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Management: Emotional Intelligence

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Describe about emotional intelligence?




Emotional Intelligence (EI) plays an important role in a person’s working lives. It measures the behavior and the intelligence level of a person. EI sees the association and dominance of the person in their work field. This makes impact on the person’s personal lives also. People who use their knowledge and feelings effectively have some positive outcomes over those who cannot (Fiori & Antonakis, 2012).  This particular report aims to evaluate the concept of EI in line with various theoretical approaches as well as models.

The Concept of Emotional Intelligence

Till the earliest 20th century, Emotional Intelligence has been neglected as a part of our human nature and it got recognized recently but till now it is not scientifically examined. EI was launched in the year 1990 with two scientific journals by Peter Salovey and Daniel Goleman. Numerous assessments have been done with the latest psychometric tests on EI. With the help of EI the emotional report of a human can be measured (Schutte & Malouff, 2012). Now a day’s EI is calculated in every organization so that they can easily access the intelligence of their employees which will help for their organization (Ojedokun, 2010).


The Trait Approach to Emotional Intelligence

In EI two self report models with excessive public clarity has been recommended by Bar-On and Goleman correspondingly. Both the models firstly defines EI regarding the behavioral outcomes where the given links are not mentioned and this appears as a visionary error for the theory called “emotional intelligence” which mainly be defined with the reference of both cognitive and emotional abilities (Lomas, Downey & Stough, 2014). According to Bar-On, EI is an assemble of competencies, skills and capabilities which influences a person’s ability in succeeding and coping up with the pressures and demand of the environment. But for Goleman, EI mainly links with the competencies which are associated with social awareness, self-awareness, relationship management and self monitoring (Ramachandran, Jordan, Troth & Lawrence, 2011). According to other researchers EI is an under-investigated element of writ large, character, and developing the model which is categorically tagged as “trait EI”. These models are used in many operational works and have generated numerous self assessment reports of individual’s framework (Titrek, Polatcan, Zafer Gunes & Sezen, 2014). Many scientific studies has few characteristics which generally these type of assessments share. The characteristics are-

1. Nearly complete overlapping with personality- The limit till which the self report computes and correlates with the personality and mainly the Big Five Factor personality test is at the higher level.

2. Nearly total separation from intelligence- In this report it is seen that the EI report almost zero and sometimes it is in the negative quadrant also which shows that calculation of intelligence.

3. Measurement of emotional measures with inconsistent and poor correlation- The report shows that EI had established and met the emotional event with a restricted success but the output are sometimes proving to be conflicting.

4. Problems of insight, faking and the like- The method of self report is unlocked and this leads in suspecting to various distortions. Mainly competencies and skills are measured in these type of questionnaires.

Figure 1- Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Model

(Lomas, Downey & Stough, 2014)

The Four-Branch Hierarchical Model and the Ability Approach in Emotional Intelligence

These conceptual models are commonly acquired for EI. In the Four-Branch Model the four divisions are- a. Emotion Facilitation b. Emotional Perception c. Emotional Management and d. Emotional

Figure 2- Four Branch Hierarchical Model

(Lomas, Downey & Stough, 2014)

People with high emotional intelligence are far better than those whose emotional intelligence is low. In Four Branch Hierarchical Model there are mainly three types of tests.

1. Rating scales is the self report of the person’s emotional facilitation, management, perception and understanding. These scales access the EI trait of the person’s personality not the intelligence.

2. In this omnibus calculation batteries there contains the subsets of the four branches which gives the measurement value of the maximum performance. This is the common way of calculating the assessment.

3. Assessments that measures one or more than one among the four sub-parts. Therefore the third test can be thought as an optional approach in measuring those assessments (Kaur, Sambasivan & Kumar, 2013).


In a nutshell it can be said that the EI which was not at all regarded as one of the components in our human nature is now playing an important role in human lives (Schutte & Malouff, 2012). The Trait theory of intelligence model, four branches Model and the Ability Approach Model helps is calculating and accessing the human personality and intelligence. Bar-On and Goleman has given their important views on the trait theories of EI and also told how to calculate the emotional intelligence. Mainly EI is calculated to see the IQ of the employees so that the organization can understand that the employee is an asset for their organization or not (Flouri, Mavroveli & Panourgia, 2012).



Fiori, M., & Antonakis, J. (2012). Selective attention to emotional stimuli: What IQ and openness do, and emotional intelligence does not. Intelligence, 40(3), 245-254. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2012.02.004

Flouri, E., Mavroveli, S., & Panourgia, C. (2012). The role of general cognitive ability in moderating the relation of adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems. British Journal Of Psychology, 104(1), 130-139. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02106.x

Kaur, D., Sambasivan, M., & Kumar, N. (2013). Effect of spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, psychological ownership and burnout on caring behaviour of nurses: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Nurs, 22(21-22), 3192-3202. doi:10.1111/jocn.12386

Lomas, J., Downey, L., & Stough, C. (2014). Victim and bully behaviour: Examining the role of emotional intelligence. Personality And Individual Differences, 60, S21. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.398

Ojedokun, O. (2010). Effort-reward imbalance and attitude towards unethical work behaviour among police personnel: emotional intelligence as a moderator. IFE Psychologia, 18(1). doi:10.4314/ifep.v18i1.51658

Ramachandran, Y., Jordan, P., Troth, A., & Lawrence, S. (2011). Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labour and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour in service environments. IJWOE, 4(2), 136. doi:10.1504/ijwoe.2011.044594

Schutte, N., & Malouff, J. (2012). Priming ability emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 40(6), 614-621. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2012.09.001

Schutte, N., & Malouff, J. (2012). Priming ability emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 40(6), 614-621. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2012.09.001

Titrek, O., Polatcan, M., Zafer Gunes, D., & Sezen, G. (2014). The relationship among emotional intelligence (EQ), organizational justice (OJ), organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). International Journal Of Academic Research, 6(1), 213-220. doi:10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-1/b.30


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