Discuss about the Managing Product Development Projects.
This report is an analysis of the research that has been conducted on the industry of global construction. This report basically deals with the various operation of the diverse and complex government and non-government projects, the various conflicts faced by the project and the methods adopted for the purpose of dealing with the conflicts. Besides recognizing the reasons responsible for a conflict the report also discusses about the various consequences that arises due to the conflicts along with developing various tools by which all the conflicts could be avoided.
Governance can be useful for various domains like public sector, corporate and they aim to the idea that can be easily understood form the range of different ranges like bureau shaping, instrumental network and various other things.
Government concepts and Definition: Muller helps in providing a simple and easily understandable idea about the plan of governance. Muller generally helps in understanding the terms and condition of the given problem which ultimately focuses on the fact of increasing the protection and upgradation of various home based firms. Various investigation on RBP from the structure of an organization helps in understanding it on a global scale which ultimately helps in providing value through values and benefits through various forms of organization.
Organization structure has both hard and soft features. Hard features generally emphasize on the proper designing of structure of organization and various sources of engineering for proper maintaining of structure (Lindkvist Soderlund and Tell 1998). The soft governance focuses to change the design of various projects into action. One simple way for adjusting with the situation is the accountability and transparency. Accountability generally keeps a track of the various person who are responsible for various things like what, how and when. Transparency aims in providing a proper method or way and which helps in making process a clear and easy.
Analyses common arguments using logic, persuasion and influence factors as commonly applied to conflicting or competing stakeholder’s agendas
Persuading is nothing but the ability of someone to convince others by doing certain things that are appropriate. Whereas influence is the combination of both the persuasion and negotiation. Negotiation is nothing but a process adopted by someone for the purpose of discussing something and to reach a certain stage where the results are much more satisfactory.
The companies should aim at meeting the demands of the stake holders. They must listen to the demands of the stakeholders cautiously and then find out the interest and the expectations of the stakeholders. This will give a proof to the stake holders that the company is really interested in the benefits of the stake holders and make them feel that they can really depend on the company thereby increasing the respect in the minds of the stakeholders about the company. It also facilitates in creating the outline of the benefits of the proposed idea of the company (Kurtz and Snowden 2003).
Then comes the logic. It is necessary to perform research on the proposed ideas and the ideas that has been proposed by the competitors for the same purpose.it should be made sure that any of the claims that the company makes is verified.
The conflicts in a project can be easily understood by the needs of the project owners and the non-owners of the project by the sharing of the knowledge’s, insights of the replanted actions and the expectations on the performance. This provides the essential idea about the understanding the requirements and what are the necessary steps that are to be taken and what is the way of providing the resources and how to mobilize the resource for the purpose of completion of the project as desired. From the project owners point of view performance means the benefit from the outcome of the project causing encompass amongst different stakeholders for example the end user as well as the “environment”. Accordingly, from the non-owners of the project or NOP’s point of view includes the rewards and the returns as the performance. The project owners and the NOP’s project team are able to complete a project successfully if the understanding of the need and the situation of the project is done properly (Snowden and Boone 2007).
Differentiation of methods of conflict management, negotiation as well as stakeholder arrangement across projects
Conflict management refers to the process of dealing with the difficulties faced in the projects.
According to William one of the one project management writer described the conflicts according to the differentiation and the interdependency concepts and concluded that the structural uncertainty and uncertainty. Whereas other PM writers state that risk and uncertainty are two different things. As they stated that risk is a casual concept and uncertainty is a consequential concept (Schnable et al. 2009).
