Baciocchi et al. (2013) presumed that thermal conductivity and thickness influenced the overall heat transfer coefficient of the mediums. Falsanisi et al. (2010) argued that the larger coefficient make the heating process easy in transferring heat to the products from sources.
A heat transfer film coefficient is the process of fluid confined in a particular vessel that outlines the flow of heat of the fluid. Apart from that, film coefficient heat exchanger divided the heat based on per unit area of the vessel. Thus, it differentiates the temperature of the fluid in the interior and surface of the wall. Mahmoud (2012) stated that film coefficient heat exchanger known as the convection coefficient from the point of view of heat exchanger.
In the pilot plant, the overall heat transfer coefficient U determines the logarithmic meaning the difference of temperature. The equation of the logarithmic can helps in identifying the value of U that directly relates to the Q (the rate of heat transfer).
Thermal Resistance is also an effective method of heat exchanger. It helps in calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient of the pilot plant properly. In the pilot plant, thermal resistance split works in several areas such as transfer of heat between the wall and fluid in one resistance, transfer heat in one resistance and the transfer of heat between the second fluid and wall in one resistance. McConville (2002) suggested that in order to decrease the overall heat transfer coefficient in the wall of pilot plant, need to add extra thermal resistance of surface coating.
Qh = mh.Cph. (Th1 – Th2)
Qc = mc.Cch. (Tc2 – Tc1)
h= hot side
c= cold side
1 = inlet
2 = outlet with no losses
Qh = Qc
If the Qh losses from the Qc then the equation will be
Qh ≠ Qc
Qm = (Qh + Qc) / 2
Qm = U. Am. ΔTlm (Here U considers the power of overall heat transfer coefficient. Apart from the lm is stand for this equation as a Logarithmic temperature)
ΔTlm = ΔT2 – ΔT1/ In * ΔT2/ ΔT1
ΔT2 = ΔTh2 - ΔTc1
ΔT2 = ΔTh1 – ΔTc2
Am = Ah –Ac / In * Ah/Ac (Here Ac and Ah stand for the area for the heat transfer on the cold as well as hot side respectively)
1.2 How does a heat exchanger work
It is noted that a heat exchanger basically revolves around the fact that as soon as there is a temperature difference, there will be a possibility of occurring heat transfer.
So, in most of the cases, it utilizes both cold stream as well as a hot stream, which are detached with the help of a thin, solid wall. In this context it is very crucial to make the wall thin as well as conductive so that heat exchange takes place. However, there is requiring ensuring that the wall must be strong enough to protect the system. Due to which copper is used here.
Below is the simple flow diagram which exploring how heat transfers in a heat exchanger.
Figure: flow diagram showing how heat transfers in a heat exchanger
In order to describe the heat exchanger, the analysts used several components such as tank of water, thermostat, ball valves, P. C. interface, water connection, test stand, heater, etc.
The properties, which depend on the quality of matter, may change as the system increases in size. The physical and the chemical residues of the system may have an effect on each other and give rise to unstable results. A good illustration of this property is surface area to liquid ratio. Suppose on a chemical scale, in a particular flask has a moderately large surface area to the liquid ratio (Reichl et al. 2014).
If scaled the reaction to fit in a tank of 500 gallon, the surface area to the liquid ratio becomes minute to a great extent. Therefore the difference in the surface area to the liquid ratio, the reaction and same nature of thermodynamics changes in a deviating way. An effect in beaker can perform very differently from same reaction on a large scale process of production (Sun et al., 2008). After the collection of data from the pilot plant operation, a huge production scale capacity might be built. Some business entity still continues to control pilot plant so as to experiment concepts intended for the innovative products, operating conditions or new feedstock. The current trend is to keep the plant size small to save the costs.
Baciocchi, R., Carnevale, E., Corti, A., Costa, G., Lombardi, L., Olivieri, T., Zanchi, L. and Zingaretti, D. (2013). Innovative process for biogas upgrading with CO2 storage: Results from pilot plant operation. Biomass and Bioenergy, 53, pp.128-137.
Falsanisi, D., Liberti, L. and Notarnicola, M. (2010). Ultrafiltration (UF) Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance. Water, 2(4), pp.872-885.
Mahmoud, (2012). Managing Process Hazards in Lab-Scale Pilot Plant for Safe Operation. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 5(1), pp.84-88.
McConville, F. (2002). The pilot plant real book. Worcester, Mass.: FXM Engineering and Design.
Reichl, A., Schneider, R., OhligschlÃ¤ger, A., Rogalinski, T. and Hauke, S. (2014). Process Development and Scale-up for Post Combustion Carbon Capture - Validation with Pilot Plant Operation. Energy Procedia, 63, pp.6379-6392.
Sun, H., Hankins, N., Azzopardi, B., Hilal, N. and Almeida, C. (2008). A pilot-plant study of the adsorptive micellar flocculation process: Optimum design and operation. Separation and Purification Technology, 62(2), pp.273-280.