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What are the issues related to traffic engineering issues in the UK?
What is the concept of connected and autonomous vehicles and its applications?
How to mitigate these traffic-engineering issues in the UK?


Transport has been a major factor in the growth and economic development of countries and cities. The quality of transport system attract different investments and desirability in the urban regions. The transport system of determines the productivity of the business organization in the market the traffic system if the country helps in maintaining congestions on roads (Menze and Geiger 2015). This report deals with a case study of traffic problems and its solutions by SIEMENS Company. This company have helped in maintaining and monitoring traffic problems in the UK. The challenges in assessing various methods for removing contemporary issues in the traffic of the UK have been depicted (Lu et al. 2017). The solution to these issues in the traffic might be mitigate by using connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). The use of this technology have been integrated in the new technology if the UK in the transport system (Fagnant and Kockelman 2015). These autonomous vehicles have many exciting benefits that are frontier in the vehicular development system.

This report have focused in identifying issues in the traffic in the UK. This research have helped in proposing solutions to these problems by including autonomous vehicles. These connected and autonomous vehicles have some limitations that has been discussed in the report. A critical analysis of the concept of autonomous vehicles and its impacts on the traffic engineering have been discussed in the study. The study have used secondary method of data collection. Different online journals, newspapers, articles, government reports and databases have been accessed for data collection process for the research. Data has been analyzed using thematic analysis related to the issues in the traffic engineering.

As commented by Gerla et al. (2014), transport-engineering problems have been continuously creating issues in the normal life of citizens in the UK. The challenges in the transport system of the country have been a major problem for organizing this research. The major cause of this problem has been increase in the population all over the world. According to survey, by 2030, about 61 percent of the global population will be living in cities. Therefore, the crowd in the cities is going to increase in upcoming years due to urbanization. The number of cars and other vehicles will be increased by a huge number. Therefore, there is a parking space problem in these cities.

As mentioned by Bonnefon, Shariff and Rahwan (2016), in the current scenario, The UK has been suffering with traffic problems due to increase in number of cars and bad management of traffic engineering. The road accidents in the cities have been increased due to this problem. The parking space problem has been a major problem faced by citizens of the country. The peak time of traffic has been in the daytime (Zhao et al. 2016). Traffic congestions occur during the office hours in both morning and evening. This have increased in the number if road accidents in the country.


There has been numerous cases in the city related to the parking space management. Therefore, different vehicles are parked in the roadside creating congestion in the traffic. As commented by Maddern et al. (2014), less space for parking, vehicles have been a major problem in the engineering practices of traffic. Less space have been left for parking vehicles during construction of buildings. Urbanization have created traffic road problem in the city. Maximum number of people are migrating towards cities in search of jobs and high studies. The conventional traffic control system have failed in monitoring traffic scenarios and providing updated information related to motorists (Kuderer, Gulati and Burgard 2015). The strategy used for maintaining the traffic system has not able to provide better services to the passengers and citizens of the country.

This research has helped in identifying issues in the traffic engineering systems in the UK. Various concepts of the connected and autonomous vehicles. These vehicles might help in mitigating these issues n the traffic engineering problems. The application of the connected and autonomous vehicles in the traffic system have been depicted in the research. This research throws light on providing a basic approach of advanced technology in the engineering practices in traffic system.

The main problem in this context has been issues in engineering practices in traffic system. The research have identified various problems in this context. Road accidents have been increasing in the regions due to increase in number of vehicles and bad traffic management. This research focuses on application of connected and autonomous vehicle in the traffic system.

The aim of the research is to identify contemporary traffic engineering issues and application of connected and autonomous vehicles and its issues in the UK.

Following are the objectives of the research:

  • To identify issues related to traffic engineering issues in the UK
  • To critically analyze the concept of connected and autonomous vehicles and its applications
  • To recommend strategies for mitigating these traffic engineering issues in the UK

This chapter deals with the basic concept of the research topic. The current scenario of the traffic problems have been reflected in the content. Aims, objectives and research questions have been initiated in this chapter.

