The essay intends to study on effectiveness of training and development in order to increase efficiency among the employees. Thus the study elaborates on different theories in line with human resource management, especially shedding the light on the aspect of training and development. Over the years, it is largely seen that the human resource management of a company gives special attention on training and development in order to increase the efficiency of the employees also organizations of these days emphasizes on training the employees to increase competitiveness within the industry (Clarke 2005). Hence, it needs to be mentioned that human resource department play a pivotal role in ensuring that employees receive required training which intends to improve the performance of the employees. Training and development helps the employees to expand the knowledge of the employees in view of improving their performance as well as helps employees to enhance their skills so that they can give their best efforts towards the growth of the company (Eraut 2000). A wide range of benefits apart from above mentioned aspects are provided by the learning programs. In respect to that it needs to be mentioned that training not only improves the performance of the employees but it infuses a feeling within the employs that they are valued (Clarke 2005). It has been seen that most of the well-known organizations conduct training and learning programs through which they have been able to secure high retention rate within their organizations (Eraut 2000). In the meantime, it is seen that training and learning is the most useful way of addressing the weakness of the employees. Therefore it will be apt to assert that instead of terminate or non-recruiting an employee who does not have the desirable skills, it is better to arrange a learning program for the employees so that they can understand the requirement of the organization and they work and develop the skills that are necessary to meet the business outcome (Eraut 2000). Hence, including theories of learning in the training given by the human resource department will help the employees to a considerable manner so that their career development can further be accelerated. The employees can be given the access to a wide in-depth range of courses and workshops in view of increasing the productivity of them following the theories of learning (Coffield et al. 2004). Hence the discussion will elaborate on two major theories of learning, behaviorism and cognitive. While discussing the importance and advantages of these two theories of learning a close comparison will between them will also be given in the whole course of discussion. Finally the study will summarize the entire discussion.
The study will begin by discussion cognitive theory and its use in the learning program of human resource department. According to Rogers and Horrocks (2010), the theory of cognitive learning refers to the process of gaining knowledge and a improving the capacity of understanding by using experience, thinking ability and senses. Coffield et al. (2004) further elaborated in a more simplified manner; the cognitive learning is the function through which an individual reasons information. Eraut, (2000), opines that the cognitive theory includes different factors such as memorizing skill, thinking ability, problem solving ability and drawing perception from learned skills. It explains brain as the most extraordinary network through which information and interpretations are processed as one learn gain knowledge about new things.
As per Eraut, (2000), the main factor that the cognitive learning focuses on is the idea of learning. According to the cognitive theory, the mental process is influenced by the extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors which an individual gain through learning process. On the other hand, Kennedy, (2002) suggested that in the learning process following cognitive learning, the mental action gets prioritized more than the physical action. Thus it can be said that when knowledge is obtained learning occurs. Agreeing that Malloch et al. (2010), stated learning becomes easier, if effective cognitive based training is given to the employees. There can be two categories of cognitive theory one is social cognitive theory and another cognitive behavioral theory.
Malloch et al. (2010), further opines that the social cognitive theory is used in terms educating and communicating employees refers to the process of knowledge acquisition through observation over individual by having social interaction, experiencing without being influenced by outside media. Tennant, (2007) is of the opinion that the most responsible feature of cognitive theory is the social influence and the emphasis on social reinforcement. The concept of theory alludes to such a unique way through individuals improves and maintain behavioral traits. While using social cognitive theory in learning, the employees are considered based on their societal background and past experience (Malloch et al.2010). Along with that the other factor that are being kept in mind by the human resource department while providing training to the employees are their expectation and mentality as to understand to understand what extent the training will be successful or to design the training program (Leach, Wall and Jackson, 2003). The theory of social cognitive theory focuses mainly on initiating behavior rather than maintaining the behavior. Hence the purpose of social cognitive theory is to control and regulate the behavior of employees. According to the theory of Kennedy, (2002), the employees are encouraged to increase their critical thinking capacity and improve their problem solving skills. The training program aims to inter-relate the social cognitive theory with Human Resource Management
The most common issue that human resource department often face is cooperation. Often it is seen that experienced employees often fail to cooperate with the newcomers in an organization (Kennedy 2002). It is seen to work in such working environment the new employees often face difficulties since they do not get guidance and assistance from experienced employees. Thus to improve the behavioral traits of the employees the social cognitive theory can be incorporated to make the employees learn about organizational behavior through which the mentality of the employees will be changed (Eraut 2000). For example, by conducting training workshop the employees will be undergo the grooming session as to how the employees will cooperate with other and more importantly the training will educate the employees about the importance and advantages of cooperative approach while working (Coffield et al.2004).
