Describe about the Management and Organization Behavior for Departmental Store.
Purpose of report:
Management has been often perceived in varying contexts as people or process. As people, management refers to the senior authority assigned for the monitoring and supervision of the organization’s activities. From the perspective of a process, management can be widely perceived as the effective utilization of resources in order to attain predefined objectives of an organization (DuBrin, 2013). The report provided below is largely concerned with the managerial aspects of an organization and attempts to emphasize on the four profound managerial functions which are required for the sustainable operations of an enterprise. The issues addressed in the report include references to the disparities among theoretical and actual practices in management (Giacalone & Rosenfeld, 2013).
The organization which was selected for the report is Myer Holdings Ltd which is a leading departmental store in Australia. The number of stores operated by the company is 65 and the stores are concerned with provision of 11 different categories of products which include apparel for both genders, electrical appliances, beauty accessories, cosmetics and various merchandize. Myer also shows innovative strength in terms of in house stores of Vodafone and Espresso coffee (Greenberg & Colquitt, 2013). The store serves products from almost 2400 brands and is accountable for supplies from 800 international suppliers. The organization’s profound feature is its association with almost 3 million customers through its trust and loyalty program. With a formidable product range and visible market presence, Myer holds a promising opportunity for realizing the capabilities of management practices to enable sustainable growth for it in the future (Goetsch & Davis, 2014).
The interview questions were prepared with consideration for the privileges of each manager selected for the interview. The interview process was conducted on five managerial personnel of Myer Holdings Ltd. the managers were selected from distinct domains of the organization such as sales manager, security manager, data manager, operations manager and marketing manager. The role of each respondent can be apprehended from the description of their jobs. These individuals were selected primarily because of their managerial role in the organization and the significance of the departments they lead in realizing the business objectives of Myer (Griffin, 2013). The participants were contacted directly in their offices through prior appointments and were informed of the nature and objectives of the interview in order to gain their participation. The interview questions were open ended and were largely related to the conjunction of their professional and personal lives. Major emphasis on management of the balance between personal and professional lives of managers enabled the respondents to become familiar with the interview process (Lewin, 2014).
The interview questions have to be analyzed with references to the various theoretical descriptions provided regarding the role of a manager in an organization. The report provided below has been structured according to the four distinct functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Each of the sections of the report would be dedicated to each of the above mentioned functions (Levine, Thompson & Messick, 2013). The sections would provide an insight into the theory associated with each function and the observations from the interview which are indicative of realization of the specific function. The conclusion of each section is related to the critical review of the processes implemented by the managers as perceived from the interview which would help in deriving suitable recommendations for improving the managerial strategy at Myer Holdings Ltd (Locke, 2015).
Planning is concerned with the design of a feasible course of action for a company. The finalization of a precise plan for strategy implementation is accountable for the precise allocation of resources and utilization of organizational capabilities in the appropriate context. The planning process for an organization is primarily associated with goal setting and is considered as the profound source for deriving the vision for an organization. The creation of objectives or goals is responsible for providing a common apprehension related to the procedures needed for accomplishing goals (Lent & Brown, 2013). Therefore a proficient manager is characterized by fluent planning capabilities and theory associated with managerial practices suggests that managers must adopt distinct approaches for planning. Business planning and strategic planning could be executed in unison or individually depending on the expectations and investments of the managers. Efficient business planning enables a manager to predict the issues for degradation of performance, comprehensive analysis of market and industry in which the organization operates, calculated objective formulation and provision of opportunities for sustaining the organization’s growth in future (Miner, 2015). The objectives set by a manager must be capable of adapting to performance measurement systems adopted by the company. This would enable the manager to monitor the performance of employees according to the predefined implications in the business plan.
A business plan is primarily composed of business and product description, market analysis, implementation strategy, management guidelines and financial plan. The business description indicates the details of the business in terms of its origin and the legal obligations as well as organizational structure. Product descriptions refer to the illustration of products and services facilitated to customers and the benefits of the product to customers as well as its distinction from the products of competitors. Market analysis provided in a business plan must be directed towards the description of market size, customers, competitors and the future scope in the market (Morgeson et al., 2013). The implementation strategy is concerned with the methodologies which must be adopted to realize the objectives of the plan. Assignment of responsibilities to teams and management as well as key authorities is also a profound inclusion in the planning activities of a manager. Financial planning on behalf of a manager is expected to be realized in the form of break-even analysis, balance sheet, budgeting, costing, cash flow analysis and other tools for financial predictions. Managers are also required to conduct strategic planning which is an essential derivative of the planning process. Strategic planning is chiefly intended for the estimation of external and internal factors which could be impactful on the activities of the organization (Mathieu et al., 2016). The commonly used models for strategic planning include SWOT analysis, Porter’s five forces model and PESTEL analysis. These tools enable the acquisition of information on the favorable as well as detrimental aspects of the organization and thereby suggest favorable improvements in the subsequent stages of the management functions such as organizing, leading and controlling.