As commented by Rojas-Rueda, Nieuwenhuijsen and Khreis (2017), autonomous vehicle technology simply brings a change in the transportation industry. These autonomous vehicles have been able to change the scenario of the transportation industry . Autonomous cars and vehicles are the self-driving vehicles that does not require driver for driving it. Autonomous vehicles uses modern advanced technology for driving on roads. As commented by Bonnefon, Shariff and Rahwan (2015), the use of autonomous vehicle has been increased by pubic in their daily life. There are various benefits of using autonomous vehicles as it minimizes pollution in air. The high impact of environmental benefits have helped in providing better consequences in the market. As suggested by Winter et al. (2017), application of autonomous cars have helped in minimizing the road accidents. There has been various changes in evolution of autonomous vehicles. Various companies have been trying their best for modifying these technologies in the market.

Road Accidents in the UK

As commented by Lu et al. (2017), autonomous vehicles have provided various benefits to customers and passengers. It have helped in reducing use of petrol, diesel and cost of travelling. Various benefits of the autonomous vehicle technology have been given below:

Improved Mobility

Autonomous vehicles help in providing independent mobility for non-drivers, which include individuals with disabilities and adolescents. Therefore, it provide benefits to travelers for removing the burden on their family members and create new opportunity with economic productivity. Many individuals, which are not able to drive, can drive cars and other vehicles. As argued by High, Atchley and O'brien (2017), autonomous vehicles might reduce the support for public transit services and reduce mobility of non-drivers. In case of cost control in driving, autonomous cars are difficult to stop due to absence of driver. However, these cars create anxiety and stresses among travelers due to uncertainty of reaching their destination. Subosits and Gerdes (2017) argued that, for minimizing cleaning and vandalism cases, interior of vehicle are made of stainless steel that reduces comfort of traveling in the car and reduce security by nit using security cameras in the vehicle. These cars also reduce the travel speed and reliability as dropping a passenger takes time to restart vehicle again.

As commented by Funke et al. (2017) autonomous vehicles require additional equipment for providing quality services to passengers. However, recent technologies might add up thousands of dollars in the initial cost of the vehicle in the market. As argued by Nair et al. (2017), failure in any of the system of the vehicle, cost huge money for repairing or modifying it. As this failures can be deadly, the use of various strategies for maintaining the vehicles are important and are costly. Therefore, tis can be done by maintaining good operational costs in the market. This can create several financial problems for customers in the market.

All Vehicles

Shared Vehicles (Autonomous)

Sensors (Infrared, Optical, Laser and Radar)

Frequent passenger area repairs and cleaning.

Automated controls (Braking, Signals, Steering)

Fleet and dispatching management.

Servers, software and power supplies

Business insurance and administration.

Wireless networks. Short-range systems applicable for vehicle-to-vehicle communication.

Business profits.

Navigation including GPS systems with quality maps.


Critical component maintenance and testing

Empty vehicle-miles travelled to pick up and drop off passengers.

Table 1: Autonomous Vehicle Equipment and Service Requirements

(Source: Prakken 2017)

As commented by Guvenc, Guvenc and Emirler (2017), the increase in the level of drivers in the autonomous drivers, the purchase price might get increase with additional annual cost and maintenance costs. Experience with last vehicle innovations, including automatic transmissions and airbags. However, this helps in indicating towards the future of the autonomous vehicles in the state. The price of the vehicles might be increased due to the use of the advanced technology in the cars and vehicles. However, quality of the vehicles will be increased in the future. This indicates that for the foreseeable future (next decade or two) autonomous vehicle (AV) costs will average (total annual costs divided by annual mileage) $0.80-$1.20 per vehicle-mile, which may eventually decline to $0.60-$1.00 per mile, somewhat higher than human-operated vehicle (HV) average costs of $0.40-$0.60.

Congested regions in the UK

In some researches, it has been found that shared electric autonomous vehicle might cost less than 10 ¢ per mile. These low estimates might ignore several costs including vehicle maintenance and cleaning, empty vehicle miles, insurance policy and business profits. However, automobiles currently have $3,600 in fixed expenses and $2,400 in variable expenses (Brown et al. 2017). It is driven about 12,000 annual miles, which averages about 50¢ per mile, of which about 20¢ per mile is operating expenses (automobile cost estimates published by the automobile associations are somewhat higher because they focus on newish vehicles with full insurance).