The other issue that is often observed to be faced by human resource department is the issue of cultural diversity (Kennedy 2002). Often it is seen that employees from different cultural background is bullied or harassed by existing employees in a company (Eraut 2000). For example, an individual from United Arab Emirates when moves to a different country mainly in Australia or United States face humiliation as they assumed to be ineffective and have less qualification. Such an approach within an organization not only decreases the retention power of the employee who is from United Arab Emirates but ruins the organizational environment. In order to improve the organizational environment within the organization the employees can be undergo a cultural orientation program where they will be taught to not discriminate their colleagues based on their cultural background. Thus using social cognitive theory will be beneficial in the orientation program since it refers to the process of learning behavioral skills or attributes by watching other’s actions (Kennedy 2002). On-job-training method can be applied where new employees can be paired with experienced employees so that the new employees can learn how to behave or react within a corporate sphere through the process of vicarious learning (Eraut 2000).
However, according to some school of thought, the concept of social cognitive theory refers to the learning process through which employees learn on their own (Clarke 2005). The employees can learn on their own provided there is an environment without any external reinforcement. Hence as per Coffield et al. (2004), the conclusion can be drawn from this that self-efficacy is a crucial part of social cognitive theory. The main purpose of social cognitive theory is to enhance a person’ confidence and perception of his or her own self towards performing a certain behavior or gain the knowledge of appropriate socialization in a corporate sphere (Kennedy 2002).
On the other hand, according to Coffield, (2004), developed by Aaron Beck the cognitive behavioral theory alludes to the process of role of recognizing and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. According to cognitive behavioral theory, human nature tends t develop perception and this perception impacts a lot on their behavior or reaction (Eraut 2000). Subsequently the most responsible element of cognitive behavioral theory is the social impact and the accentuation on social fortification. This type of cognitive theory insinuates such an exceptional path through which people enhances and keep up behavioral attributes (Beizer 1998). While utilizing cognitive behavioral theory in taking in, the employees are viewed as in view of their societal foundation and past experience. Alongside that the other factor that are being remembered by the human resource department while giving orientation to the representatives are their desire and attitude as to comprehend what level of the orientation will be effective or to plan the orientation program. As per Clarke, (2005), the theory of cognitive behavioral theory centers principally on starting conduct instead of keeping up the conduct. Thus the motivation behind cognitive behavioral theory is to control and manage the conduct of representatives. As indicated by Eraut, (2000), the representatives are urged to expand their basic reasoning limit and enhance their critical thinking aptitudes. Hence interrelation between cognitive behavioral theory and human resource management should be the aim of the organization to introduce learning programs to educate the employees in the organization (Rogers and Horrocks 2010). Subsequently to enhance the behavioral characteristics of the representatives, the cognitive behavioral learning theory can be joined to influence the employees to find out about hierarchical conduct through which the attitude of the representatives will be changed (Beizer1998). For instance, by directing training workshop the representatives will be experience the prepping session concerning how the employees will cooperate with other and all the more imperatively the preparation will instruct the representatives about the significance and focal points of helpful approach while working. According to Coffield et al. (2004), keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the authoritative condition inside the association the employees can be experience a social introduction program where they will be instructed to not separate their colleagues in light of their social foundation. In this manner utilizing cognitive behavioral learning theory will be helpful in the introduction program since it alludes to the way toward learning behavioral aptitudes or traits by watching other's activity (Burkitt 1991). The training while working technique can be useful where new representatives can be combined with experienced representatives so the new representatives can figure out how to carry on or respond inside a corporate circle through the procedure of vicarious learning.
