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Leveraging Personal And Collective Knowledge Processes

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Discuss about the Leveraging Personal and Collective Knowledge Processes.



Knowledge can be described as the facts, information and skills required for the experience or education to complete the particular job or work.  The knowledge can be divided into two ways as theoretical knowledge as well as the practical knowledge. There is a hierarchy of knowledge where the knowledge is placed on top and this report discussion about the various concepts of knowledge and their view points.

There is a traditional model of knowledge which has it focus on theoretical knowledge. In this model of knowledge philosophy is placed at the top and knowledge is placed at the bottom. It is believed that the pyramid of knowledge is constructed top to down. Theoretical knowledge requires having the practical skills through i.e. by learning and using language is those are used in practice and cannot be analyzed apart from practice. Generally, theoretical knowledge is ahead of the practical knowledge both practically as well as logically. Therefore, practice is necessary is presumed in acquiring theoretical knowledge. Knowledge can be categorized into three different kinds (Martin, 2013). They are:

  • Knowing a thing
  • Knowing how to do something
  • Propositional knowledge

Knowledge as a possession view- Knowledge is classified as an intellectual property which is the patents and copyrights, plagiarism and public domain. Knowledge can be considered as possession if the knowledge is an Intellectual property, any inventions, any unique idea or it is the personal knowledge. Intellectual property can be defined as a work, which created through the understanding of objective or any abstract matters. Artistic works such as music, literature, inventions, discoveries, words, symbols and designs comes under the intellectual property. Invention can be defined as an idea, process or a design. The invention process is the process which is within the engineering and product development process.An invention can help to achieve a unique function or result (Friedman, 2010). The things that can be considered under invention are artificially created chemicals, application of mathematical equation and solving a problem. The things which can be categorized under non invention are medical discoveries and mathematical equations (Razmerita, Kirchner, &Nabeth, 2014).

Knowledge is usually understood as facts or application of skills. In the age of information practical knowledge is more important the theoretical knowledge. Knowledge can be further explained as a representation of reality, a tool of with helps in producing effects and a difference in representation. It is certain that the practical knowledge is not concrete it contains human skills even if the application can be often concrete. Knowledge grows only when a certain things are applied to build or grow something.

Several philosophers have stated their own version of knowledge as possession and knowledge as practice. According to the Ryle “knowing how” is distinguished from “Knowing that”. The philosopher also believes in theorizing is one practice amongst others. However, according to the philosopher Wittgenstein in 1940 s practice is a prerequisite of proportional knowledge. These view points of the philosopher indicates that the practical knowledge is more important than the theoretical knowledge. Theoretical knowledge can be gained in the further knowledge (Zahle,2012).

Many philosophers fail to believe or understand that the need to understand theory as they perceive their jobs is all about practice. Theory and practice, two intrinsically linked and they usually come to be more open as theory matters (Jonassen, & Land, 2012 ).

The teacher’s knowledge can be categorized into several ways but according to the Cochran-Smith and Lytle it can conceptualized into three ways such as-

Knowledge for practice: A person can only grow its knowledge by distributing more knowledge. This happens when knowledge used as a practice and taken as a profession. This is true in case of professors, teacher who are practicing knowledge through teaching. This gained by when a person goes to the university, study their desired course and then practice knowledge.

Knowledge in practice: This view of teacher learning assumes that the art of teaching lies within the individual teacher which is showcased in the classrooms every moment. The teachers who have mastered the work of teaching have to develop their work before the classroom practice.

Knowledge of practice: This view of teaching assumes that the knowledge can be designed by the group of teachers as they conduct enquiries about the issues of teaching and learning, issue of curriculum design and subject and the issues of school.

Apart from these three ideas, the fourth ideas which has the same concepts as of knowledge of practice idea but this idea also offer how teachers makes knowledge.


Knowledge as Practice: This view of knowledge is a characterized which shifts the focus away from the idea inside scientists mind to practice which are cultural and contextualized within the field of science. This theory was suggested by the Knorr Cetina in 1999, she also suggested that people who work together can be referred as the culture whose collective knowledge can termed as practice (Robertson, Taczak& Yancey, 2012).

