Part 1: Annotated Bibliography
Poulston, J. (2008). Hospitality workplace problems and poor training: a close relationship. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(4), 412-427.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the common problems in the hospitality industry in order to identify the relationship among the central issue and them.
Research Paradigm: The research paradigm for the paper uses quantitative methods, which include the data collection methods from various hospitality students and employees in some organizations belonging to the hospitality industry. The methods further include the analysis of collected data, questionnaire design, pilot and main studies, profile of respondents and analysis.
Findings: The authors of the article used the methodology that comprises of questionnaire design, pilot and main studies, profile of respondents and analysis. The result of the analysis shows that the most of the respondents are inexperienced and the eligible staffs are hired with low wages. The result presents few tables that show a comparative analysis of the problems. In addition, it is found from the research that there are several workplace problems regarding the turnover such as under staffing, unfair dismissal.
Contribution: The result of the research paper shows the predominance of employee turnover in the hospitality industry. The main reason for the employee turnover identified by the authors of the research paper to the poor training, which make the employees fail in their job and leads to the turnover. The research paper is a fine example and guide for the scholars researching on the topic as well as to the management of the New Zealand hospitality industry to reduce the cause of the turnover.
Ethical Consideration: The ethical consideration for the research paper is highly followed. The questionnaires were made with the questions that are answerable. The methods of the research also followed the ethics in term of questioning the employees and collecting the data. The ethical considerations for the article can also be linked with the behaviors of the researchers and the harmlessness of the people by the research.
Williams, D., Harris, C., & Parker, J. (2008). I love you-goodbye: Exit interviews and turnover in the New Zealand hotel industry. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online), 33(3), 70.
Purpose: The purpose of the report is to examine the turnover in New Zealand hotel industry through exit interview. The research paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the exit interview process in the organization chosen for the research.
Research Paradigm: Both the quantitative and qualitative methodology has been used in this research paper. The exit interviews are conducted in the some hotels and the data was gathered from 2001 to 2005. The authors chose two brands under which the there are some hotels where the interviews were conducted.
Findings: The findings are divided into two segments as per the brands of the hotels (Brand X and Brand Y). The findings from the research are presented in the tables that provide the reasons and data for the staff turnover in the hospitality industry. Moreover, the finding also recommends the need for modifying the exit interview process for more effective result.
Contribution: From the findings, it is evident that there is dissatisfaction in the hotels of brand Y employees regarding the management, pay, hours and others. While the brand X employees show other reasons for the turnover. Considering the same focal point of the employee turnover, the impact of the exit interviews are to be taken into account. This is because the exit interview is one of the effective and easy ways for the management to understand and reduce the cost and reason for the employee turnover. Hence, the article impacts on the wider literatures as well as on the future researcher in a positive way.
Ethical Consideration: The ethical consideration for the research paper presents the process of the interviewing the staffs of the hotels about the turnover reasons. The efficacy of the exit interview also follows the ethics in terms of conducting them properly and adding values to the research.
Poulston, J., & Jenkins, A. (2016). Barriers to the employment of older hotel workers in New Zealand. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 15(1), 45-68.
Purpose: The research paper aims to identify the barriers in the New Zealand hospitality industry in employing the older staffs in the same by the management for reducing the employee turnover.
Research Paradigm: The research methodology used in the research is the quantitative methods that include the data collection from the mangers of some of the hotels by using questionnaire. The research also used the qualitative method by using semi-structured interviews of the older workers and hotel employees.
Findings: The findings from the report imply the some trends in the chosen hotels and some data from the surveys of the research. The result shows the discriminatory practice of the management on the workers inters of the age. From both the managers and the workers it is found that the discrimination is one of the prevalent issue of the turnover. The findings are presented in the table that shows the relevant data of the research outcome regarding the factors of the employee turnover in the chosen hotels.
Contribution: The contribution of the article on the wider literature suggests the inside practice of the hospitality industry of New Zealand. The policies and the practice of the hospitality industry is found to be unethical towards the employees. Several relevant questions are emerged from the research findings that create confusion and conflicts in the mind of the readers of the research paper.
Ethical contribution: Considering the ethical values of the report, it is found that the authors followed the different and general ethics in choosing the hotels for the research. The hotels chosen which are accessible for the survey. No private hotels or lodges were chosen for the research. In addition, as the research paper name suggest the study on the older workers, the authors also made sure that the interviews of are strictly conducted on the people over 50 years old.
