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Management The Bank Of Nova Scotia

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Question:

Discuss about the Strategic Management and Risk Assessment The Bank of Nova Scotia.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

Every entity must create its own tools for risk assessment; this component must become a natural part of the strategic planning process, where such evaluation is assumed as an indispensable need and a key instrument to be able to develop the objectives of internal control. It must through a continuous and basic process for the organization, a constant revision, update and improvement of Internal Control, based on a specific system of detection and evaluation of risks with the characteristics of the entity.

The organization in focus is a financial institution, mainly the  Bank of Nova Scotia . It operates in the banking and financial industry in Canada. Bank of Nova Scotia is among the four biggest bank in Canada, called the Big five. They control more than 80% of the total loans in Canadian market. The other four who are its peers in this category are, the Bank of Montreal(BMO),Toronto Dominion Bank(TD), Royal Bank of Canada( RBC) and the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce( CIBC). Although the Canadian Banking and Financial industry has many players, its main competitors remain the big five. It is listed in the Canadian stock exchange as Scotiabank.

Its revenue for the financial year ending June 2016 was C$ 26.049 billion, operating income rose to C$ 12.854 billion, its profits was C$ 7.413 billion and the total assets rose to a staggering C$ 896.467 billion.

Firm and Industry

The current state of the economy is better compared to a decade earlier when the global financial crisis hit the banking and financial sector due to inherent and uncontrollable risks. Due to good micro economic and macro economic conditions the firm’s profits and revenues have increased tremendously so are its competitors. This is shown in increased profitability by Bank Of Nova Scotia(Ansoff, 2014).

 

External Environmental Analysis

The following are external environmental analysis of  Bank of Nova Scotia;

PEST Analysis

Political environment- Canada has one of the best political environments in the world. with this in mind, economic environment grow due to lack of uncertainties on political front. Bank Of Nova Scotia is also thriving financially.

Economic analysis- the micro and macro economic conditions are favoring the business environment, eg inflationary levels are at all timer low in Canada favoring the banking sector.

Social Analysis- a growing population in Canada is encouraging more innovation and increased banking competition.

Technological- this is the most important environmental condition as it encourages innovation and product improvement leading to better services and more efficiency.

Porters Analysis

It assumes that a business has five forces that influence competitive power of the business.

Supplier power- in this, suppliers have increased in Canadian market and therefore the force that they apply to the market is not as strong and would not necessarily affect market forces.

Buyer power- due to high levels of competition and increased banks in Canada, prices given to Canadian community are low and affordable.

Competitive rivalry- the big five banks in Canada are worthy competitors and therefore the banking and financial market provide a good competitive and quality service.

Threat of substitution- innovation has led to improvement of banking services and products with an increasing threat of substitution. Substitution would threaten the ability of the bank to carry out more work.

Threats of new entry- this force is really irrelevant considering how the big five have been dominant. There are many banks and financial institutions in Canada but their entry have not really affected the market dimensions(Appannaiah, Narayana Reddy, & Ramanath, 2009).

 

Theoretical conceptual framework on risk management

Components of internal control

The control is an integral part of the general functions of the management, through which you can check the current state of a system.

The control in its more general conception examines, censors with enough previous, certain reality that approves or corrects, sometimes when it is spoken of control associates this word with something negative, since it is interpreted as restriction, coercion or delimitation, nevertheless the objective Control is to ensure that results are adjusted as much as possible to the intended objectives(Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2017).

Taking into account that control is a basic function within any organization and administration process, which facilitates executive evaluation, including monitoring and systematic review, with its system design articulates internal control in five essential components Interrelated, and involved in all aspects of an organization.

The five internal control components are:

The control environment

Risks evaluation

Control activities

Information and Communication

Supervision and monitoring

We will then emphasize risk assessment as an essential component within the internal control system.

 

The risk assessment

Because economic, industrial, regulatory and operational conditions change continuously, mechanisms are needed to identify and minimize the specific risks associated with change, and there is a growing need to assess risks.

The risk assessment consists of the identification and analysis of both internal and external factors that may be relevant to the achievement of the intended objectives, refers to the continuous interactive process and the methodology by which the company identifies the areas of greater High risk, which deserve the greatest attention and allocation of resources for the application of control measures(Horcher, 2005).

Internal control has been designed essentially to limit the risks that affect the activities of entities. Through the investigation and analysis of the relevant risks and the point to which the current control neutralizes them, thus evaluating the vulnerability of the system. Any organization that seeks to achieve success, whether public or private, must identify, evaluate and manage its risks to reduce them through the design and implementation of efficient internal control system. Zero risk does not exist, risk is inherent in business, but can be significantly reduced by identifying threats to the organization and striving to maintain it within Limits(Milos? Sprc?ic?, n.d.).

There are many sources of risk both internal and external

External

Technological developments not assumed that can cause obsolescence of the organization.

