Discuss about the Leadership and Employees for Organizational Change Management.
“Leadership and employees’ reactions to change: The role of leader’ personal attributes and transformational leadership style”
The objective of the article
The objective of this article is to find out the role of leaders’ personal attributes and their transformational leadership behaviors to explain intention of employees to resist large scale organizational change.
Hypothesis of the article are discussed below:
Hypothesis 1a: “Leader’s conversation values will be positively associated with employees’ with employee’ resistance intentions”.
Hypothesis 1b: “Leader’s openness to change values will be negatively associated with employees’ resistance intentions”.
Hypothesis 2: “Leader’s dispositional resistance to change will be positively associated with employees’ resistance intentions”.
Hypothesis 3: “Leader’s transformational leadership behaviour will be negatively associated with employee’s resistance intentions”.
Hypothesis 4: “Transformational leadership will moderate the relationship between employees’ dispositional resistance to change and resistance intentions such that this relationship will be weaker as transformational leadership increases”.
The methodology and the means of analysis used in the article
In this article multilevel analysis of data has been used. The data for this article had been gathered from 586 teachers and 75 school principals. The research work for this article was conducted in the Israeli school system to analyze large-scale organizational changes in schools. Teachers and principals are asked to participate for this research work on a voluntary basis. In this article the personal values were analyzed with the help of “40-item Portrait Value Questionnaires.”
The arguments advanced in the article
In this article, it has been organizational changes have significant impact on the organizational performance. According to Vigoda-Gadot and Beeri (2012), companies of both public and private sector have to face new challenges every day and they have to adopt changes in order to survive in this environment. Joo Jun Yoon and Jeung (2012) argued that, successful organizational change is focused on factors such as strategy, environment and organizational structure. The main argument of this study is mainly related with the change related traits and values of teachers and principals. The impact of transformational relationship on the change related traits have been considered in this study as well. As Yukl (2012) stated that personals attributes have influence on the choices and decisions they make in the company. According to Shao Feng and Liu (2012), these decisions in term also influence the beliefs of followers and their attitudes.
The conclusion/findings of the article
The focus of this article was on the leaders and the reaction of their employees for a large scale-organizational change. From that data analysis, it has been found that the behaviors, traits and values of leaders are reflected on the reaction of the followers in case of an organizational change. In addition, it has been found from this study that leaders’ personal implication on novelty (openness) and stimulation has negatively affected the resistive intention of followers in the organizational change. It has been found from this research work that there is no significant impact of conservation values on the intention of teachers. It has been found that conservation values like security and conformity has less impact on the behaviour compare to the relationship between openness and behaviour. It has been found from this research work that organizational change is dynamic in nature.
Implication for managers/management during the organizational change processes
The findings of the article have many practical implications. It has been found that personal characteristics of leaders have significant impact of the reaction of the followers. Increasing self-awareness of managers can improve the performance level of employees. Mangers have to be more focused while communicating with employees. Managers always have to try to temper predisposition of employees against change (García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, 2012).
Secondly it has been found form this research work that charismatic leadership behavior has particle implication for various leadership programs. These types of programs mainly include the module that is focused on the individual differences between followers related with change (Vaccaro et al., 2012). This article depicted that leaders need to find out those followers who can readily accept change. Managers have to encourage these followers to support their peers who find it difficult to accept change.
Finally leaders can use transformational leadership style to overcome employee’s resistance to change (Hill et al., 2012). Management of an organization and HR managers need to find out other techniques to overcome employee resistance (Leithwood & Sun, 2012). They can implement a culture that can promote change with various organizational activities. These activities are like training sessions, workshops and various other means of communications.
This article helps to find out that the transformational leadership and openness have negative relationship with the teacher’s intention to resist change. It has also been analyzed from this research work that teacher’s intention to resist change is positively affected by the principle’s dispositional resistance to change. This article helps to analyze how transformational leadership can affect follower’s reaction to change. At first, leaders can inspire and stimulate their followers by showing them the compelling vision of future changes implemented in the company. Secondly they can use intellectual stimulations to influence employees to accept innovative solutions.
The major weakness of the study is concerned with the external validity of the study. It has been found that the sample used for this study is convenient sample. Hence, it limits the representativeness of the article for the Israeli school population. As there is not much research work done on the change at culture level, it had become tough for this article to develop meaningful proposition to analyze the cross cultural differences.
In addition, the article has some problems related with the concurrent design of the study. It has been found that the limitation has two aspects. Firstly, it was predicted that leader’s characteristics and behaviors have influence on the attitude of followers. However, the design of the article did not allow for a test of causality. Secondly, it has been found form this research work that organizational change is dynamic in nature. However, the reaction of change at a particular point of time has to be measured. In order to make more complete evolution of this reaction, it is required measure reaction of employees at various stages of the process of change.
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Yukl, G. (2012). Effective leadership behavior: What we know and what questions need more attention. The Academy of Management Perspectives,26(4), pp.66-85.