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Learning Theories And Instructional Design Styles

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Discuss about the Learning Theories and Instructional Design Styles.



Learning and development is one of the important parts in an individual life. In order to perform efficiently learning and development techniques need to be evaluated by the psychologist. The performance of an individual is important to derive positively for his mental growth. A growing number is realizing the need of learning and development through implementation of psychological techniques.  Many students are facing problems due to an inefficient educational system. The educational system includes same curriculum for each individual.  There is a necessity to develop efficient technique to accelerate student’s capability to grasp knowledge (Siemens, 2014).  Fortunately there are cognitive and educational psychologists who are finding different learning techniques to achieved distinct goals. Students nowadays are relying on these techniques to achieve distinct goals. Learning conditions differs depending upon various aspects.  There are various different characteristic like age, ability to grasp, prior knowledge etc.  These criteria play an important role to achieve distinct goal. Educational psychologists apply different theories to achieve human development (Pritchard, 2013). This will enable an effective learning and growth procedure in an institution, so that students can develop skills.  Some students are able to perform efficiently whereas there are few who are unable to perform due to inability in learning process. The whole educational process has created a problem for students to realize their full potential.  The essay provides an insight into the learning techniques proposed by authors to increase the efficiency of students (Jonassen & Land, 2012). 

There are certain learning techniques like re-reading, underlining and mnemonics devices nowadays. All these techniques hold least importance as per today’s educational system. These techniques find difficulty in implementation which results in inconsistent performance. Other learning techniques like practice tests, spreading study session etc are helping in deriving learning capacity. Practice testing helps in familiarizing students with the low stake version of learning. It is a proven technique used by the educational institutions to enhance knowledge.  It is rated as a high utility technique that allow success across students of every age group in the University.  This technique helps in developing the ability to improve and retain easy accessibility to knowledge.  The distributed practice of learning helps in grasping through different media material (Hmelo-Silver & Eberbach, 2012).  This is a relatively simple technique that helps in improving the overall efficacy. In a complex world it has become important to derive an easy technique to attain sustainable results.  These techniques are helping the University Students in many ways.  They are not only enhancing effective learning but enhancing the results. In the real world guidance process has become apparent for an individual to deploy valuable tool in order to promote effective learning in the students. There are many reasons that are causing difference in the overall results.  There is a necessity to use the learning techniques in an effective manner so that the University’s can reclaim better results on a long run (Reigeluth, 2013).

Educational psychology has developed rapidly over the past twenty years. It is important to enable effective learning procedure to attain learning process. There is a necessity to evolve different motivation techniques to develop smooth learning process. On a long run it is important to develop consistent learning processes that will help in motivating an individual.  The purpose is to motivate an effective learning procedure in students so that they can learn easily. It is seen that students in Universities are facing major issues due to ineffective learning theories. The university students need to implement learning techniques in their regular curriculum. In such a diversified atmosphere the social cognitive theory is used to develop educational and communication techniques to acquire information. This will directly impact the social interaction experiences in the overall educational process (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos & Calvo, 2007).  The theory states that people grasp by observation in an easy way. This however affects the learning process on a long run.  This model helps in engaging the viewers in an effective way. People do not learn the new behavior solely by trying them.  The survival is only possible if an individual tries to replicate the previous action. It is a learning theory that is based on the idea that people learn by observing others.  This learning behavior plays a pivotal role in developing learning pattern in an individual. People learn by observing the environmental behavior and cognition as a chief factor in influencing the development in a reciprocal relationship. Individual behavior can change a person’s way of thinking (Bandura, 2011).  The environment plays an important role in imbibing information in an individual. An individual behavior as per social cognitive theory depends upon the three determinants.  Personal determinant is an individual high or low efficacy towards the behavior. This will allow an individual to learn his personal abilities. Behavioral responses are related to an individual who performs due to successful learning process.  This determinant helps an individual to learn behavioral actions performed correctly (Burton, Westen Kowalski, 2015).


