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LING365 Phonetics And Phonology

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Question

1. Broad transcription 

  • Provide a phonemic (broad) transcription of the English passage below, to reflect its phonemic realisation in an English variety of your choice.
  • Type the name of your chosen variety of English in the space provided below.
    • If your chosen variety of English is (standard) Australian English, use only the Harrington-Cox-Evans (HCE) transcription system.
  • Include primary and secondary stress markers where relevant.
  • Enclose your answer using the convention for phonemic transcription.
  • Ignore sentence punctuation if you wish.

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.

2.  Narrow transcription 

  • Provide a phonetic (narrow) transcription of the English passage below, to reflect its phonetic realisation in an English variety of your choice.
  • Type the name of your chosen variety of English in the space provided below.
    • Deviate as required from any established transcription conventions for this variety of English, to reflect finer details of the pronunciation.
      • Finer details include aspiration, un-releasing, devoicing, vowel nasalisation and any other relevant allophonic realisations.
      • This might require you to disregard word boundaries in places.
    • Include primary and secondary stress where appropriate.
      • Do not include metrical feet and heads, though.
    • Overall, ensure that your transcription is phonologically justifiable.
  • Enclose your answer using the convention for phonetic transcription.
  • Ignore sentence punctuation.

I came from a real tough neighbourhood. Once a guy pulled a knife on me. I knew he wasn’t a professional, ’cos the knife had butter on it.

3. Spectrograms 

Below are three spectrograms of the English words tiger, buffalo and donkey.

  • Identify which spectrogram represents which word.
  • In each case, explain how you decided on your answer. You could do this by using one or more of the following methods:
    • drawing arrows pointing to relevant sections of the spectrogram, with explanations at the base of the arrow.
    • labelling sections of the spectrogram and cross-referencing them in your answer paragraph.
    • any other way you think convenient.
  • Give as much detail as you’d like, as long as it’s relevant to the answer.
  • Ensure that your answers are neat and – especially in this case – legible!

4. Language X

Consider the following data:

            [?tapli?]             ‘two’                            [?aθi?ha??a?]      ‘he laughed’

            [?d???eθe]         ‘he shot it’                  [tad???be]         ‘to drink’                   

            [tag??e]            ‘to sow’                       [?θese]            ‘nose’

            [?θie]               ‘we’                             [?tari?]              ‘bad’               

            [?θi??i]            ‘to run’                       [ta??du]           ‘to sleep’                    

 

On this basis, write out using formal notation the most economical possible rule that accounts for the distribution of the phones [t] and [θ].

 

  • In your answer, you may EITHER use features, OR use a brief verbal explanation to describe the alternation environment, as shown in the following example (unrelated to the data):

                        [?] à [h] word-finally                      OR                   [+cons][+low][-cont] à [+cont] / ___#

  • If you wish, include any relevant additional remarks in your answer.

5. Language Y 

Consider the following data:

[t???o]

‘divine spirit’

[wla]

‘be unsteady’

[?a??li]

‘otter’

[hla]

‘hop’

[hl?]

‘wander’

[ez??]

‘male grandchild’

[?al?]

‘potato’

[eð???]

‘mongoose’

[afl?]

‘boat’

[ako?klo]

‘spotted deer’

[t??]

‘sit down’

[d?????]

‘pour’

[e?l?]

‘maternal uncle’

[et??]

‘height’

[z?a]

‘muscle pull’

[e?le]

‘mucus’

[?l?]

‘pay obeisance’

[?l?]

‘draw in sand’

[flu]

‘boil (v.)’

[ð?ã]

‘confront’

[a?bl?]

‘oil lantern’

[d?e]

‘palm sap’

[adid?h?]

‘bandicoot rat’

[plavokpe]

‘dried coconut’

[bleblelu]

‘hyena’

[s?o]

‘glide’

[zapul?]

‘soap’

[ed?o]

‘fear’

[akple]

‘yard’

[l?]

‘throw a spear’

On this basis, write out using formal notation the most economical possible rule that accounts for the distribution of the phones [?] and [l].

What kind of distribution are [?] and [l] in?

  • In your answer, you may EITHER use features, OR use a brief verbal explanation to describe the alternation environment, as shown in the following example (unrelated to the data):

                  [?] à [h] word-finally                       OR                   [+cons][+low][-cont] à [+cont] / ___#

  • If you wish, include any relevant additional remarks in your answer.
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