The relationship between the teacher’s knowledge and their classroom practice is the result of the teacher’s work to develop and support the leaning and development of classroom practice. There are of questions that are raised about the relationship between teacher and practice. The questions are:

Knowledge as a practice can be held by individual experts where knowing is the collective information which is distributed across the people and different objects. The collective knowledge holds the meaning “everyone having the possibility to know and assess themselves and what needs to be done” and this knowledge is guiding the collective enterprise.

The above discussion could be applied to 3M. When it comes to knowledge as a practice, 3M is one of the best company that has established a culture of knowledge Management. The company uses the Nonaka proposed SECI model for knowledge Management. The SECI model as used by the company can be shown as:

Possession and practice are two different views of knowledge. They are two different things on which knowledge has been categorized. For years’philosopher, have classified knowledge under various things. There are several concepts through which knowledge can be viewed as knowledge for practice, knowledge of practice and practice in practice. There were few points of knowledge as practice concept which overlapped with knowledge of practice. However, the knowledge can be gain collectively as well as individually.

This paper discusses the role of Information Technology in the supply chain Management of large retailers like Wal-Mart, Target, etc. The key Information Technology strategies used by the organizations in retail world includes the use of RFID, ERP systems, and to some extent, QR codes. Recently, organizations have also started to use social media tools. The social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are used to get customer feedback as the last steo of supply chain management process.

If the supply chain of an organization is efficient, it gives and edge to the organization to stand strong among the competitors. This report explains about the supply chain and its importance. It is also shows in what ways the Information Technology can be a part of SCM and help in making it efficient. The large retailers like Wal-Mart and Target have been using Information Technology and the large IT systems like ERP to manage their operations and supply chain for long time.


Supply Chain Strategy plays the crucial role in Business organization today. The details such as the market coverage, availability of the product at the location and ensure that the supply meets the demand depends on the effective supply chain Management strategy. When the product is launched and introduced in the market, then the product should reach to all the sales counter of the country or area where the product is being launched at the right time so that the customers are able to buy the product at the time of need generation. If in case, the product does not hit the market at the right time then the sales of the product would be dropped as well as the brand image would also be affected (Mentzer, DeWitt,  Keebler, Min, Nix,  Smith,  &Zacharia, 2001).

The important process of SCM can be sales and operation planning process which helps in balancing the supply and demand. There are revolutions which help to improve the demand of sales and operation planning is a demand driven supply chain. This is major due to which it is important to forecast the inventory based on the demand of the products.  The forecast should be done based on the historical shipments, but there should be visibility in the demand real time at the time when sale of made. This will also help the organization to improve the demand management(Carter, & Liane Easton,2011).

Today’s marketplace is highly competitive;the customer is highly capable of shifting their interest from one company to another if their desire needs are not met. Therefore, it becomes important for the company to have a streamlined Supply chain so that the product can be reached to the customer at the right time. Technology can help the companies to simplify the Supply Chain Management in order to make the process transparent and more smooth which will the companies to have a better control over the inventory which can help to reduce the operational cost.

There are few ways through which the supply chain can use the technology in their management. They are:

Computerized Shipping and Tracking:  There are lots of softwares present in the modern technology and internet through which the live tracking can be done. The software allows digitally arranging the inventory data, monitoring and managing shipping and tracking products and creates invoices without any difficulty. Through internet based system, the company would save lot of time, effort as well as money in shipping updating tracking manually. This service of live tracking will enhance the customer experience as the customer would be able to track their own order and check their status. This will also reduce the shipping error and respond more rapidly than before. This type of the system will be customer friendly(Prajogo&Olhager, 2012).

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): Radio Frequency Identification uses electromagnetic fields which help to identify the tags attached to the objects or product. These RFID tags can electronically store information.RFID chip can provide lot of benefit to the organization or to the business owners. A RFID Chip is placed on every product to track the inventory. This helps to improve the supply chain efficiency by detecting any errors and enabling the employees to correct the mistake immediately.RFID Chip gives more visibility over the product all the times.

