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Marketing Elements In International Global

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Question:

Discuss About The Marketing Elements In International Global?

 

Answer:

Introduction

International economy has always been a platform of multinational corporations with integral elements such as globalisation, diversified product planning and arrangement and growth of competition. These all add to the global businesses and strategies which remain key aspects for a company to keep its business wings afloat without being run aground. This current essay is set to be a focal indication as to challenges faced by MNC like Tesco and the strategies perpetuated by theories relating to international business. Recommendation portion as per requirement laid down by the assignment of this essay is also a important feature of this write up.    

Profile of the company as an MNC

In the effort of retail formatting, foreign direct investment is a strategy-stayed mechanism, led by several aspects considerable, from the view of tactical arrangements by TESCO. The company is a super power conglomerate in retail industry with its dominance in UK and other countries. The company is wide-ranging products retailer with business inception in the year of 1919. The company meets the qualifying pointers to be undoubtedly called as an MNC.   If profitability is a key index of firm’s standing as an MNC then TESCO is in third position in revenue (Chandra, Styles and Wilkinson, 2009). The business operation of the company is carried out in fourteen countries including Asian countries, countries in UK and North America. Nearly 5,30,000 employees work in the different parts of the company across the world. The company has achieved a market share of approx thirty percent in Europe and this has helped the company to achieve market dominance. Tesco’s decision to invest in china to expand retail business came as no wonder due to instability in the industry in the recession-scarred European markets. Several subsectors, the company does operate in, are books, petrol, furniture, garments, electronics, and software with further services offered by the company in field of telecommunication and internet along with financial services (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2013). Tesco has secured its place on Forbes global 2000 list. The profitability of the firm also shows potential with £1.28 billion annual profit and first full year of growth since the year 2010.   

 

Theory related to globalisation of business

Globalisation has pack of theories which differ with each other relatively. Among these, world culture theory is also underpinned by the concept of globalisation. This theory has a belief that in the global arena, world is viewed as a society with composite group of relations within numerous units (Dow and Larimo, 2009). In this theory, people gather knowledge of this global reality and if the issue detected is staying together in the real entity, the very essence is supported by world culture theory for bringing units close to each other with similar stress on thoughts of people in the global reality.  If this theory to be considered then globalisation brings the entire world in a single entity with importance on cultural compression cooperating a system which believes that all cultures are parts of a culture of large global entity (Fletcher and Crawford, 2013). This undoubtedly restricts the local business in local area concept. This gives birth to an entity which is full of diversity which helps glocalisation to flourish.

The aforesaid theory has its semblance with the cultural belief of Tesco and the cultural diversion and thought for world as a society and social entity. Concept of globalisation got its elevation. This theory always embraces socio cultural aspects and places importance on the social cultural factors which promote social and corporate growth in a world as a society (Joshi,  2009). The company has reached beyond its home boundary and almost inherits its world-wide reputation depending on the thrust like globalisation which is the company-induced approach to start international business operation.

World culture theory is somewhat fit into the strategic thinking pattern of the company which never restricts capital investment in promising countries for business expansion. This has required the company to think world as local platform with equal importance on cultural relationship, human resources and business performance with social consideration to leverage world culture theory to its utmost advantage for the entity-world relationship (Leonidou et al, 2010). No matter the initial troubles the company had, the effort of the company marks the growth in worldwide business in countries in Europe, Asia and North America.  World culture theory is supportive of Tesco in establishing a synergy of cultures thereby triggering cultural diversity to achieve coordinated and balanced work performance (Murphy, 2010). This is the key performance generator in the corporate arena across the word and the success and dominance of the company is quite explicit asserting that the world culture theory as a globalisation concept is helpful for the company as a development path.      

Key country/regional factors affecting Tesco’s choice of country

Retail market in China is ever growing and offers range of opportunities for organisation like Tesco to expand its retail market operation. Even after financial crisis that has huge effect across the world, retail sales of the nation achieved $1.8 trillion in the year 2009.

The growth in retail sales of the country is supported by the increase in house hold income. The people of the country have better living standards and this drives them to look beyond their basic needs to ensure better quality lives, which directly and passively promotes retail sales and Tesco being aware of this tried to seize this as retail expansion opportunities (Nijssen and Herk, 2009).

 Household spending in china has increased in availing services like merchandise, telecom, healthcare and transportation. This indicates that the country has many people who can afford to pay for high priced products by discretionary spending which became much higher than the previous decades. This is always being seen as an opportunity of retail business expansion and Tesco finds the country as an attractive foreign country in Asia to start retail business (Papadopoulos and Heslop, 2014).

China offers most lucrative investment options for foreign organisations particularly retailers due to growing incomes and growing market size. Investment opportunities are plenty in China due to some reasons like support from government level, grants and funding facility ensured by Government, preferential policies from government.

Growing formatting of business, investment opportunities in e-commerce, online retailing, multi channel retailing, third party e-commerce platforms which offers services like business to business and business to consumer, consumer to consumer services (Papadopoulos and Martín Martín, 2011). 

