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Management And Motivation Add in library

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• Discuss this question: Can a manager instil motivation into employees or is motivation a process of drawing out something from employees? Discuss coaching?

• Provide a map of the various theories of work motivation and explain the map?

• Discuss John Holland theory of personality and job fit as an explanation of work motivation?

• Describe the difference between a content theory and a process theory of motivation?


Executive Summary

Motivation can be defined as a series of action performed by the managers, supervisors or coworkers within an organization so as to bring out the actual potential of the work force. Motivational activities have become very much relevant in almost all organization. It has become an essential factor so as to make the employees to reach their objectives (Nohria, Groysberg and Lee, 2008). Managers in an organization should understand the importance of motivation and its impact over the employees. Through motivation managers can put a hold or control over the behavior of the employees in a positive way. A manager can certainly instill the motivation into employees and can draw the desired output from them through various motivational techniques. Managers adopts various approaches of motivation like monetary, non monetary, rewarding system, recognition etc for motivating the employees (Cruz, Pérez & Cantero, 2009). There are various theories of motivation highlighted in the scientific and modern management theories. The managers can take these theories as their guidelines and can implement it on their employees based on the work place situation and the organizational policies. Each employee within an organization will be different and varied behaviors. The managers should have the ability to understand those behaviors and should adopt appropriate motivational approaches. The managers should identify appropriate strategies for implementing these strategies. This paper discuss about the management and motivational approaches (Kimball, & Nink, 2006). This paper highlights various motivational theories and its importance and relevance in the modern organization. Various motivational theories like content and process theories are explained and their differences are highlighted in this paper.



In the managing process employee motivation is considered as an important part. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization. It is only through motivation process, they contribute maximum for accomplishing goals. Motivation has a direct relationship with the performance of the employees.  If a manager could properly motivate employees by identifying their needs then they can create good achievements. There are various ways through which the management motivates their employees (Hafiza, Shah, Jamsheed & Zaman, 2011). The managers can motivate their employees both in formal and informal ways. In some organizations the managers will involve employees in decision making process, putting forward their opinions and ideas, assisting in formulating various strategies etc. These actions form the indirect form of motivating employees. Providing relevant training and development can build the confidence and the potential of the employees which can motivate them positively.  It will help the employees to put their maximum effort to increase their productivity. They also adopt various theories of motivation which supports their mode of motivation (Shanks, 2006).


Management and Motivation

Motivation in work place can generate desired output from the workers. Managers can efficiently instill motivation into employees through some efficient methods like coaching. Coaching is the training session conducted for the employees to develop their technical knowledge, interpersonal skills, personality etc. This session will provide them with confidence and will bring out their efficiency to perform a particular task in a better way. This can motivate the employees in a positive way. Coaching can be provided to employees on the job as well as off the job. A manager can select the method of coaching depending on the nature of work and the behavior of the employees (Ledgerwood & Petry, 2006).

While considering the theories of motivation there is three types of motivation which includes content theory of motivation, process theory and reinforcement theory of motivation. Content theory highlights which factors motivates the employees in a work place. Process theory highlights why an employee should be motivated and how they should be motivated. The reinforcement theory highlights how the outcome of a process influences the behavior of the employees (Dembo, & Seli, 2007).). Some theories which under pins these concepts are mentioned below


Content Theory

This theory is associated with identifying various factors which can motivate the employees. The theories which comes under this is

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

According to his theory of needs when the lower level needs of an employee is satisfied then his need for higher level raises. His hierarchical pyramid of needs includes physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self actualization needs. Once a manager is successful in fulfilling those needs he or she will be motivated (Gagné & Deci, 2005).

  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory

This theory explains existence, relatedness and growth needs of the employees. Existence explains the willingness of an employee for physiological well being. Relatedness is his desire to get satisfied in his interpersonal relationship. Growth explains career and personal growth and development (Griffin, & Moorhead, 2011).

  • Herzberg’s two factor Theory

According to this theory there are two factors which can motivate or de-motivate the workers in a work place. They are satisfiers or motivators and dis-satisfiers or hygiene factors respectively.

Motivators include achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. Hygiene factors include company policy, supervision, and good relationship with boss and peers, working condition and salary (Jones, & Lloyd, 2005).

  • McClelland’s three-need theory

This theory explains the need for achievement of personal goals, need for competence to deliver timely and quality work. It also explains the power of an employee to influence others and affiliation to relate people efficiently (Latham, & Pinder, 2005).