Changes in the needs and expectations of the population

Changes in legislation and standards leading to forced changes in strategy and procedures

Internal

The organizational structure adopted, given the existence of typical inherent risks

Quality of the personnel incorporated, as well as the methods for their instruction and motivation

The very nature of the entity's activities

a precondition for risk assessment is the determination of objectives at each level of the organization and are consistent with each other. Management must first set the objectives before identifying the risks that may impact on their achievement and take the appropriate measures to manage them.

In the assessment of risks,

In addition to identifying them at the company level, these should be identified and analyzed at the level of activity, department and operation in order to estimate the importance of the same, and establish control activities that guarantee maximum management. The correct evaluation at the level of activity also contributes to the maintenance of an acceptable level of risk for the entity as a whole, thus guaranteeing the fulfillment of the expected objectives.

 The tendency has also been propagated for the elaboration of national standards for the administration of the same and the development of multiple systems and personalized programs of advice for their management in the different areas of economic activity.

 

Types of Risks Analysis for Bank of Nova Scotia

Type of risk

Formula

Year 2013

Year 2014

Year 2015

Year 2016

Capital risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

16.34

18.19

19.24

16.66

Operational risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

40.5

39.2

37.4

35.7

Credit risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

46.6

42.7

50.5

50.3

Strategic risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

20.84

21.53

20.44

21.60

Liquidity risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

16.37

16.17

14.67

13.73

Comparison with industry in Banking and Finance industry

Type of risk

Formula

Year 2014

Year 2015

Year 2016

Capital risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

26.3

28.4

30.4

Operational risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

41.5

37.2

35.4

Credit risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

47.6

32.7

40.5

Strategic risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

20.84

21.53

20.44

Liquidity risk

Risk-weighted asset

(B2+B3/B4) %

18.37

19.17

17.67


Capital Risk: We can relate it to the loss that could be incurred in the event that counterparty is complied with and in that transaction it could not be demanded by the legal process to comply with the payment commitments. Capital risk increases due to increase in capital fleight chances. In the three years , the capital risk increases.

Operational risk: It refers to operations that have some of the rating is merely an indicator that seeks to express the capacity or probability of payment in the precise time of both the interest and the principal that all the debt entails, that is, the higher or lower credit risk which supports the investor who has lent its funds to the receiving entity.

Credit risk: In a credit institution, for example, insolvency may arise as a result of a lack of adequacy between assets and liabilities, a significant decline in income, or unanticipated growth in financial investments.

Strategic risk: There are other classifications related to internal control failures, with labor regulations, that is, the risk of direct or indirect loss caused by insufficiency or failure of the processes, people and inefficiency of the internal organization of the company. In the next three years the strategic risk increases due to increase in competition.

Liquidity risk: this is the risk of the bank to stay afloat.  In the coming three years , the banks liquidity risk seem to reduce as is the trend from the table. In 2013, the liquidity is 16.37, in 2014, it is 16.17, in 2015, it is 14.67 and in 2016, it is 13.37. if the trend continues like that, the liquidity risk is likely to reduce.

Fig 1: Quick Acid test ratio grapgh for the bank. https://www.google.com/search?q=graphs+on+liquidity+ratios&client=

 

Fig 2; Net loans to Total asset ratio; https://www.google.com/search?q=graphs+on+liquidity+ratios&client

The quick acid test ratio can be good in the next three years.

conclusion

The inherent risk is that risk that by its nature cannot be separated from the situation where it exists. It is typical of the work to be done. It is the own risk of each company according to its activity. The risk incorporated is that risk that is not characteristic of the activity, but rather the product of unresponsive behavior of a worker, who assumes other risks in order to achieve something that he thinks is good for him and / or for the company. Important and controversial aspect has been to classify the types of risks according to the criterion of the structure and the main functions of a company. The most used classifications by authors such as are economic, market, credit, legality, technological, legal , Liquidity risk, corporate risk, organizational, among others(Rotha?rmel, 2017). There are other classifications related to internal control failures, with labor regulations, that is, the risk of direct or indirect loss caused by insufficiency or failure of the processes, people and inefficiency of the internal organization of the company Called by some authors organizational or business risk and for others, such as the banking industry as a risk of operations(Smulders, & Collins, 2005).

References

Ansoff, H. (2014). Strategic management. [Place of publication not identified]: Palgrave Macmillan.

Appannaiah, H., Narayana Reddy, P., & Ramanath, H. (2009). Strategic management. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House.

Chong, Y. Investment risk management.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R., & Hoskisson, R. (2017). Strategic management. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Horcher, K. (2005). Essentials of financial risk management. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Ishikawa, A., & Naka, I. (2007). Knowledge management and risk strategies. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.

Leitch, M. (2008). Intelligent internal control and risk management. Aldershot, England: Gower.

Milos? Sprc?ic?, D. Risk management.

Rotha?rmel, F. (2017). Strategic management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Sadler, P. (2004). Strategic management. New-Delhi: Koganpage India Prt. Ltd.

Smulders, F., & Collins, J. (2005). Risk management strategies: monitoring and surveillance. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

OR

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