 

Application of theory

Porter’s diamond theory is a framework that helps to understand the competitive advantage a nation does possess for having some factors within it. This framework also speaks of how government of a particular country can play vital role to make a nation’s position better in the economic environment. This theory is framed by Michael porter. This is a proactive economic premise which not only put a figure on comparative advantages but also helps in understanding more power, while some scholars suggest that natural resources are best formative  determinant for deciding competitive advantages, porter argued that countries may find themselves in better positions if focus on development of some factors like skilled manpower, improved technology, availability of government assistance is continued (Powers and Loyka, 2010). The four points of this framework are represented as determinants of comparative national economic advantage. These factors are strategy of firm, structure and rivalry, supporting sectors, demand conditions and factor conditions. The first three conditions focuses on preliminary fact that business is led by competition while demand conditions like nature of customers and their preferences influencing the demands of products in a particular sector (Tan and Sousa, 2013). The last one is factor conditions which is more vital as porter always has emphasised upholding that conditions like technological innovation, skilled manpower and development in infrastructure can be created by a nation for itself. Factor conditions can be developed by government’s cooperation by encouraging business and also challenging the businesses so that business can develop more technologies, skilled and talented workers and infrastructural development.

This theoretical diagram presents knowledge which realistically matches up to the nation China with its plenty natural resources. Government of china is cooperative and policies like offer of grants, funding, preferential facilities are pro business moves that widen business opportunities (Griffin and Pustay, 2012). More over organisation such as Tesco with its capacity to promote technology, developing talented workforce find the nation more encouraging to continue business with great level of expertise.  Therefore representation of factors through four determinants in the framework developed by Porter denotes a similarity with China. The country is a preferred business destination due to attractive foreign direct investment opportunity and this is facilitated by government policies also and retail business environment of the country (Ball et al, 2012). These factors have been inspiring factors for Tesco to make entry in the retail sector of China.

Entry strategies

With the possibility of long term growth numerous organisations are eagerly increasing their business operation in China. In the year 2004, Tesco adopted joint venture acquisitions as a market entry strategy into china.   The international strategy of the company is influenced by achieving insight regarding the cultural elements of the country (Killing,2012). Tesco’s clear international strategy lays importance on building confidence on joint ventures. Joint venture agreement with Ting Hsin that had inception of its business as an instant noodle producer, was included in the strategy of Tesco to face competition with wal-mart. Tesco had a joint venture strategy anticipating that partnership with another company in the Chinese market could give it access to seventy six million Chinese customers. The retail business expansion of Tesco in china could be better regarded effective expansion with help of effective alliance and joint ventures while obtaining a ‘late mover advantage’ to competitors like Wal-mart and Carrefour. Joint ventures as an entry mode demanded adequate resource commitment by the local company, higher degree of control and substantial investment. Tesco’s higher control from the joint venture acquisition was backed by fewer risks in comparison with other capital pushing options (Birkinshaw, Brannen, and Tung, 2011). Tesco had an better internationalization planning with successful record of acquiring supermarkets in Hungary, Poland, Ireland and this drove this company look for expansion in the emerging markets of Asia to reach middle income families. With the strength of agreement with partner Ting Hsin, Tesco acquired its wholly owned subsidiary named Ting Cao that subsequently owned the Hymall chain which is China’s biggest food supplier. Ever since 2006 Tesco started opening stores across China and total store counts became 125. Tesco relocated its international sourcing head office in Hongkong with a hub in Shanghai. For building strategic internationalisation, Tesco had built up its Strategic internationalization by taking geo centric approach (Cantwell, Dunning and Lundan, 2010). This affirms that the company has global strategy whilst adapting   operations to the local markets through global synergies and strategic partnership. Shanghai became a home from home for Tesco and became first commercial platform in China. This has helped the Tesco to know local customers better and eventually many new stores were opened by Tesco along with hypermarkets.  

 

Two key international business challenges

In April, 2011, in its total year results, it was stated that the company’s localized operations was successful to break even in the latter half of the year. Tesco’s then CEO confirmed that the company would decrease the store opening aim in the country. It was great trouble for the company to have prime location and also to achieve permissions from government for opening its life space malls (Cavusgil et al, 2014).

In the year 2012, the pressure was from continuous high level of inflation and pressure on wage costs. This has forced the company to take more careful steps. Tesco was also forced to delay the development of hypermarkets in China for the particular period in the year.   