In accordance with Rogers and Horrocks, (2010), the theory of cognitive behavioral learning alludes to the way toward picking up information and an enhancing the limit of comprehension by utilizing knowledge, thinking capacity and faculties. In more improved way, the psychological learning of cognitive behavioral theory is the capacity through which an individual reasons data (Beizer 1998). The intellectual theory incorporates diverse factors, for example, remembering aptitude, thinking capacity, critical thinking capacity and drawing observation from learned abilities (Rogers and Horrocks 2010). It defines brain as the most phenomenal system through which data and elucidations are handled as one learn pick up information about new things.
According to Rogers and Horrocks, (2010), the primary factor that the cognitive behavioral theory centers around is learning. As per the theory suggested by Clarke, (2005), the psychological procedure is affected by the extraneous and in addition inborn elements which an individual increase through learning process. In the learning procedure following intellectual taking in, the psychological activity gets organized more than the physical activity. Along these lines one might say that when information is acquired learning happens (Burkitt 1991). This alludes to the learning procedure through which employees learn alone. The employees can learn alone given there is a situation with no outer fortification. Consequently the conclusion can be drawn from this that self-adequacy is a critical piece of cognitive behavioral theory (Beizer 1998). The primary reason for social intellectual theory is to upgrade a man' certainty and impression of his or her own particular self towards playing out a specific conduct or pick up the learning of suitable socialization in a corporate circle.
As opined by Clarke, (2005), beside of cognitive theory of learning, the other most important theory of learning is behaviorism. As per Coffield et al. (2004), using the behaviorism theory the employees are trained on the basis of positive and negative reinforcement. For example, employees are praised when they behave according to the trainer or instructor whereas employees get punished when they do not act or behave according to the trainer. The success depends on the behavioral change of the employees (Beizer 1998). Strategies based o cognitive theory can be adopted to make the employees to adopt any change or policy. The behaviorism is the belief that human actions or behaviors can be controlled through reward and punishment (Burkitt 1991). According to the concept human resource management can motivate employees by means of insensitive or any other means of monetarily practices.
Human resource development mainly includes training and practices for organizational development. The main factor that human resource management focuses on is the practices are to enhance the every individual’s performance in the organization so that further growth of the organization can be occurred (Eraut 2000). Thus the theory of behaviorism is extremely beneficial for increasing competencies. In case of an organization desire to implement any change in the organization, behaviorism can be considered as the most advantageous theory (Kennedy 2002). This theory is considered as the most important theory in order to judge the attitudes of the employees. Through behaviorism based training process, employees learn to develop skills and then foster their talents in order to increase their efficiency (Guile and Young 1998). Throughout the years, it is to a great extent observed that the human resource administration of an organization gives exceptional consideration on training and advancement keeping in mind the end goal to build the proficiency of the representatives likewise associations of nowadays underscores on training the employees to expand aggressiveness inside the business. Consequently, it should be specified that human resource management assume an essential part in guaranteeing that employees get required training which plans to enhance the execution of the representatives. As per Leach, Wall and Jackson, (2003), training and improvement causes the employees to extend the information of the representatives in perspective of enhancing their execution and additionally encourages employees to upgrade their aptitudes so they can give their earnest attempts towards the development of the organization.
An extensive variety of advantages separated from previously mentioned angles are given by the learning programs. In regard to that it should be specified that preparation enhances the execution of the representatives as well as it imbues an inclination inside and utilizes that they are esteemed (Malloch et al. 2010). It has been seen that the greater part of the outstanding associations lead training and learning programs through which they have possessed the capacity to anchor high consistency standard inside their associations. Meanwhile, it is seen that preparation and learning is the most valuable method for tending to the shortcoming of the employees (Pidd 2004). Subsequently it will be adept to state that rather than fire or non-enlisting a employees who does not have the alluring aptitudes, it is smarter to orchestrate a learning program for the representatives with the goal that they can comprehend the prerequisite of the association and they work and build up the abilities that are important to meet the business result (Malloch et al. 2010). Consequently, incorporating theory of learning in the training program given by the human resource management will push the representatives to an impressive way with the goal that their profession advancement can additionally be quickened.