As commented by Peng et al. (2017), 90 percent of road crashes and accidents are caused due to human error. Therefore, autonomous vehicles might reduce these road accidents and insurance costs by 80-90%. Therefore, autonomous mobile help in maintaining the road safety for individuals on rod and while driving. As argued by Venugopal (2017), there are some limitations of the autonomous cars in this context. These autonomous vehicles are handled with various hardware and software. Therefore, there can be failure in the software and hardware components of the vehicle. This might create emergency for the vehicle without any software connection. Self-driving technologies, re connected with internet. Therefore, there can be malicious hacking for controlling the car and vehicle. This might create problems for the passengers inside the vehicle. However, beyond this several threats are mitigated by the autonomous vehicles. The use of autonomous vehicles helps in minimizing road accidents.

As commented by Fairfield, Herbach and Furman (2017), autonomous vehicle reduces external costs including energy consumption, traffic congestion, pollution emissions, parking facility costs and roadway. Autonomous vehicles require specified roadway for travelling that helps in minimizing the roadway charges. This roadway helps in increasing speed and acceleration of vehicles on road. As argued by Heard, Taiebat and Miller (2017), autonomous vehicles can create congestion and pollution. If they strictly follow traffic laws and maximize caution, such as speed limits and optimal spacing between vehicles, they will delay most other road users who tend to be less cautious. If programmed to stop and wait for human instructions when faced with unexpected conditions, they will frequently block traffic altogether.



Mobility for non-drivers. It helps in providing independence to mobility for non-drivers, and  reduce the requirement for motorists to non-drivers, and to subsidize public transit

Increases costs. It requires additional vehicle equipment and services, and roadway infrastructure

Reduced stress, and increased comfort and productivity. It helps in reducing stress of driving by allowing motorists to rest and work while traveling.

Additional risks. It may introduce new risks, including system failures, be less safe under certain conditions, increase crash severity due to platooning and higher speeds, and encourage road users to take additional risks (offsetting behavior).

Reduced driver costs. It helps in reducing costs of paid drivers for taxis and commercial transport.

Reduced security and privacy. It may be used for criminal and terrorist activities (such as bomb delivery), vulnerable to information abuse (hacking), and features such as GPS tracking and data sharing may raise privacy concerns.

Increased safety. It may reduce accident risks and help in crash costs and insurance premiums. It may also reduce high-risk driving during when impaired.

Induced vehicle travel and increased external costs. By increasing travel convenience, autonomous vehicles may induce additional vehicle travel and sprawled development.

Increased road capacity, reduced costs. It helps in allowing platooning (vehicle groups traveling close together), narrower lanes, and reduced intersection stops, reducing congestion and roadway costs.

Social equity concerns. May have unfair impacts, for example, by reducing the convenience and safety of other modes.

Increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollution. It helps in  increasing fuel efficiency and reduce pollution emissions

Reduced employment and business activity. Jobs for drivers should decline.

Reduced parking costs. Can drop off passengers and park away from destinations.

Reduced support for other solutions. Optimistic predictions of autonomous vehicle benefits may discourage communities from implementing more cost-effective transport solutions such as better walking and public transit improvements, and other demand management strategies

Supports vehicle sharing. Could facilitate car sharing and ridesharing, helping to reduce total vehicle ownership, leveraging reductions in total vehicle travel.

Table2: Autonomous Vehicle Potential benefits and Costs

(Source: Created by author)

As commented by Benderius, Berger and Lundgren (2017), autonomous vehicle have helped in minimizing the travel and extra costs. These vehicles have helped in increasing mobility by non-drivers including individuals with disabilities and adolescents. However, in the normal society maximum number of citizens are not able to drive a vehicle on their own. Therefore, they faces various difficulties in travelling to places to places. The use of the autonomous vehicles have helped in maintaining the driving in the people in the market. Therefore, autonomous vehicle have enhanced the traveling industry in the market. A commented by Martin et al. (2017), autonomous driving have also changed the perspective of the people regarding the dilemma of driving a car or other vehicle. It has increases convenience of driver by increasing productivity. The use of autonomous vehicle have helped in providing a smooth experience if driving.

