Global Media: Asia-Pacific Perspectives
In today’s era, the development of digital media systems has led to crucial changes in the communication patterns of the society. The reinvention of the media systems can be collectively termed as global media. Global media primarily refers to media networks whose nature is global/transnational mostly in regards to geographical needs. With the emergence of globalization, digital communication between different parties in the media market has flourished. Global media basically gives information about current affairs, personal feelings or weather reports. Global media can be in the form of newspapers, social media, radio, television or the internet.
The emergence of a global media system is considered a recent development which reflects the globalization of the market economy. Besides, global media not only plays a crucial part in the overall expansion of the global corporate system but also support the needs of the non-enterprises. The corporate expansion is majorly into new nations, market and regions. Also, global media news and entertainment play role in the provision of informational and ideological environment which assists in sustaining economic, political, and the moral basis for having both a profit-driven social order and marketing goods. In all this, it is clear that global media is a crucial component in global capitalism.
In China, global media was formed due to different reasons. To begin with, global media was to serve the role of educating and informing. For example, newspapers and books have been a suitable venue of spreading information since they are relatively cheaper and quicker to produce. Besides, more students in China have been able to learn different things from different regions gathered globally hence increasing knowledge and skills. Secondly, it would serve as a public forum for the discussion of significant issues. Since the economic reforms in the 1980’s, China has diversified its media. For example, China’s central television network, has been able to reach about a billion viewers in China hence promoting the reporting of important events and news both in China and around the world. Besides, the government’s dominance and control over the media has resulted to the development of new ways to target people.
Thirdly, global media was crucial for providing entertainment to the public. Over the years, the entertainment industry in China has grown tremendously. For example, China is regarded as the second largest film maker after the US. Besides, China has become a profitable film industry in the world since it has been thousands of thrilling and captivating films. However, the success of the entertainment industry has been as a result of global media such as the television and the internet. With the new technology in the entertainment industry, global media has been instrumental for ensuring objectives are met.
Lastly, it would help act as a watchdog for the government. The Chinese Communist party controls most of the news broadcasted therefore, the use of global media has been instrumental in ensuring criticism by the party is reduced. For example, the introduction of the people’s daily which is an English-language daily helped scrutinize what the government is doing hence being able to determine its transparency.
Advancement in technology has been one of key factors that has aided global media to thrive. Social media and cable networks have allowed information to be accessed more easily hence gaining more traction in China. Secondly, the high number of people in China has been a considerable factor that has allowed global media to thrive. This has allowed the diversification of media in China hence more people being reached easily. Lastly, both political and economic factors have a significant contribution to the influence of global media. For example, the trade markets have thrived as a result of global media.
China Central Television abbreviated as CCTV, is a dominant television broadcasting network based in China. CCTV was formerly known as Beijing Television having a portfolio of about fifty channels which broadcast different programs. Besides, CCTV has a large audience of about one billion viewers due to its large variety of programs such as news, entertainment, drama, documentaries and social education. The television network is available in different languages from Arabic, Korean, English, Mandarin, Spanish, Chinese, French, Russian and also other ethnic minority languages.
China Central Television both controls and engages the biggest viewership in China thereby driving popular consciousness of events, entertainment and news. The television broadcaster is a national monopoly since it has TV stations set up in city, county, provincial and national levels. Besides, the central government performs oversights over CCTV by proving guidelines and directives. Also, the CCTV has been granted exclusive coverage rights to both international and national events. The Communist Party of China also leaks sensitive and exclusive information to the China Central Television hence making it the best source for new information and insights.
CCTV is also under fierce competition from other television operators that are not subservient to the state. In addition, foreign channels such as the BBC, Al Jazeera, Fox News and CNN also are a threat to CCTV. However, the state uses CCTV as agent of control but this is changing over time. CCTV’s audience is now better educated and much aware of both the world outside china and their own world. They are no longer helpless since they have become critical masses. This means they are able to see corruption, class disparities, and the deteriorating environment and hold the government responsible. Since CCTV is highly regulated by the state, the TV broadcaster suffers from a reputation problem. This highly affects its presence in China since even its employees find news from foreign networks more reliable.
However, amongst the reputation problem, CCTV has been growing its audience over the years and this translates to the addition of revenue. Its different TV programs allow the company to acquire audience ratings since everyday the various programmes attract more than seventy-two million viewers. Most of the company’s revenue comes from advertisements and every year the amount goes higher. For example, in the year 2010, the Chinese New Year Gala advertisement generated a total of about seventy million euros.
In order to combat the competition, CCTV is on the forefront of reinventing its media content. For example, the CCTV has introduced new programs such as financial shows whereby both foreign politicians and wall street financiers are interviewed. This has improved the image of the company as well as pushing the broadcasting of major CCTV programmes abroad. The international audience covers not only overseas Chinese but other countries hence ensuring its voice is heard around the world. For example, Arabic speaking nations can watch CCTV basically in their language. The foreign audience adds more than six hundred million viewers to the network hence CCTV is able to broadcast a positive image of China.
CCTV however has some attributes that distinguishes it from both mainstream local media as well as global media outlets. To begin with, CCTV is controlled by the state. The communist party of China has significant influence on the media company therefore limiting its freedom in reporting news that paint a bad picture of the government. In addition, CCTV gets some privilege from the government since the media company gets exclusive information in events or issues that spark attention to the audience. On the other hand, other local media outlets including Phoenix television, Xinjiang Television, Hunan Television, Tianjin Television, and Shanghai Media group are not state controlled. This means they have some freedom to report on news touching on the government.