In accordance with Tennant, (2007), the theory is considered as the most classic theory of management through which the employees are perceived that their behavior can be taught or learnt. In a behavioral system of learning, the main factor that the company focuses on is motivating the employees by rewarding them (Rogers and Horrocks 2010). While some employees are rewarded for extraordinary performances, it is perceived that other employees also can be motivated by seeing them; rather it is perceived that the comparatively moderate performers will develop an urge within them to obtain the reward given to the excellent performers. Naturally their performance will enhance. On the other hand, the poor performers in an organization are punished either monetarily or they are sent to father training to develop essential skills. Through behaviorism it can be understood that whether the employees are motivated by rewards or get demotivated by punishment. The success of behaviorism depends on the response of the employees to the system of development that includes rewards and punishment (Beizer 1998).
As suggested by Eraut (2000), since employee behavior is the central focus of human resource management, the behaviorism is considered as the most effective concept through in order to analyze human behavior. According to employee perception, money is ultimate motivation of the employees (Clarke 2005). Thus often it is seen that management gives incentives or extra wages to the employees who set an example of an improved behavior. In most of the companies, behaviorism is used in a most extensive manner while human resource management implements any changes in terms of improvement the behavior of the employees (Chen, Bian and Hom 2005). The theory of behaviorism also considered as the most effective tool through which organizations will be able to understand that what changes will be required or what are actions required so that organizational behavior can be modified (Burkitt 1991). Through behavioral approach human resource management can understand what the motivating factor of a particular employee is. For example, some employees are motivated by money, while some expects other rewards like allowances and relaxations. Hence judging the motivating factor over a majority of the employees, human resource management incorporate that motivating factor in the organizational environment. An instances of can be given to illustrate how behavioral approach can be used to motivate employees to bring improvement in the behaviors. Often it is seen that human resource management face issue irregular attendance of the employees. Very few numbers of the employees come on time in a regular manner. Thus in order to improve the behavior of the employees so that they maintain regularity in terms of attendance, the employees who marks regular attendance can be rewarded with monetarily since it is perceived that money is the ultimate motivation. The employees who are irregular in terms of attendance are perceived to be developing a will to acquire the reward. On the other as an experiment, the human resource management will be able to understand whether employees are motivated monetarily or not (Chen, Bian and Hom 2005). If desired outcome is not achieved from the employees, the human resource management can strategies more effective solution to improve the traits of the employees.
In this manner the theory of behaviorism is to a great extent beneficial for expanding skills (Burkitt, 1991). At a point when an association wants to actualize any adjustment in the association behaviorism can be considered as the most worthwhile theory. According to Clarke, (2005), this theory is considered as the most critical theory keeping in mind the end goal to judge the dispositions of the representatives. Through behaviorism based training process, representatives learn creates abilities and the n encourage their gifts keeping in mind the end goal to expand their productivity. The theory is considered as the greatest theory of administration through which the employees are seen that their conduct can be instructed or learnt (Coffield et al 2004). In a behavioral arrangement of taking in, the fundamental factor that the organization centers around is motivating the employees by compensating them. While some employees are remunerated for uncommon exhibitions, it is seen that different employees additionally can be spurred by observing them, rather it is seen that the similarly direct entertainers will build up an inclination inside them to get the reward given to the fantastic entertainers (Eraut 2000). Normally their execution will improve. Then again, the poor entertainers in an association are rebuffed either fiscally or they are sent to father training to create basic aptitudes. As per Burkitt, (1991), through behaviorism it can be comprehended that whether the representatives are inspired by rewards or get demotivated by discipline. The achievement of behaviorism relies upon the reaction of the employees to the arrangement of advancement that incorporates prizes and discipline.