Problem Statement

As argued by Novaes Júnior et al. (2017), autonomous vehicle have reduce vehicle ownership that tends to leveraging large vehicles travel reduction. This occur as personal vehicle costs are fixed that encourages vehicle owners for maximizing travel expectations. The use of shared autonomous vehicle help in reducing travel costs and traffic congestion. As commented by Huang et al. (2017), autonomous vehicles are fast in compare to normal vehicle and provide better opportunity for the passengers to reach at their destination. It provides reliability and safety to the passengers. Therefore, it enhances the quality of travelling of passengers during journey.

This chapter summarizes various concepts of autonomous vehicles in the market. The benefits of autonomous vehicles and its limitations have been discussed in this chapter. The impact of the application on travelling has been depicted in this chapter.

As specified by Flick (2015), research philosophy helps in giving the fundamental data and the measurements with respect to the subject considered in this research. Furthermore, the basic parts of the considerable number of points are examined in this area of the study. The research philosophy is additionally ordered into the philosophy and the epistemology. In addition, there are numerous philosophical parts of the research methods of insight which incorporate phenomenology and axiology. This study have selected positivism philosophy.

Silverman (2016) commented that the approach technique utilized as a part of study think about distinguishes the strategy connected for gathering and looking into utilized. There are two unique kinds of methodologies which are inductive and deductive one. In the event of the deductive approach of research, the past inquires about in view of this subject are broke down for tending to in flow consider. In the event of the inductive approach, new speculations are talked about and broke down for considering in an examination ponder.

As stated by Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015), the technique utilized for this research ponder has thought about the deductive approach. The past models and speculations have been considered in the research study which helps in giving a general perspective to the paper. This is the explanation behind the analyst to utilize the deductive approach and finish the investigation by utilizing different models and hypotheses.

The two types of data collection method are primary and secondary method. Primary method deals with the data collection from primary sources including online survey. In this study, data and information has been collected from the secondary sources including online journals, books, articles, reports and governmental databases.

Aims, Objectives, and Questions

As stated by Mackey and Gass (2015), the two types of data analysis are quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Quantitative data analysis method collects data from primary sources and conduct survey questionnaire to perform analysis. On the other hand, qualitative data analysis method deals with secondary data and perform analysis by creating themes related to the research topic. In this study, qualitative data analysis method has been taken for analyzing secondary data.

The research has been done with proper ethical consideration. Themes have been created related to the objectives of the study. Data and information related to the research has not been published anywhere and not shared with any third party. Under the Data Protection Act 1998, data has been kept secret and not shared with anyone. Collection of data and information has been ethically taken from online journal and government databases with proper permission. Online journals after year 2012 have been taken for data collection process.

Data and information related to the application of autonomous vehicles have been taken from secondary sources including online journals, books, articles and governmental databases and reports. Data and information are thematically analyzed in this chapter. Three themes are made related to application of autonomous vehicles.

Theme 1: Development and Deployment of Autonomous vehicles

Several vehicles in these days have low level of technologies including cruise control, automated parallel parking and hazard warning. Several companies are working on developing technology in the automobile industry to make autonomous cars and vehicles. Various companies have announced for testing driverless taxis n road that may help in changing the future of the automobile industry in the market. However, several attempts have been failed in this process. The use of autonomous vehicles have been extracted from the concept of driverless cars. However, robot can also be prepared for driving a car but it can be costly in order to make a robot. The use if the autonomous vehicle in order to mitigate the traffic congestion problem has been a great step in order to mitigating road accident issues. It can be used in all types of vehicles including cars, truck, train and airplanes.

