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Discuss the waste biomass of the crops grown in united kingdom.

Research Aim


Title: Waste Biomass of the crops grown in United Kingdom

Proposed Title:

The Research is going to be conducted on calculating waste biomass of crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom.

Keywords: Biomass conversion technology, combustion process

The biomass is the waste collected from the dead remains of plants and animals. The accumulation of the biomass can be used for producing different forms of energy. It is a renewable form of energy which has a positive effect on the environment sustainability. The growing rate of pollution from industrialization and urbanization is the major concern for the government of United Kingdom. The government is looking forward to make use of bio-energy for preserving the sustainability of the environment because the use of bio-energy is helpful in minimizing the emission of greenhouses gases which can increase the rate of Global warming. The waste biomass is collected from the organic matter of plants and animals for producing Bio energy. The renewable bio-energy can be retrieved from the waste biomass by undergoing through the process of biomass conversion process. In this paper, we have taken five food crops items such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet grown in the United Kingdom for undergoing the research study. The purpose of producing a bio-energy from the food crops waste is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, helps in keeping the environment clean, renewable source of energy, and others. It helps in meeting the sustainable development of the environment and urbanization of the United Kingdom. The research is proposed with an agenda of calculating waste biomass of crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom. These crops are largely produced by the United Kingdom so it helps in clear understanding of the waste biomass accumulation for the conversion into bio-energy. The research undertaken helps in focusing on the parts of plants which are used for producing bio-mass, selection of the crops according to the agricultural yield produced in a year, geographic complexity of the United Kingdom, and others.

The major areas which are going to be covered in the research study on calculating waste biomass of crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom are analysis of the crop production, literature review conducted for analysing and estimating the use of waste biomass, methodology undertaken to synchronise the research agenda and associated aim, and final discussion on the findings and evaluation of the literature review and methodology.

The research questions which are designed for achieving the research aim are as follows:

RQ1: What is the statistical data of the agricultural yield produced for Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom?

RQ2: What are the properties of crops which are used for generating waste biomass?

RQ3: What are the equipment and processes used for collecting waste biomass of different crops?

RQ4: What are the procedures used for calculating the waste biomass from the parts of the plants?

Objectives

RQ5: How the biomass can be converted into potential energy?

RQ6: What are the advantages of converting waste biomass into useful bioenergy?

Research Aim

The research undertaken helps in estimating the potential energy produced from the waste biomass of five crops such as Wheat, oats, potato, sugar beet, and Barley.

The Objective of this research paper is to focus on predicting the solution of the following research questions undertaken:

  • Statistics of the data related to the production of the crops placed by the government
  • Generation of the waste biomass by different crops
  • Research study on the properties of the crops
  • Data related to the generation of waste biomass
  • Classification of the part of the plant which is utilized for the generation of the waste biomass
  • Processing undertaken for the agricultural practices of the crops
  • Potential waste generated from each crop
  • Determining of the equipment required for the accumulation of the waste biomass
  • Calculation procedure for the calculation of the waste biomass
  • Conversion of biomass to the potential energy

Rational for Investigation

The undertaking research study helps in analysing the effect of biomass and bioenergy on achieving the sustainability of the environment. The contribution of the research study is that is that it helps in reducing the constraints associated with the environment protection mechanism. The increasing growth of industrialization and urbanisation has direct ill-effects on the green environment of UK. The calculation and estimation of bio energy produced from the waste biomass helps in analysing the facts and figures for contributing towards the maintenance of protection mechanism of the environment (Energy, 2016). From the study, it can be predicted that it will be the most acceptable form of energy in the coming future.

The UK government is continuously working to find out the alternate solutions for conducting low emission carbon based energy resources. It is found that the waste biomass energy is the considerable solution to be used for low carbon biomass energy (Crocker, and Crofchek, 2006). The UK government is planning for transforming their energy production to the utilization of the bioenergy. The following graph shows in 2020, most of the energy is supplied to the nation from renewable form of energy i.e. 31% of the total energy sources.

Figure 1


(Source: Kajikawa, and Takeda, 2008. Structure of research on biomass and bio-fuels: A citation based approach. 1st. ed.)