The complexities of a project can be described according to the designs, the briefing and the way of delivering the project in terms of the known and the unknown facts. “Luft and Ingham” developed the Johari window (Luft and Ingham 1961) which acted as a useful tool for the purpose of creating awareness. Complexities can be divided according to the structure, technical, directional, temporal. The complexities are characterised by uncertainty, ambiguity, and decrease in trust of the people (van Eijnatten and Putnik 2004). Explanation and apply methods for reconciling and identifying inconsistent and conflicting objectives and drivers
Various strategies were recommended by Snowden for the purpose of dealing with the conflicts by making the perceptions to shift by using the knowledge and the perceptions that are possible to be shared and reframed. This will initially result in the solving in the conflicts or will create more problems. By the proper understanding and the main aims of the project it becomes very much easy to take necessary actions. The use of better protocol as indicated in the quadrant 1 and 2. Quadrant 1 consisted of approach by procurement which is very much adequate and the Quadrant 2 consists of the descriptions of the complicated projects that can be easily dealt with by the use of the use of “traditional procurement approach”. The strategies of relationship based procurement developed when the owner of the project is unaware of the problems in a project (Collyer et al. 2010). In cases of this complex situations a lot of negotiation is required for the better performance. The experts of the panel can do experiment in this step as stated in the Quadrant 3. Quadrant 4 describes a situation of great chaos and what are the knowledge’s that are required to change. Step that are necessary for the completion of the project needs to be taken. The consequences can be devastating if the response towards moving of a disordered situation to an ordered situation if the choices that are made not proper (Baccarini 1996).
Negotiating techniques are those that are the essential need for the process of removing conflicts in any situations. There are several negotiating techniques and the main ones involved are the access to the needs and are the after effects of this negotiation, the needs and the requirements of all the parties involved in the conflict, differentiating the discussions into different stages, what are the areas that needs to be compromised, and then follow the action plan for the purpose of betterment (Raz Shenhar and Dvir 2002). Explanation of the consequences of project disruptions, delays and changes to planned method and activities
The consequences of project disruptions, delays and changes to planned activities and the methods for claiming variations, liquidated, contract entitlements as well as arbitration (Klakegg Williams and Magnussen 2009) are provided below:
Cost overrun: In the construction stage, both the contractor as well as client faces problem due to cost overrun. It is found that cost overrun is considered as an unexpected cost which is mainly incurred in excess of budgeted amount due to improper cost estimation. Cost overrun is mainly related to the time overrun when the project is not completed in time it will create negative impact on the project cost.
Time overrun: The problem of time overrun generally reflects that the contractor does not carry their work properly within the contract period. Time overrun is mainly categorized into two types of excusable as well as non-excusable. Due to the time overrun, the progress of the entire project is affected.
Dispute: In the industry of construction, some of the project delay generally occurs due to the dispute that occurs between various contractual parties. This type of disputes mainly occurs because the client pays the amount to the contractor
Total abandonment: Total abandonment means that the entire project will stop immediately as the client are facing number of financial difficulties. Some of the current delay of the project is totally abandoned due to the problem of the contractor as well as client.
Arbitration: It is identified that some of the contractual parties does not accept the decision of the mediator in context to project disruption, delays or changes and as a result they generally appeal in arbitration. It is found that arbitration also make proper decision to solve the entire problem. However, it is found that one of the party do not accept the decision that is generally made and as a result they appeal for the decision of the litigation.
Evaluation of project management tools that help avoid or provide conflict resolution
It is found that in complex projects, both conflict resolutions as well as identification are the extraordinary expensive as well as complex tasks. In many of the instances it is analyzed that the designers do not have proper budget as well as time for exploring as well as resolving the issues of conflict. In other instances, it is identified that full co-ordination is not possible to accompany during the phase of the design like life safety equipment, HVAC which are generally reflected in the drawings of design. It is found that even in design bid build project; both layout as well as construction related detail may need information related with actual information that will be generally installed (Howell Windahl and Seidel 2010). Therefore, BIM tool is mainly utilized that helps in rendering the design in three different dimensions and as a result it does not requires separate software for exploring the model visually. This helps in allowing proper explanation of space and also helps in providing proper visualization of light studies as well as improved communication within the entire team as well as with the various stakeholders of the project. It is one of the intelligent 3D model procedures that helps in providing proper architecture, engineering professionals for efficiently planning, designing as well as constructing as well as managing infrastructure for reducing conflicts (Wikström et al. 2010).
The report helps to conclude that there is a need for developing new knowledge’s regarding the relationship based form of project and the essential qualifications of a project manager. Proper analysis of the conflict should be made for the purpose of avoiding this type of conflicts arising due to various factors. This report also gives a brief discussion about the consequences arising due to the conflicts and the several tools used for solving this conflicts. The gaps that exists between the knowledge, skills, attributes and experience development in the project management are identified along with gaps that exists between the project owners and the other representing the project. Initially the ways of decreasing this gaps have been developed. A discussion regarding the relation based procurement has also been done for the purpose of better understanding and to deal with several situations.
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