The interview responses from the different managers indicated a common approach towards planning. However disparities in certain sectors such as components of business plan or strategic plans were not addressed by certain managers such as the security manager and the operations manager. The pre-planned activities of Myer enable limited scope for innovation on behalf of managers in the planning phase. The management of Myer is completely involved in the planning process prior to the design and launch of new products (McShane & Von, 2015). The interview responses suggested that business planning was divided into different management levels such as top level, mid-level and departmental managerial levels. Strategic planning is conducted by the senior management while the task of operational and tactical planning is assigned to departmental and mid-level managers.
The reflection on such practice in Myer Holdings Ltd. in terms of planning function of managers would indicate that the organization should emphasize on creativity to obtain promising results from the potential of managers. The analysis of responses indicates the attitudes of the managers towards the varying distribution of authority which limits their involvement in the process of decision making in the planning process (Mihalache, et al., 2014). The organization must adopt the ideal practice of implementing a collectivist framework and include all managerial personnel in the planning process to obtain a diverse impression of the performance of different sectors of the organization as well as include remedial measures.
Managers in an organization are not completely able to realize all the planned activities. The key reason for this could be perceived as the lack of organization. Organization of tasks indicates that the managers have to assign the planned tasks to various individuals in the organization. The process of organizing is also concerned with the activities of direction and coordination. This would enable employees to realize the precise expectations of the organization from them in context of the defined objectives (Nahavandi et al., 2013). The allocation of resources is also improvised with the application of organizing functions by managers. The manager is responsible for communicating the levels of authority, organization of the available workforce and distribution of resources to employees of the organization. The foremost activity of a manager is to prepare an organizational chart which indicates the organizational structure for clarification on the classification of management as well as classification of individual responsibilities within an organization (Pinder, 2014). The organization structure signifies the association which exists between different departments of the company and their individual as well as common functions. The arrangement of the organizational structure according to a hierarchy is indicative of the classified distribution of authoritative levels in an organization and individuals who rank higher in a hierarchy usually enjoy added power and responsibility at the same time. The organizing functions of a manager are initiated with references to the delegation of activities and tasks to employees (Robbins & Judge, 2012). The managers must take a note of the existing activities as well as new strategic modification which employees must incorporate in their tasks. The delegation of activities and tasks has to be primarily based on the skills and capabilities of the employees in each department. Departmental organization of activities as planned in the strategy would account for unification of similar groups and increasing the scope for division of labor. Departmental organization also accounts for limitations on the magnitude of tasks and hence employees could achieve the desired objectives with ease. The next step in organizing refers to the categorization of authority which is also inclusive of the implications for division of responsibility and reporting (Stadtler, 2015). Finally, the managers have to communicate the necessity of maintaining a fine balance between responsibility and authority which would mean that managers of respective departments would not misuse their privileges.
The organizing aspect of managerial functions has been observed as one of the profound elements of management practice implemented in Myer Holdings Ltd. the responses from the interview of managers suggested that organizing function of managers in the organization was chiefly concerned with management of human resources, financial resources and raw materials (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2014). The communication of managers in the form of interactive meetings enables employees to acquire a lucid impression of their duties which is responsible for the feasible execution of strategic plans of the organization (Shortell & Kaluzny, 2013).
The reflection on organizing function of managers with respect to Myer Holdings Ltd. and the inferences observed in theory suggest that the organization must assume a sophisticated communication channel for interlinking the various departments of the organization which in turn would result in effective organization of activities and realization of managerial performance (Shortell & Kaluzny, 2013). Streamlining the activities of the different managers into distinct categories and departments could also be considered as plausible alternatives by managers to enhance managerial capabilities.
