The Brodie’s body size and shape are unhealthy according to his health status. It is not normal for a 55-year-old male to weigh 95 kg, waist circumference of 100 cm and being 185cm at the same time. The abnormal body size and shape of Brodie is due to his health complications of which he has been diagnosed with a cold disease which is also known as mild upper respiratory infection. The ideal body size and shape for Brodie is supposed to rate at a waist girth of 25cm lower than his hips. The waist girth for a normal health person should be equivalent to his or her height minus 100 in centimeters. So, if the height of brodie was 185 cm tall the waist was supposed to be 185 minus 100 which would be equal to 85 cm. The 95 kilograms of Brodie at 55 years can be termed as overweight while the 100 cm of waist circumference according to his height can be considered as less like signs of obesity (Boron and Boulpaep, 2012). Brodie had high blood cholesterol and his blood pressure was 150/95mmHg. All the Brodie’s problems were due to lifestyles such as eating habits. Brodie requires to engage in activities like regular body exercises so as to get health approach to reduce weight gain and also decrease the obesity prevalence. High intake of fiber in the diet and reduction of energetic foods can help to protect against obesity and weight gain. To decrease the risk of obesity and overweight and to retain the normal body shape and size can be also be achieved through low intake of glycemic index meals. The unhealth body size and shape changes is mostly brought by nutrition transition due to lifestyle changes (Grogan, 2016).
The roles of muscular system in the body is to maintain the body posture, circulatory system control and locomotion. During aerobic cell respiration a combination of Krebs cycle and glycolysis are the efficient but a slower of generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the human body. Anaerobic respiration involves glycolysis only which is inefficient but it is a quick way of producing ATP where pyruvate is converted to lactose. Glycolysis involves the breakdown of carbohydrate component like glucose by enzymes resulting to the production of pyruvate and ATP. In Krebs there are sequence of reactions that converts the produced pyruvate into water, carbon dioxide and further resulting to generation of ATP. The skeletal muscle fibers are subdivided further into fast and slow- twitch and subtypes, these types depend on the metabolism involved and the corresponding action (Kuznetsov et al, 2008).
The slow – twitch fibers are used during the endurance activities that need repeated and long- term contractions such as running long distances or when maintaining a posture. The slow- twitch contractions mostly depends on aerobic respiration where 30 ATP molecules are generated from each molecule of glucose in the oxygen presence. The contractions are thus slower than in anaerobic respiration and therefore not suitable for rapid movements but, it is efficient because one does not get tired quickly. As aerobic respiration requires large amount of oxygen the slow- twitch fibers are accompanied with several blood vessels, myoglobin concentrations and mitochondria. The slow- twitch plays a key role when a person is standing (Handler and Coghlan, 2008).
The fast- twitch are commonly useful for quick movements like sprinting and jumping which requires short durations of fast muscle contractions. Contrary to the slow- twitch fibers, the fast- twitch fibers depend on glycolysis alone (anaerobic respiration) where two molecules of ATP are produced per one molecule of glucose. It is not efficient like aerobic respiration but it is appropriate for quick burst movements because it does not depend on oxygen (Gibala and McGee, 2008). The lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, decreases the PH by accumulation in the tissue which makes it more acidic and produces a stingy feeling in the muscle while a person is exercising. The accumulation of lactic acid (lactate) in the muscle tissue limits further anaerobic respiration and this counter intuitive feedback is a feedback process that protect the muscle from damage and over-exertion. Fast- twitch fibers do not require oxygen and contains fewer mitochondria, myoglobin and blood vessels than slow- twitch fibers. Though the fast -twitch fibers that uses anaerobic respiration is useful mostly while performing repeated exercising alterations of the composition and a number of respirations is necessary to improve individual’s activity to perform functions that are related to circulatory and respiratory systems improvements (Johanson et al, 2008).
The circulatory system is planned in a way to ensure all body cells survives at any moment and this is enabled through maintenance of the instantaneous chemical environment of all the cells in the body. The respiration system is responsible for carrying oxygen to and removes the carbon dioxide from the body cells through the blood. A lot of activities do occur in the body even when one is at rest. The body cells require a lot of energy so as to perform several body activities like creation of new cells, sending messages and transporting nutrients (Patel and Wang, 2010). The cells need oxygen to enable them release energy stored in the food molecules such as glucose. The cellular respiration path is responsible for the intake of oxygen by cells to breakdown the food molecules to release energy. The respiratory systems work together to supply oxygen to the body cells. The cellular respiratory system takes up oxygen and brings its to the lungs as a person breathes. After the digestive system broke down the food into smaller molecules, now the circulatory system enters which transports the glucose and other nutrients from digestive system into the body cells. In the same way the circulatory system transports oxygen into the cells from the lungs. Now the body cells get what they need for the cellular respiration. The team of the body system continues to work cooperatively to also remove carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs in the respiratory system (Sherwood, L., 2015). Through gaseous exchange that occur in the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the body cells as the person breaths out. The red blood cells are the ones that carries oxygen and carbon in and out of the blood. After inhaling the oxygen diffuses via the walls of the alveoli and through the blood capillary walls into the red blood cells. In the circulatory system the blood is pumped by the heart and it travels from and to the cells in the blood vessels (Cooper, 2012).