Since employees’ behavior is the focal point of human resource administration, the behaviorism is considered as the best idea through with a specific end goal to break down human conduct (Eraut 2000). As per representative recognition, cash is extreme inspiration of the employees. In this way regularly it is seen that administration gives motivations or additional wages to the employees who set a case of an enhanced conduct. In a large portion of the organizations, behaviorism is utilized in a most broad way while human resource administration executes any adjustments as far as change the conduct of the employees (Rogers and Horrocks 2010). The theory of behaviorism additionally considered as the best instrument through which associations will have the capacity to comprehend that what changes will be required or what are activities required with the goal that authoritative conduct can be altered. Through social approach human resource administration can comprehend what is the motivating variable of specific employees (Tennant 2007). Utilizing the behaviorism theory the representatives are prepared based on positive and negative support. For instance, employees are commended when they carry on as indicated by the coach or instructor while representatives get rebuffed when they don't act or act as indicated by the mentor (Pidd 2004). The achievement relies upon the conduct change of the representatives. Procedures based o cognitive theory can be received to make the representatives to embrace any change or arrangement. As per Lai and Lo, (2008), the behaviorism is the conviction that human activities or practices can be controlled through reward and discipline. As indicated by the idea human resource administration can inspire representatives by methods for insensitive or some other methods for fiscally hones.
In order to conduct a close comparison between the two theories of learning, it can be stated that cognitive theory of learning is way more effective than the theory of behaviorism (Tennant 2007). Even though behaviorism is the most common approach that most of the organization adopts, the cognitive theory is more effective since it does not forcefully implemented on the employees. The major disadvantageous factor of behaviorism theory is the punishment for which negative consequences may occur (Malloch et al.2010). Generally, it is seen that employees fail to accept the any action against them in terms of punishment even if that is very minor. Employees in such cases feel humiliated and often they leave. The experienced employees might not expect only monetary rewards (Leach, Wall and Jackson 2003). It is seen that experienced employees expect something else other than monetary reward, such as promotion, relaxations and other benefits. Even at an experimental stage, the employee’s retention can be a major challenge for an organization (Kennedy 2002). As compared to the behaviorism, the major beneficial factor of cognitive theory is that it helps the employees to improve their behavior without any external enforcement. The theory of cognitive learning alludes to the process of gaining knowledge and improving the capacity of understanding by using experience, thinking ability and senses since it can be said that a mental development of the employees is occurred during cognitive learning (Eraut 2000). In more simplified manner, the cognitive learning encourages employees to think critically by highlighting their skills or improvement. Negative approach like punishment is not taken thus employees as natural means become enthusiastic to improve their behavioral attributes (Clarke 2005). According to Rogers, and Horrocks, (2010), the cognitive theory includes different factors such as memorizing skill, thinking ability, problem solving ability and drawing perception from learned skills which further increases its credibility over behaviorism. Since it explains brain as the most extraordinary network through which information and interpretations are processed as one learn gain knowledge about new things, it can be said that cognitive theory is more effective than boorish.
Thus to conclude it will be right to state that the entire discussion sheds light on the theory of leering interrelating them with human resource management. The essay began by giving overview and outline of the discussion. Following that the essay begins the discussion by throwing light on cognitive theory of learning and its benefits in human resource development. While discussion the essay critically analyzed the cognitive theory while giving references of authors. Suitable scenario illustrating the implementation of cognitive theory in human resource development has also been given for better understanding. The two different categories of cognitive learning that are social cognitive learning and cognitive behavioral learning has been discussed also in a detailed manner. On the other hand, the other theory of learning has been discussed after the discussion of cognitive theory of learning. The other theory that has been discussed is the theory of behaviorism. With an overview of behaviorism has been discussed while shedding light on it in critical manner. Thus references were drawn while discussing behaviorism. The discussion highlighted that behaviorism is the classic approach of learning which has been used by most of the organization in order to improve the issue of organizational behavior. Hence the discussion elaborated on two major theories of learning, behaviorism and cognitive. While discussing the importance and advantages of these two theories of learning a close comparison has been conducted between as part of the whole course of discussion. The comparison brings that cognitive theory is learning is more effective to be included in the human resource development program. The paper throughout the discussion used relevant sources and presented the author’s opinion and made an attempt to critically analyze the two of the theories that are cognitive and behaviorism. However, to conclude it will apt to assert that the main focus of the human resource department should be making the employees feel valued so that they can enjoy working with ultimate efficiency irrespective of the theory based learning program.
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