Lo, K., & Lamm, F. (2005). Occupational stress in the hospitality industry-an employment relations perspective. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 30(1), 23.
Purpose: the aim of this research paper is to focus on the prevalence of the occupational stress in the hospitality industry of New Zealand and the management of stress by the employees.
Research Paradigm: The methodology used by the authors in the paper is qualitative and comparative. The researchers took the number of interviews in the chosen two hotels. The participants of the interviews were the executive managers, departmental managers, supervisors and other staffs. The interviews were also conducted in to the key stakeholders of the hotels.
Findings: The research findings exhibit the data in terms of the organizational profiles. The result of the difference of the data is presented in the table format in the article, which presents a comparative analysis of the research purpose. It is evident from the research that the occupational stress on the employees is the integral part of the job and the employees are to cope with the same.
Contribution: The research paper presents the data for the hospitality industry inters of the professional stress on the staffs. The research methodology of the paper will help other researcher to understand the process of the research and the ethical value of the same. However, it cannot impact greatly on the wider literature as the research is limited into the two hotels which presents very short amount of data in terms of the limited context. The wider literature require broader context for the research.
Ethical Consideration: The ethical considerate of the article is comparatively low than the other articles discussed above. The ethics for the research are not properly follows as the research followed the qualitative method basically on the managerial level, which cannot wholly present the authentic data for the research.
Part 2: The Essay
The purpose of the essay is to relate the above four article in terms of integrating the methodologies of the article for identifying the issue of employee turnover in the New Zealand hospitality industry (Kysilka & Csaba, 2013). The four articles take different methodology for examining the persistence of high turnover due to low wages in the hospitality industry. However, the primary contexts of the four articles are not same, but the purpose of the research is almost same.
The methodology for the research is defined by the researcher of the paper. It is found from the above section of annotated bibliography that two out of four research papers have used the qualitative method of research. One out of the four papers has used the both quantitative method. However, the methods of the research are initially presupposed by the researcher as per the purpose and context of the report. The qualitative method of research entails the process of interviewing the respondents included in the researched (Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault, 2015). Whereas, the quantitative methods are the process of surveying in research context by using questionnaire and survey forms (Creswell, 2013). The qualitative research report presents a basic and general idea that the research is seeking (Yang, Wan & Fu, 2012). In other hand, the research that uses the quantitative research method is filled with numeric data of the research findings.
Coming to the point of comparing as well as integrating the research paradigm of the four articles stated above, the most of the research have used the questionnaire format for collecting data and comparing those data for the analysis. For example, the first article uses the self-completed questionnaire for collecting data on the characteristics of the chosen workplace and the respondents working there and on the selected problems (Poulston, 2008). The process of using the questionnaires in examining the hospitality workplace problems enabled respondents to take part in the survey anonymously (Jehanzeb, Rasheed & Rasheed, 2013). The third article examining the barriers of the hospitality industry to the employment process and the cause of turnover in the existing employment process follows the quantitative method. This particular method is used identifying the data on the HR policies and the views of the older employees for understanding the turnover cause and the obligation in the management in employing the older staffs (Poulston, & Jenkins, 2016).
Again, the qualitative method is another research paradigm that is widely use by the researchers and scholars for identifying the general cause or idea about something. In the second research paper the qualitative methodology is used by the authors. However, the second research paper focuses mainly on the methodology and the effectiveness of the chosen methodology in reducing the employee turnover cost in the hospitality industry in New Zealand (Guilding, Lamminmaki & McManus, 2014). The qualitative methodology further uses the process of exit interview to the employees of the hotels under the Brand X and Brand Y. Exit interviews is a formal discussion between the organization and the employees departing from the same (Williamsm, Harris & Parker, 2008). This helps the organization to understand the its drawbacks and in mangling the employees or providing facilities to the employees and any other causes that cause the employees to leave the organization. Similarly, the research method for this particular paper uses the exit interview process for anticipating the problems existing in the workplace so that the human recourse management team can accordingly take steps to eliminate the same (Boella & Goss-Turner, 2013).
In other hand, the fourth article also uses the qualitative methodology for the comparative analysis of the research findings on the occupational stress on the hotel workers (Lo & Lamm, 2005). However, the context of the research not as broad as the second research article, which helped the researcher to undergo a thorough interview process for the conducting the research. The researchers followed the qualitative methods for interviewing the hotel staffs of the two hotels from the managerial level to the key stakeholders (Hwang et al., 2014). It is noteworthy that the researcher did not take the advantage of the qualitative research methodology for examining the reasons for the occupational stress, which lead to the turnover of the employees (Charu, 2012). However, the interviews were more than forty minutes with the managers and the supervisors of the hotels. It is also notable for this research paper that the initially the interview data were structured in the coding and transcription format according to the questions and the schedule of the interview. In addition, to differentiate the recurring data the categorization process was also followed by the researcher.