Sodium, potassium and calcium are some of the electrolyte ions that help in excitability of the nerve, permeability of the membrane, body fluids buffering endocrine secretion and in control of the of body fluids in between compartments. 90% of the calcium that enters the body is integrated into the teeth and bones. Bones serves as the mineral reserve for calcium and phosphate ions. Around 2 pounds of calcium ions that enters the body are bounded to the bones providing the hardness and the rest of its salt are incorporated into the tissues. Calcium assist in stabilizing the cell membranes and it is crucial for release of hormones from the endocrine glands and neurotransmitters (Rubin, R., 2013). Low calcium in the blood levels also called hypocalcemia which occurs in hypoparathyroidism which can result to the removal of thyroid gland as there are four knobs of parathyroid gland are entrenched in it. Abnormal high level of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) occurs in principal hyperparathyroidism. Malignancies can consequence in hypercalcemia (McKeever, 2008).
Sodium is a very important cation in the extracellular body fluid. The osmotic pressure that occur between the surrounding environment and the interior of the cells is regulated by sodium. Sodium is a major factor of high blood pressure in some persons. The hyponatremia, a condition where sodium concertation is lower than normal is associated by accumulation of excess water in the body that dilutes the sodium in the body. The excess water results to swelling of the cells, reduced oxygen carrying capacity, distension of red blood cells and this makes the cells too large to fit through the capillaries. Furthermore, it results to bulging of the neurons in the brain and this can damage the brain and even lead to death. The abnormal rise of sodium in the blood (hypernatremia) that may results due to loss of water from the blood may lead in hemoconcentration of all the blood constituents. The hormonal imbalance which involves aldosterone and ADH could result to higher sodium values than normal (Adrogué and Madias, 2014).
Potassium is the main intracellular known cation. Potassium has petite effect on the osmotic pressure. It helps in establishment of the resting membrane in the muscle fibers and neurons post the membrane action potential and depolarization. An abnormal low quantity of potassium in the blood level (hypokalemia) that occurs due to either an absolute or relative decrease of potassium in the body because of re-distribution of ions of potassium. The insulin dependent diabetes patients experience a comparative reduction of potassium ions in the body due to potassium re-distribution. After insulin is administered and glucose consumed by cells, potassium ions passes via the cell membrane together with glucose, reducing the amount of potassium in the intracellular fluid and blood which may result to hyperpolarization in the neuron cells and thus lowering their comeback to stimuli. Hyperkalemia is a condition of risen potassium level in the body which can impair the functioning of the nervous system, skeletal muscles and the heart. Hyperkalemia results due to increased intake of potassium in the diet. It can result to failure of the cells to polarize and this effect the nervous system making the person to exhibit numbness, mental confusion and weak respiratory muscles (Pohl, Wheeler and Murray, 2013).
Understanding the impacts of exercise in the cardiovascular system can motivate someone to engage in regular daily exercises. Oxygen is extracted in the capillaries at the site of the cell and exchanged for carbon dioxide as an end product of cellular breakdown. The veins transport the carbon dioxide to the lungs for expiration and it is replaced with fresh oxygen through a process so-called venous return. During exercise, the pumping of the muscles leads to venous return through forcing the blood through one- way valves the central to the heart. The mean arterial blood pressure of Brodie is going to be influenced by venous return through increasing of end diastolic volume, total blood volume and thus increased the contractile strength and size of the heart’s muscles by engaging in his regular exercise. Regular exercises also increase the number of blood capillaries at the muscles where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged, decreasing the peripheral distance (O'Brien et al, 2014).
The Brodie’s respiratory infection will influence his oxygenation for it involves the body organs and parts that are associated with respiratory which works together with circulatory system. The respiration track infection caused by virus affects the upper airway components. Sometimes it becomes severe may results to significant dehydration and confusion, poor oxygenation due to difficulties of respiratory and lethargy. The infection may worsen to shortness of breath in heart and chronic lung disease for it lead to obstruction of pulmonary vessel or congestive heart failure (Chen et al, 2011). The low level of oxygen due to the respiratory infection may cause air hunger and breathlessness. Insufficient oxygen in the blood causes a bluish color on the fingernails, skin and on lips. Respiratory infection may make someone to lose consciousness or sometimes become sleepy and also may develop arrhythmias (Elgert, 2009). Over- the – counter (OTC) medicines cannot prevent cold for it has no specific medicine for cold unless under recommendation of the doctor. The body respond accordingly when a person is infected with cold and thus one is supposed to adhere to what his or her body is telling to do. The most important factor of the body for surviving and battling in the cold is its ability to adjust its internal temperature at about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. In order for the body to adjust to cold it decreases its muscle contractions and transfer the quantity of carbohydrate used. As the temperature becomes more colder the nervous system decelerates a little and impulses that controls muscle movement slows also. The body uses much of the carbohydrate to generate lactic acid which in combination with slower nervous system forces the body to function slowly so as to retain heat. Cold causes the blood vessels to tighten and this increases resistance of the blood flow, firstly the blood reduces to the skin and its peripheries including feet, hands and fingers. The body responds to cold through shivering as a venture of temperature back up by allowing muscles to shake within the body and this generate heat (McFerran et al, 2009).
If Brodie developed severe coronary artery disease, it could lead to narrowing and hence blockage of the arteries causing his heart receive low levels of blood and oxygen. The reduction of the blood and oxygen flow would result Brodie’s chest pain, breathlessness and several symptoms. A fully blockage of the artery results to heart attack due to anaerobic respiration that would lead to accumulation of lactic acid to the muscle tissue. If the blood vessel that connects to the brain gets blocked due to blood clot Brodie can develop an ischemic stroke. Coronary artery disease would affect the functioning of Brodie’s heart muscle cell because, the physical plaques due to atherosclerosis restrict the blood flow into the heart muscle cell through physical clogging that cause abnormal artery functioning. The limited blood flow to the heart muscle leads to heart starvation of oxygen and other vital nutrients it requires to work properly and aerobically (Wang, Liu and Liao, 2008).
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