarian NGOs in Sudan have relentlessly worked to help the Darfur people (Abdulrahman). However, owing to the complexity of the region, humanitarian help has been difficult to provide. Experts have found that national NGOs have struggled to respond to the complex challenges presented by the region while the international NGOs have been unable to monitor and check the situation due to lack of cooperation and eviction of staff members.
Abdulrahman, Badreldin Mohamed Ahmed. "NGOs and peace building in Darfur: A socio-economic analysis." International Academic Journal of Economics and Finance 1.3 (2014): 10-16.
Ohchr.org. "OHCHR | Human Rights Violations Entrench Displacement In Darfur". Ohchr.Org, 2018, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/HRviolationsentrenchdisplacementinDarfur.aspx. Accessed 3 Sept 2018
Origins.osu.edu (2018). 'The World's Worst Humanitarian Crisis': Understanding the Darfur Conflict | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective. [online] Origins.osu.edu. Available at: https://origins.osu.edu/article/worlds-worst-humanitarian-crisis-understanding-darfur-conflict [Accessed 3 Sep. 2018].
Youtube.com. "Darfur In 10 Minutes: An Overview Of The Conflict In Sudan". Youtube, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USLDoIiFzzg. Accessed 3 Sept 2018.