Environmental aspects are the set of factors that influence an individual ability to successfully competition a behavior. It is related with the external environment one live in.  The learning process can take place without a change in an individual behavior. According to J.E. Ormrod change in behavior is an important factor to achieve learning. Social learning theorist argues that the individual can learn from the observation alone (Larsen & Buss, 2008). This is not shown through their behavior. To learn it is important to understand the potential outcome derived through regular practice. All these expectancies are highly influencing the environment. For example: teaching method professes by a teacher allows a student to understand the outcome. It is necessary for the teachers to teach them in a manner they are able to grasp the behavior.  The overall outcomes will be meaningful for the students in a long run.  Social cognitive theory possesses a close relationship between the individual and the learner through observation. Self efficacy believes in a function that set proximal determinants like human motivation, action etc.  These are considered to be an important part to the learning experience (Schwarzer, 2014).

The Vicarious conditioning is related with the attitude, feelings and emotions. It is relevant to the direct exposure to stimulus. The theory is related to someone’s fear and reaction to feelings and themselves. Learning process under this theory is prevalent out of fear. Studying in exams due to fear of failing is a vicarious conditioning. This theory is a negative mode of motivation. Students develop learning process due to fear of some condition. It is however necessary that an individual need to develop effective learning into an individual. This is a negative theory of motivation of students but it will affect an individual (Askew & Field, 2007). The conditioning allows an individual to learn under pressurized condition. It is therefore important for an individual to develop learning in a way to attain distinct goals. This technique is not considered as a positive technique in developing learning behavior in an individual.

Psychodynamic theory is related to the conscious and unconscious forces that are related to desires and beliefs. The psychodynamic theory consists of Id. It is majorly related with the commonly hold childhood experiences. These theories are associated with psychoanalysis that reveals unconscious thoughts and desires. This theory is persistently studying an individual behavior on a long run. The major change one undergoes in the journey of learning has a long term impact (Lewin, 2013). These theories are important for an individual in developing learning behavior. This theory helps in understanding the evolving multi-disciplinary field that helps in analyzing human thoughts a response pattern. This technique is essential to understand behavioral changes to respond as per the situation. It is important from the point of view of gaining knowledge an attention. It is necessary to develop learning pattern in an individual through inculcating dynamic learning process.  The theory is based on utilizing the communicative nature of movement to accomplish learning and development (Mischel, 2013; Burton, Westen Kowalski, 2015).

To conclude learning and development techniques play an important role in developing a cohesive atmosphere. It is important for an individual to develop learning pattern by implementing techniques in an effective manner. This will allow learning in an efficient way. The performance of an individual is important to derive positively for his mental growth. A growing number is realizing the need of learning and development through an effective implementation of psychological techniques. The essay provides insight into the learning and development pattern. It is therefore necessary to incorporate learning and development techniques through innovative theories. This will allow effective learning in students undergoing extreme examination pressure. The essay describes three theories (Social cognitive, vicarious conditioning and Psychodynamic theory).



Askew, C., & Field, A. P. (2007). Vicarious learning and the development of fears in childhood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(11), 2616-2627.

Bandura, A. (2011). Social cognitive theory. Handbook of social psychological theories, 2012, 349-373.

Burton, L., Westen, D., Kowalski, R. (2015). Psychology. 4th  Australian and New Zealand ed

Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory. Emotion, 7(2), 336.

Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Eberbach, C. (2012). Learning theories and problem-based learning. In Problem-based learning in clinical education (pp. 3-17). Springer Netherlands.

Jonassen, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012). Theoretical foundations of learning environments. Routledge.

Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2008). Personality psychology. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap, 269-71.

Lewin, K. (2013). A Dynamic Theory of personality-Selected papers. Read Books Ltd.

Mischel, W. (2013). Personality and assessment. Psychology Press.

Pritchard, A. (2013). Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. Routledge.

Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Routledge.

Schwarzer, R. (2014). Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Taylor & Francis.

Siemens, G. (2014). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital

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