However, in China, there are no media laws and rights therefore, many media outlets do not have exclusive rights to report on information that might expose the government in a negative way. This is because the government might attack the media outlet and get away with it since the government has no opposition due to being a communist country. In comparison with other global media outlets such as CNN, BBC, and Aljazeera, these global outlets are not under any control by the state they operate from. For example, looking at CNN which is based in the United States, the level of freedom they have in their reporting is high since the US is not communist. They have their rights of reporting and this makes news much interesting.
Besides, since CCTV is state controlled, the media outlet receives negative comments from both the public and its own employees. Even though it has slightly above one billion viewers, their penetration is not quite deep since the public at times prefer foreign media companies. Due to this factor, the other global media outlets such as BBC and CNN are occupying a significant portion of the market and viewership in China.
On the second attribute, CCTV tries to report more on positive news since it avoids any negative information that points wrongly on the government such as official negligence on crucial matters. This is considered a typical Chinese style. On the other hand, other global media outlets such as BBC and CNN report more on balanced news. For example, on the reporting of the Tianjin explosion, CCTV focused more on the positive outcomes. This included the firefighters rescue, and how the government would help the victims of the disaster. On the other hand, BBC and CNN reported on the same issue with a comprehensive and wide range of content. Each media outlet has its own framework of reporting news but the frameworks affect the people perception. For example, since CNN magnifies the public’s dissatisfaction with the state, the people’s doubt on the government continues to grow hence affecting the penetration of the CCTV in China.
Lastly, CCTV broadcasts its news in different languages therefore being able to reach many people at once. On the other hand, the local media outlets focus on Chinese language since its more dominant in China. Global media outlets such as BBC, Aljazeera and CNN prefer English since its more superior although Chinese has a large number of speakers. CCTV has been able to attract viewers from different countries hence boosting its image and competitive advantage globally.
Since the late 1970’s China’s television sector has been transformed hence being able to bring forth globally diffused cultural forms in the media. CCTV was the primary television network that pioneered this development. Since then, CCTV has had a significant role and impact in China and globally. To begin with, since foreign media outlets such as BBC and CNN tend to portray a dissatisfaction with the China government, CCTV has able to launch a global platform that assists in rebranding China overseas. CCTV, by the help of the government of China, launched the China Global Television Network in 2016 to aid in spreading China’s story overseas. This new television network showcases China as a builder of world peace. The broadcaster has incorporated different languages including Spanish, Russian, French, Arabic and English and has production centers in both Washington, in the US and Nairobi, Kenya.
Through other media outlets owned by the state, China has been able to control what is reported therefore being able to achieve the core mission of the media outlets which is acting as the government’s mouthpiece. Besides in 2016, CCTV leased a huge display in New York’s Times Square in order to display videos basically on China’ position. In addition, the media outlet has been recognized as a global media outlet since it has employed a vast number of journalists around the world hence shrinking the western media presence in a majority of countries.
Secondly, CCTV has managed to influence the economic and political space of China. By conducting different interviews on issues concerning politics and economics, viewers have been able to understand how to deal with different issues. Besides, the government’s approval on advertisement as a source of revenue for the state-owned media outlets has allowed the companies grow. For example, CCTV has been able grow its both free to aired channels and paid channels hence growing its capacity to remain the undisputed media outlet in China despite the dissatisfaction posed by the citizens. Also, through the Communist Party of China, CCTV has influenced China with exclusive information since they get information that other media companies don’t have access to.
Thirdly, through CCTV, entertainment has grown which is a crucial element in China. For example, the various programs aired which include television shows and movies have made the entertainment sector to be considered luxurious. This has deeply influenced the young generation hence allowing the media outlet be considered a household name. Through these developments, viewers have doubled up since the standard news reporting procedures have been employed hence changing the traditional news broadcasting. CCTV has also been able to compete effectively with other foreign global media outlets such as CNN, Aljazeera and BBC among others.
Fourthly, through CCTV and other state-owned media outlets the government has changed how news coverage is done. Through the tight measures that the government has exhibited to media outlets that portray a wrong picture of the government, free reporting has been disallowed in China. This is because there is no media law or freedom of speech. According to Radio free China, more journalists fear carrying out their profession in a meaningful manner hence at times news coverage at times is not as equal to other global media outlets. The communist’s manner of ruling is highly affecting more media outlets in China therefore reducing effectiveness of news reporting. This has been an issue that many media outlets are fighting for since without freedom of speech and media law, journalism cannot be effective as possible.
In conclusion, global media is has resulted to growth in different spheres of life. Not forgetting culture, global media has allowed different cultures to be embraced and acknowledged hence bringing inclusion. For example, cultural contents of even the minority groups have been transmitted over the internet hence facilitating cultural associations and also diversity which helps in developing interesting cultural activities. In addition, global media has made the world seem like a global village since global news has been easily accessible. For example, different global media outlets including CCTV itself, CNN, BBC and Aljazeera have access to different continents hence allowing news from different continents including business news and politics to be easily available. The news has impacted on the economy of different countries since something like the forex is dependent on politics and other economic factors. Global media is still growing and in the coming years, new developments and advancement of news coverage are anticipated hence allowing the media industry to grow tremendously.
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