Recommendation on the basis of UN Global Compact Principles and/or Sustainable Development Goals 

Sustainable development goals lay guidelines that can help Tesco develop some core areas which can further their business while adopting more responsible approach towards world and society. Tesco’s retail grocery and supermarket business find a boost operating within the scope of sustainable development goals. In each realm of business some recommended course of functions may translate the company’s position into grater shape for marking more strength (Kolk and Van Tulder, 2010). Tesco can promote actively, perception of joint action as well as accountability platforms like an innovative nature of collaboration. This is helpful for the company to particular human rights challenges. It may position social interaction at the frontal space when human rights are largely concerned. The organisation with other company can work in value chains for meeting systematic difficulties by adopting holistic approach. A better approach like shared value can initiate better contemplation followed by implementation (Cavusgil et al, 2014). Past focus on philanthropy as well as social investment can be merged with shared value model by the company. Engagement with innovation in business to ensure better technological advancement for meeting better opportunities for the company and society can be considered if society could be benefitted. But the concern must not be neglected regarding limitation of these to certain policy environments and some opportunities in market. These must not be constrained. Sustainable development goals create chances for not only updating vision of business towards sustainable development but at the same time vision requires a change at the very basic level (Cavusgil et al, 2014). This requirement is within the consideration and needs to be better assessed depending upon necessity. Social upliftment is huge task by almost every company and this for the company Tesco remains a must do for eliciting respects from all levels of stakeholders in the business across the globe. The realization of the company is, that there is barely any powerful means for the trading to speed up social development rather than directing human rights all through the value chains. Business and human rights are the two arterial sides which require each other for establishing better governance in societal format and corporate harmony (Cavusgil et al, 2014). An important proposition stresses on that each company not just can offer support at scale of development via the networks of business collaborations. At the same time the important accountability for them is to confirm so. This positions itself as a vital element between business and human rights. Tesco as a responsible conglomerate with huge success in corporate world can think the same and must look for embedding the said vision in this discussion at the core of its business central regarding the continuation of business with most effective and sustainable development in current and long run (Kolk and Van Tulder, 2010).    

 

Conclusion

Business never remains constrained and the globalised economy keeps organisations moving across international countries. Strategies are vital for business expansion while for Tesco, strategic internationalisation is always matter of consideration while taking a business leap in foreign countries including china. The company found investment options in China lucrative and looked for business expansion in the country due to several factors like cooperation of Chinese government and consumers’ propensity to avail products to live better and quality lives. Apart from the natural resources, the country can develop its other resources like skilled manpower, technological development and infrastructural improvement. There are many aspects that can be embedded into the business vision of the company for making more development.

 

References

Ball, D., Geringer, M., Minor, M. and McNett, J., 2012. International business. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Birkinshaw, J., Brannen, M.Y. and Tung, R.L., 2011. From a distance and generalizable to up close and grounded: Reclaiming a place for qualitative methods in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), pp.573-581.

Cantwell, J., Dunning, J.H. and Lundan, S.M., 2010. An evolutionary approach to understanding international business activity: The co-evolution of MNEs and the institutional environment. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(4), pp.567-586.

Cavusgil, S.T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J.R., Rammal, H.G. and Rose, E.L., 2014. International business. Pearson Australia.

Chandra, Y., Styles, C. and Wilkinson, I., 2009. The recognition of first time international entrepreneurial opportunities: Evidence from firms in knowledge-based industries. International Marketing Review, 26(1), pp.30-61.

Czinkota, M.R. and Ronkainen, I.A., 2013. International marketing. Cengage Learning.

Dow, D. and Larimo, J., 2009. Challenging the conceptualization and measurement of distance and international experience in entry mode choice research. Journal of International Marketing, 17(2), pp.74-98.

Dunning, J.H., 2013. Multinationals, Technology & Competitiveness (RLE International Business) (Vol. 13). Routledge.

Fletcher, R. and Crawford, H., 2013. International marketing: an Asia-Pacific perspective. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Griffin, R.W. and Pustay, M.W., 2012. International business. Pearson Higher Ed.

Joshi, R.M., 2009. International business. OUP Catalogue.

Kilng, P., 2012. Strategies for joint venture success (RLE international business) (Vol. 22). Routledge.

Kolk, A. and Van Tulder, R., 2010. International business, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. International business review, 19(2), pp.119-125.

Leonidou, L.C., Barnes, B.R., Spyropoulou, S. and Katsikeas, C.S., 2010. Assessing the contribution of leading mainstream marketing journals to the international marketing discipline. International Marketing Review, 27(5), pp.491-518.

Murphy, P.E., 2010. Marketing, Ethics of. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management.

Nijssen, E.J. and Herk, H.V., 2009. Conjoining international marketing and relationship marketing: exploring consumers' cross-border service relationships. Journal of International Marketing, 17(1), pp.91-115.

Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L.A., 2014. Product-country images: Impact and role in international marketing. Routledge.

Papadopoulos, N. and Martín Martín, O., 2011. International market selection and segmentation: perspectives and challenges. International Marketing Review, 28(2), pp.132-149.

Powes, T.L. and Loyka, J.J., 2010. Adaptation of marketing mix elements in international markets. Journal of global marketing, 23(1), pp.65-79.

Tan, Q. and Sousa, C.M., 2013. International marketing standardization. Management international review, 53(5), pp.711-739.

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