The UK government is focusing towards biomass energy production and other sources of renewable energy. Every year the production of renewable energy is increasing tremendously up to 5.3%. The utilization of biomass helps in providing clean and sustainable environment to the UK residents (Faij, 2006). The global warming issues can be effectively reduced by indulging biomass energy production which focuses on reducing the carbon components from the environment. The zero cost is required for managing the raw material for the production of bio energy because it is based on the waste accumulated from the crops production and agricultural yield (Rawat, 2016). The following graph shows the accelerated growth of using the renewable source of energy production.

Figure 2

(Source: Kajikawa, and Takeda, 2008. Structure of research on biomass and bio-fuels: A citation based approach. 1st. ed.)


Categorisation of Biomass Sources:

The waste biomass can be collected from various sources such as plants, crops, and animals. The availability of biomass helps in effective development of biomass energy which can be utilized for processing units of small and medium sized organization (Indian Institute  of science, 2014). The research undertaken helps in estimating the potential energy produced from the waste biomass of five crops such as Wheat, oats, potato, sugar beet, and Barley. The virgin wood is the wood collected from bark, sawdust, logs, and brash. The sugar crops, starch crops, and the oil crops comes under the category of agricultural energy crops. The continuous power supply can be effectively managed with the utilization of waste biomass (IBSS, 2012). The following diagram shows the clear categorisation of the different sources of biomass.

Rationale for Investigation

Figure 3


(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

Process of Biomass Energy Conversion

The process of biomass conversion starts with the accumulation of the waste biomass collected from different sources to convert it into required bio energy and ends up with the use of biomass energy for the industrial and domestic purposes. There are four processes involved in the biomass conversion process which are categorised as biomass resources and its collections, process of supply system, conversion process, and End use of the bio energy (Panepinto, Zanetti, Gitelman, Kozhevnikov, Magaril, and Magaril, 2017).

The biomass resources can be collected from conventional forest areas, short rotation forest areas, sawdust conversion process, residues of agricultural crop production, oil crops, starch crops, and sugar crops, animal products, municipal solid waste, and industrial waste (McKendry, 2002). The supply system is the collection of various processes such as harvesting, collection, handling, delivery and storage. The conversion of biomass energy is the amalgamation of various processes such as biochemical processes, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestions, combined heat and power, heating, de-oxygenation, depolymerisation, hydrolysis, and fermentation. The bioenergy is used for transportation fuels, heat, electricity, solid fuels, renewable construction materials, plant based pharmaceutical, and renewable chemical including polymers (GCEP analysis, 2005). The following diagram shows the clear differentiation of the processes:

Figure 4

(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

The following table shows the cost of different biomass collected from the numerous resources:

Table 1

Type of Biomass

Central Price

Price Range

Wood fuels from forest in the form of chips

2.5

2.0 to 3.0

Wood fuels from forest in the form of logs

2.0

1.5 to 2.5

Variety of energy crops

2.5

2.6 to 3.6

SRC

3.4

2.8 to 3.6

Miscanthus

3.2

2.5 to 3.4

Arboricultural

2.6

2.1 to 3.2

Straw

2.0

2.2 to 3.4

Waste wood

1.8

1.2 to 3.5

UK government and Waste Biomass

The government takes several policies and agendas for developing bioenergy from the biomass collected from different crops such as oats, barley, wheat, potato, and sugar beet to generate bioenergy for domestic and industrial consumptions. The government is looking forward for minimising the potential problems associated with the collection and accumulation of waste biomass in the environment. The utilization of biomass for converting it into bio energy helps in minimizing the carbon emission from industries and houses. The heat energy and electricity can be generated from the bioenergy for domestic and industrial purposes. The government should undertake some strategic plan for the effective distribution of the bioenergy for domestic and industrial usage by the small and medium sized industries. In the United Kingdom, 5.5 % bioenergy  is consumed for performing business operations of the big organizations. It increases the dependability of the industries on the renewable form of energy. It helps in reducing 1.3m tonnes of carbon di oxide in the environmental surroundings which ultimately helps in reducing the level of pollution and effects of global warming. The strategy should be developed for consuming the bio-energy up to 31% till the year 2020.