The third function of a manager is to serve as an ideal example for employees to follow suit. On a practical basis, managers are required to direct the activities of staff in the right direction. The leading process enables the employees of an organization to accomplish the individual as well as professional objectives through motivation, department leadership and communication. The managers are able to command the activities of employees and leading functions are aptly realized in the commanding nature of leaders (McShane & Von, 2015). Managers must be capable of providing order and directing employees and should move above the mere level of informing employees about the requirements from a particular task and indulge in guiding and supervising the staff (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Furthermore managers are also concerned with the supervision of compliance of employees to deadlines and targets. Managers must be able to provide illustrated guidelines in order to ensure that their subordinates complete their tasks according to requirements. Theoretical implications of leading function of management re associated with directives of pervasive function, delegate function, human factor, creative activity and continuous activity.
In the case of Myer Holding Ltd. the leadership style followed by managers has proved to be a crucial influence on the motivation of the large workforce of the organization. Leadership has enabled the company to achieve the tag of Australia’s leading departmental store chain. The managers of the organization rely on a democratic and participative style of leadership which enables leaders to involve all employees of the organization in decision making processes as well as resolving existing issues in the organization (Nahavandi et al., 2013). The characteristic observation which can be derived from the interview responses indicates that managers at Myer adopt situational leadership styles which can respond to dynamic changes in the business environment. The prominence of contingency theory is also a notable feature in the leadership aspect of managerial function.
The critical reflection of the leading functions provided by managers at Myer Holdings Ltd provides an insight into the reliable methods which can be adopted for improving talent retention. Though the participative style of leadership is favored by majority of employees, the setbacks in terms of financial remunerations often get unnoticed. Therefore, top level managers must be responsive towards the financial as well as non-financial sources of motivation for improving and retaining talent.
Controlling or evaluation is considered as an imperative inclusion in the functions of a manager. The process is associated with frequent evaluation of the efficacy of operations and implementation of remedial measures in case of discrepancies. Managers can realize the efforts to measure and evaluate the activities of various individuals which are indicative of the proper compliance of the individuals with the assigned responsibilities. Establishment of disciplinary controls could not be assumed as the final solution to controlling initiatives as the reason for inferior performance could be attributed to certain traits of workers and managers have to find the reasons and address them individually (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Controlling has been defined in literature as a systematic process or exercise schedule which is capable of comparing the actual performance of the workforce with reference to the standards or plans mentioned in the strategy. The two foremost purposes served by controlling function include planning and coordination of activities in an organization. The characteristics of effective controlling functions are also reflective of the necessary measures which must be adopted by managers to respond to the dynamic environment observed in contemporary business scenarios (McShane & Von, 2015). Controlling is perceived as an end function and is directed towards a farsighted vision for an organization (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Controlling enables performance to be aligned with the plans of the organization, different levels and multiple issues of the organization, review of process implementations and a flexible opportunity for realizing the potential of realizing higher revenues from the existing resources and capabilities of the organization. The interdependency of planning and control functions of a manager is also considered as a prominent highlight of management and organization behavior practices.
Myer Holdings Ltd. entrusts its success in a formidable controlling mechanism complemented with the proficiency of managers of the organization. The interview session revealed ample inferences in terms of the description of the controlling techniques adopted by managers. The performance systems are meant for realizing the control functions of a manager as they offer a comparative representation of the performance of the organization with respect to standardized performance. The establishment of a benchmark for employees has enables the leaders of Myer to motivate employees and drive them towards accomplishment of goals specified in the strategic plans (Shortell & Kaluzny, 2013). The top management is the chief supervisor of the controlling activities of managers and the establishment of control standards for optimizing the performance of employees.
Critical review of the interview responses indicates that the distribution of control functions must be extended to lower echelons of management. The managerial personnel situated at the lower levels of organizational hierarchy must be provided with substantial opportunities to increase the scope of control and ensure that all activities are executed in the desired manner (Robbins & Judge, 2012). Managers have to consider the aspects of leniency while considering control standards for the organization as excruciating controls can also lead to degradation of employee performance.
The report summed up the four managerial functions from classical perspective of management with respect to the selected case study of Myer Holdings Ltd. The report was executed with a distinct purpose of identifying the issues faced by managers while implementing the functions of management in real time situations. Each function was represented distinctively with individual references to implications of the function in context of theory, practice and the supposed recommendation for ideal practice for managers in an organization. The report found that the managers at Myer Holdings Ltd must try to move beyond the conventional aspects associated with the four functions of managers such as opting for talent retention measures, effective involvement of all layers of management and constructive leveraging of resources according to the planned strategies.
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