RFID is one of megatrends in logistics and every year several hundreds of millions of RFID tags are being sold. The basic problem which arises with RFID is the reader collision and tag collision. Reader Collision occurs when the signals of two or more readers overlap and tag is not able to respond to the queries simultaneously. The tag collision usually occurs when there are several tags present in a small area and the read time is very fast and therefore it is easier for the vendor to develop these tags and respond one at a time. RFID application has enabled the cost effective tracking solution, global tracking of the objects, reliable tracking of capital and inventory assets during the transportation. It offers the solution when it is impossible to collect, update and track the data manually.

Currently, there are many companies is using RFID technology for their supply chain management such as Amazon, BJC Health Care, Inditex and General Steel (Sarac, Absi,  &Dauzère-Pérès, 2010). 

Use of Social Media to Streamline Supply Chain: Social Media is one of popular media which has overpowered other technologies. Almost everyone is the world are present on facebook and twitter. More than 70% of the companies rely on Social media as their marketing strategy. Through social media, the companies will be able to increase their communication with customers and increase the visibility of the company. This will improves the demand of the product or service, this mode is cost effective and time efficient marketing strategy with lower or zero operational cost


The main purpose of infographic is to illustrate 10 actions in 4 categories such as supply chain management, relationship management, information technology theory (O'leary, 2011).

Big DATA: The scale and depth of the data supply is accelerating which helps in providing more and more data sets to drive the contextual intelligence. Data sourcing by relative level of structured/unstructured data it shows the majority of data of supply chain is generated outside the enterprise. Big Data helps the supplier to focus on knowledge sharing and collaboration and a value added to complete the transaction.

To improve the business, for large retailers, it is important to have an emerging supply chain technology in order to have a place in market and be ahead of the other competitors. Customers are fully capable to frequently move their interest from one company’s product to another if there is shipping delay or defect in the product, wrong order delivered. Enhancing the supply chain can minimize the risk and also helps to improve the reputation of the company (Zaslavsky, Perera,&Georgakopoulos, 2013).


Supply chain management is one most important part of an organization. It is important for an organization to have an effective SCM in order to fulfill all the requirements. There are several ways that technology can be used in SCM through the live tracking system which will help the department to track the movement of the products. RFID, a chip will help to track all the details about the product from manufacturing stage to delivering stage. The report also discusses other ways that how technology can be used to develop the effective supply chain.



Butner, K. (2010). The smarter supply chain of the future. Strategy & Leadership, 38(1), 22-31.

Carter, C. R., & Liane Easton, P. (2011). Sustainable supply chain management: evolution and future directions. International journal of physical distribution & logistics management, 41(1), 46-62.

Friedman, O. (2010). Necessary for possession: How people reason about the acquisition of ownership. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Jonassen, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012). Theoretical foundations of learning environments. Routledge.

Martin, J. R. (2013). Embedded literacy: Knowledge as meaning. Linguistics and Education, 24(1), 23-37.

Mentzer, J. T., DeWitt, W., Keebler, J. S., Min, S., Nix, N. W., Smith, C. D., &Zacharia, Z. G. (2001). Defining supply chain management. Journal of Business logistics, 22(2), 1-25.

O'leary, D. E. (2011). The use of social media in the supply chain: Survey and extensions. Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, 18(2-3), 121-144.

Prajogo, D., &Olhager, J. (2012). Supply chain integration and performance: The effects of long-term relationships, information technology and sharing, and logistics integration. International Journal of Production Economics, 135(1), 514-522.

Razmerita, L., Kirchner, K., &Nabeth, T. (2014). Social media in organizations: leveraging personal and collective knowledge processes. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 24(1), 74-93.

Robertson, L., Taczak, K., & Yancey, K. B. (2012). Notes toward a Theory of Prior Knowledge and Its Role in College Composers' Transfer of Knowledge and Practice. In Composition Forum (Vol. 26). Association of Teachers of Advanced Composition.

Sarac, A., Absi, N., &Dauzère-Pérès, S. (2010). A literature review on the impact of RFID technologies on supply chain management. International Journal of Production Economics, 128(1), 77-95.

Zahle, J. (2012). Practical knowledge and participant observation. Inquiry, 55(1), 50-65.

Zaslavsky, A., Perera, C., &Georgakopoulos, D. (2013). Sensing as a service and big data. arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.0159.


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