Characteristics of the energy crops:

The energy crops are categorised into three categories such as oil crops, sugar crops, and starch crops. In the undertaking research study we have taken oats as oil crops, sugar beet as sugar crops and wheat, Barley, and potato as starch crops. The energy crops are undertaken for the research study because they can be kept for much longer duration of time in-situ, harvesting of the energy crops in done in winters and spring seasons, they are deep rooted, and others. The following diagram shows the different kinds of energy crops.

Categorization of Biomass Sources

Figure 5

(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

Bioenergy conversion process

The combustion process is the most frequently used process for converting the waste biomass into heat energy. The biomass acts as a fuel for house hold purposes such as drying, cooking, and others. The combustion furnaces are developed for minimizing the emission of carbon and its compound during the conversion process. The steam produced from the combustion process is used for generating the turbine for converting the CO2 emission into the production of electricity. The house hold works can be effectively done with the use of electricity produced from the combustion process.

Underfeed Stokers:

These biomass energy production system are developed and designed for producing less amount of energy i.e. up to 6 Mega watt. In this process, very less amount of ash is collected during the process of combustion for conversion into bio-energy which helps in retaining sustainability of the environment. The unstable condition of combustion is arised due to the accumulation of ash component on the upper surface of the furnace.

Grate Stokers:

It is the most commonly combustion process which is based on burning the fuel bed. The three main processes are underlying in the grate stoker combustion system which are classified as initialization of the fuel drying process, burning of the volatile components of the biomass, and complete combustion process with the release of negligible amount of residue. It is the most reliable technology for the conversion of biomass into bio-energy.

Fluidized Bed boiler:

It is used for converting the waste biomass collected from different sources into the heat energy. It is used for producing 10 to 30 mega watt electricity for industrial and domestic purposes. The 10 megawatt bioenergy plant is based on bubbling fluidized bed and 30 megawatt bioenergy plant is based on circulating fluidized bed (Dalwadi, Patel, Upadhyay, 2016).

The united Kingdom is the agricultural dependent country. 69% area of the country is utilized for the development of the agricultural field to grow variety of crops such as wheat, barley, oat, potato, sugar beet, ant etc. 476,000 people are involved in the development of the agricultural field in the country. The farmers are equipped with the high technological advanced resources for making the soil fertile to produce good yield of the crops grown over the area. The farmers are provided with the low rates of their production. The earnings of the farmers are limited. The farmers are working hard to improve their profitability from the production therefore they started looking forward to develop source income from the organic farming which depends on the waste produced from the plant production. The production of the biofuels helps in increasing the profit of the farmers at much higher rates. The cost of the fossil fuels depends on the energy produced by them. The farmers are becoming aware of the utilization program of waste produced by their assets to convert them into profit. The residues accumulated from the agricultural farms with the growth of different cereals such as wheat, barley, oat, potato, sugar beet, ant etc.

Figure 6

Part of the potato which is used for generating waste:

(Source: Google Image)

Figure 7

Part of the Wheat which is used for generating waste:

(Source: Google Image)

Figure 8

Part of the Oats which is used for generating waste:

(Source: Google Image)

Figure 9

Part of the Barley which is used for generating waste:

(Source: Google Image)

Figure 10

Part of the Sugarbeet which is used for generating waste:

(Source: Google Image)

The survey on the agricultural farms of the cereals helps in finding out the residues accumulated in the particular farm. The table below (Lehtomaki, 2011) shows the description of the waste production from the growth of the crops produced.

Table 2

Name of the crop

Waste Produced (In percentage) (%)