Process Theory

  • Adam’s equity Theory

Adam’s theory of job motivation explains that there are several variable factors which can influence the assessment and perception of the employees about their job and their employers. According to this theory a fair balance should be maintained between the employee input and the output. The employee input includes hard work, skill level, tolerance, enthusiasm etc and an employee's output includes salary, benefits, recognition etc (Falk, & Fischbacher, 2006).

  • Reinforcement Theory

According to this theory an individual’s behavior is considered as a function of its consequences. It explains that the positive consequences of a particular behavior will tend an employee to repeat it and negative consequences will tend an employee to not to repeat it. Here the manager can have a control over the employee behavior through the adopting the methods like positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, extinction etc (Yang, XU. WANG, & ZHAO, 2005).

  • Goal-Setting Theory

This theory explains that if a specific task or goal is allocated to the employee and if they are well aware of their objectives and responsibilities then they will be motivated to do work. The vagueness and uncertainty in the goal may affect their performance and hence gets de-motivated. Challenging goals with adequate support and feedback can make the employee to contribute higher performance (Locke, & Latham, 2006).

  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

According to this theory an employee is influenced by several factors when he is accomplishing several tasks. Those factors include probability of completing those tasks and the output of the task. The employee opinion can be influenced by the factors like expectancy, valence and instrumentality (Lunenburg, 2011).

When comparing the various theories of motivations which underpins content theory and process theory it can be concluded that the content theory explains various factors which motivates employees and process theory explains how and why an employee should be motivated.

John Holland theory of personality and job fit is another theory of motivating the employees at workplace. According to his theory of personality traits and job fit the personality of the employees can be categorized into six. All employees fall under any one of this category and chooses careers according to it. The managers can assess these personality traits through several career key tests and can select employees according to the organizational needs.

The personality traits explained by Holland are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. Realistic employees are so practical and have good working skills with tools. Investigative employees are more precise, scientific and intellectual. They possess good problem solving and decision making skills. Artistic employees are more creative and are more expressive and independent. Social employees are more helping minded and will love to work in a team. They are trust worthy and friendly. Enterprising employees are ambitious, energetic etc. They possess good leadership skills. Conventional employees are goal oriented. Managers can also use these personality traits to motivate them.



From this paper it is evident that the process of motivation can make the working atmosphere smooth and happier. Such atmosphere can increase the productivity of the organization. Proper definition and description of the concept of motivation is described in this paper. The importance of the managers to adhere with the concept of motivation is also described clearly. This paper has developed a map on the various motivational theories which has been proposed in the management papers. The concept and relevance of these theories are explained in this paper. Through this paper it has been concluded that managers can instill motivation into the employees. Managers can motivate employees through various approaches like coaching, training and development, role modeling, mentoring, monitoring etc. The approach of coaching is highlighted in this paper. Various theories like two factor theory, Maslow’s theory, ERG theory, vroom’s theory etc are explained in this paper. The difference between process theory and content theory is highlighted. The theory of John Holland which explains the personality traits and job fitness are explained here. The content theories and process theories of motivation are explained in this paper and their differences are highlighted.



Bassett-Jones, N., & Lloyd, G. C. (2005). Does Herzberg's motivation theory have staying power?. Journal of Management Development, 24(10), 929-943.

Dembo, M. H., & Seli, H. (2007), Motivation and learning strategies for college success: A self-management approach. Routledge.

Falk, A., & Fischbacher, U. (2006). A theory of reciprocity, Games and Economic Behavior, 54(2), 293-315.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation, Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362.

Griffin, R., & Moorhead, G. (2011). Organizational behavior. Cengage Learning.

Hafiza, N. S., Shah, S. S., Jamsheed, H., & Zaman, K. (2011). Relationship between rewards and employee‟ s Motivation in the non-profit organizations of Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal, 4(2), 327-334.

Kimball, L. S., & Nink, C. E. (2006). How to improve employee motivation, commitment, productivity, well-being and safety. Corrections Today, 68(3), 66.

Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Does contingency management affect motivation to change substance use?. Drug and alcohol dependence, 83(1), 65-72.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Expectancy theory of motivation: motivating by altering expectations. International Journal of management, business, and administration, 15(1), 1-6.

Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 56, 485-516.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory, Current directions in psychological science, 15(5), 265-268

Martín Cruz, N., Martín Pérez, V., & Trevilla Cantero, C. (2009), The influence of employee motivation on knowledge transfer, Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(6), 478-490

Nohria, N., Groysberg, B and Lee, L. (2008), Employee motivation: A powerful new model. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 78.

Shanks, N. H. (2006). Management and motivation. Introduction to Health Care Management, 23


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