The use of the autonomous vehicles have helped in providing reliable and scalable environment for travelling. These systems help in self-learn, and so could eventually recognize new costumes and behaviors, but these will require new software coding that may interact unpredictably with other driving instructions. This is not to suggest that autonomous driving is inherently harmful. It simply illustrates one of many problems they face: new risks leading to solutions that further increase system complexity and therefore potential failures. Autonomous vehicle technology has helped in minimizing various traffic issues in the UK; The use of the autonomous vehicle might mitigate the traffic congestion in the country. The use of connected and autonomous vehicles provides protection from accident risks and delays on road. Artificial indigence have find interest in the development of the autonomous vehicles in the country the use of the artificial  intelligence have helped in developing various sensors that helps in driving vehicle without a driver.


Theme 2: Different threats and Vulnerabilities to traffic engineering and autonomous vehicles

Major vulnerabilities in autonomous vehicles are sensors connected in the vehicles. These sensors help in smooth driving by sensing the road and protect from various road hazards. The use if the sensors have smart sensor architecture that helps in providing proper impact on behavior of the vehicle. However, Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) have been used in the autonomous vehicles in order to maintain the security of the data and information related to the passengers in the vehicles. The centralized infrastructure of smart sensor have helped in manipulating the data and information stored in the sensor. Various sensor attacks have been reported in recent years. These smart infrastructures are connected with the internet for accessing proper routes and information. Therefore, hackers are targeting these sensors in order to breach data and in for tion regarding the routing guide of the vehicle. Therefore, these vehicles do not reach to its original destination.

Cyber-attack has been prevailing in the autonomous vehicles and underlying various necessary support. Various motivation program have been conducted in order to educate regarding cyber-attacks in autonomous vehicles.

Theme 3: Risk management approach for autonomous vehicles

In recent years, there have been various changes in the automobile industry in the UK. Various modification in the structure in the vehicle have helped in providing a smooth ride to the passengers. The use of the autonomous vehicles have helped in maintaining new approach towards the development of the automobile industry in the UK. It then identifies countermeasures to ensure that the associated risks and their potential impacts following an attack are mitigated to an acceptable level. However, it has been suffering with different consequences including cyber-attacks and other failures. These risks have been identified in order to implement a risk management process in this project. Risk management in cyber security is an ongoing process that reduces risk by defining, analyzing and controlling threats to, and vulnerabilities of assets. The use of the risk management process in the autonomous vehicles have helped in minimizing road accidents in the UK. The detailed report based on risks analysis for examining risks of cyber-attacks in two autonomous vehicle applications proposed by Traffic Research Laboratory (TRL) has been

Risk analysis of two autonomous vehicle application by TRL

The risk identified in R2 is a shared risk that has relate a remote attack through vehicle’s remote diagnostic system. Various autonomous vehicle applications can bring new risks as shown in the above figure. The use of the autonomous vehicle can be both positive and negative effect in the society.

Concept of Autonomous Vehicles

This chapter consists of thematic analysis if the obtained data from online books, journals and governmental databases. Data and information have been properly analyzed in order to get a conclusion related to the application of connected and autonomous vehicles in the UK.


It can be concluded that issues are prevailing in the traffic engineering system and application of autonomous vehicles in the UK. The case study of Siemens Company identifying risks and solutions integrated in the traffic system has been depicted in the study. The use of autonomous vehicle have minimized pollution in the environment and reduced use of natural resources including petrol and diesel. Autonomous vehicles require an innovative approach toward cyber security issue prevailing in the technology.

The use of various sensors and advanced technology have been enhancing technology used in the automobile industry. The approach towards autonomous vehicle technology has been flexible in context of different solutions. Therefore, it provide benefits to travelers for removing the burden on their family members and create new opportunity with economic productivity. The cyber security risks have been described in the study that helps in maintaining a prior approach developing traffic systems of the country.

It is recommended that:

  • Use of advanced technology including cryptographic methods for securing data and information. The database of the vehicle need st be inside the vehicle that might help in protecting it from cyber-attacks.
  • The low-speed internal vehicle communication system needs ti be replaced by high-speed communication system that help in fast communication in the processor of the vehicle. Devices integrated in the fast communication needs to be covered with a firewall for restricting third party interference during communication process.
  • VANET needs to be properly designed in order to maintain a proper security layer over the jamming techniques. The use of VANET in the jamming process helps in securing data and information.


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