A deep and thorough study on the research methodology of the four articles shows the methods used by the authors examining the required and desired purpose of the research are generally same. For the qualitative methods in the second and fourth articles, follow somehow little different process for interview. The second one used the exit interview method, which limited the context for the data collection, as the existing employees were not the part of the interviews. Whereas, the researchers of the fourth article took the interviews of in every levels, which broaden the data collection process of the research. However, the overall context of the research was limited as because the chosen hospitality organizations for the research were only two.
For the quantitative method of the research as followed by the first and the third article follows the same pattern of questionnaire for the survey. Both the research are based on the broader context and focused on numerous causes (AlBattat & Som, 2013). Hence interviewing employee in all the hospitality organization is not possible for the researcher, which made them use the questionnaire for the research. The first article focusing on the high turnover of the employees in the hospitality sector designed the questionnaire in such a way that enables the employees to express the proper cause for the turnover. However, the employees also answered with confusing phrase. In other hand, the third article distributed self-completed questionnaire to the manger level staffs for their research. Undoubted, this shortened their research context. However, the third article used the qualitative method apart from approaching the mangers with quantitative method.
What are the impacts of low wages on the hospitality industry of New Zealand in influencing the yearly high turnover?
How the high turnover of the employees in the New Zealand hospitality sector is affecting the business of the organizations in the same industry?
What are the reasons for providing low wages to the general staffs of the hospitality organizations?
How the high turnover of the employees can be reduced by recommending management strategies to the hospitality organizations?
These research questions are emerged from the above assessment report on the hospitality industry of New Zealand regarding the high turnover of the employees due to the low wages. The research questions need to be examined using the pragmatic method of research. Using this specific method will help the researcher to access all he research methods in the methodology of research (www.alzheimer-europe.org, 2017). Only using the quantitative or qualitative methods of research will limit the context of the research as well as the data findings of the same. Considering the quantitative method, the research findings help the researcher by providing only the numerical or general data. Again, from the qualitative research method the researcher are provided with the most common reason or idea for the research objectives. It is apparent from the above section that both of the methodology cannot help the researcher achieving the research objectives entirely. Hence, the pragmatic methodology is best suited for examining the research questions (Glasgow, 2013).
Considering the importance of the questions, it must be noted that the above articles have the common issue of the employee turnover. However, the theme of the articles is different, but the basic approach is the same that examines the entire context of employee turnover. Thus, it is important to consider these questions for examining the employee turnover issue.
AlBattat, A. R. S., & Som, A. P. M. (2013). Employee dissatisfaction and turnover crises in the Malaysian hospitality industry. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(5), 62.
Alzheimer Europe - Research - Understanding dementia research - Types of research - The four main approaches. (2017). Alzheimer-europe.org. Retrieved 15 September 2017, from https://www.alzheimer-europe.org/Research/Understanding-dementia-research/Types-of-research/The-four-main-approaches
Boella, M., & Goss-Turner, S. (2013). Human resource management in the hospitality industry: A guide to best practice. Routledge.
Charu, M. (2012). Occupational Stress and its impact on QWL with specific reference to Hotel Industry. Advances in Management.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Glasgow, R. E. (2013). What does it mean to be pragmatic? Pragmatic methods, measures, and models to facilitate research translation. Health Education & Behavior, 40(3), 257-265.
Guilding, C., Lamminmaki, D., & McManus, L. (2014). Staff turnover costs: In search of accountability. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 231-243.
Hwang, J., Lee, J. J., Park, S., Chang, H., & Kim, S. S. (2014). The impact of occupational stress on employee's turnover intention in the luxury hotel segment. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 15(1), 60-77.
Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, A., & Rasheed, M. F. (2013). Organizational commitment and turnover intentions: Impact of employee’s training in private sector of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 79.
Kysilka, D., & Csaba, N. (2013). Employee turnover in the hospitality industry. Anale. Seria Stiinte Economice. Timisoara, 19, 377.
Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.
Yang, J. T., Wan, C. S., & Fu, Y. J. (2012). Qualitative examination of employee turnover and retention strategies in international tourist hotels in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 837-848.