Wheat

4 to 11 %

Barley

7 to 13 %

Oats

7 to 13 %

Sugar beet

14 to 21 %

Potato

13 to 17 %

Different strategies have to be placed for increasing the profits from the waste residue collected from various farms of cereals (Lehtomaki, 2011). The growth rate of the crops can be improved with the deployment of strategies like sowing variety of crops, improving fertilization, providing protection to the crop, changing practices for cultivation, rotation of the crops, and management of the crop and residue produced. Different procedures are used for the accumulation of the biogas produced from the crop cultivation (Olesen, 2015). The harvesting of the crops should be associated with the activities of storing the crops, and production of the biogas for the energy utilization in the form of heat, electricity, and others. The production of the methane gas depends on the crop yielded in the particular farm. The crops like wheat, barley, oat, potato, sugar beet, ant etc. are having high potential of producing large amount of methane gas which can be effectively utilized for producing biogas for the production of bio-energy. The conventional crops are efficient in producing large amount of waste residues which can be utilized for the management of biomass to convert it into bio-energy which in turn is capable of increasing the profitability ratio of the farmers and thereby the economy of the united kingdom. The emission of the fossil fuels helps in managing the ecological balance of the greenhouse gases. 35% of the electricity is produced from the biogas which is generated from the management of the waste biomass of the crops production. Barley and wheat are having 15% of protein, 3% of fat, 10% of water, 2% of ash, and rest is carbohydrate. The estimation of the biomass can be measured from the management of the supply chain between the production of the energy and the supply of the biomass.

The qualitative and quantitative approach in applied on calculating waste biomass of crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom. The literature review and online sources helps in collecting qualitative data on the research agenda and survey and statistical reports and related calculations helps in analysing the quantitative approach and evaluation of the waste biomass collection and production of the bio-energy with the application of different biomass production processes.

The literature review is conducted for analysing the concept of biomass energy production, accumulation of waste biomass into potential energy, analysis of the combustion process used for converting the waste biomass into useful bioenergy and its related bio-products. The review of the literature and related online sources helps in finding the gaps which exist in the research agenda. The literature review was conducted on the waste accumulated from the agricultural energy crops like potato, wheat, oats, barley, and sugar beet. The statistical reports are collected from the literature review on the five crops for analysis and estimated calculating waste biomass of crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom.

The primary source of the data collection is the literature review which is used for collecting the technical and statistics report on the energy crops. The data can be collected from the government websites for the production of agricultural crops such as Wheat, Barley, Oats, Potato, and Sugar beet in the United Kingdom (Sanke and Reddy, 2012). Surveys are conducted for gathering the statistical data on the waste biomass of different crops.

Evaluation and Analysis of Data collected

The data collected from the online and offline sources are used for analysing the waste biomass of the different crops according to their characteristics and waste parts collected from the harvesting of the agricultural yield. It helps in analysing the utilization of the waste produced in the development of the waste energy. The key concept is to develop a strategic approach for collecting the waste biomass and converting it into bioenergy. The analysis of the agricultural crops and its associated waste and relative bio-energy produced should be undertaken.

Statistics of the data related to the production of the crops placed by the government

In the survey, on the production of different crops (wheat, barley, oat, potato, sugar beet) which are undertaken in the research study we come across that they come under the top 20 agricultural crops produced by the country (Department for environment, 2017). The crop residue of wheat, barley, and sugar beet is used for producing the bio-ethanol for the use of corporate sector. The residue of crops and oats is used for producing bio-diesel and bio-tar. The volume of the bio-fuels produced from the waste biomass has been increased in the last five years due to the awareness of the people toward the environment and making use of renewable energy. The statistics collected from different sources is helpful in estimating the bioenergy produced from the different crop residue. The bioethanol, fossil fuels, and biodiesel are the by-products of the bioenergy produced through the transformation process of biomass generated from different crops collected. The following graph (Sharma, 2013)shows that wheat, barley, sugar beet, potato, and oats are the top five crops grown in the United Kingdom:

Figure 11

The early bird survey of 2018 (Gross, 2010)helps in analysing the production of wheat, barley, and oats are the top most crops produced by the United Kingdom.

Figure 12

40% of the land is utilized in the deployment of the agricultural practices of the crops which are taken under research study (Wheat, barley, oats, sweet beet, and potato). From the year 2015, the wheat becomes the second larger crop produced in the country. 9.0 tonnes per hectare yield is produced by the country (Gross, 2010). The following pie chart shows the comparison between the production of cereal in the year 2014 and 2015 because from the year 2015 the production of the cereals is becoming constant.

Figure 13

The difference in the crop production produced during the year 2014 and 2015 is graphically represented:

Figure 14

From the figure it is estimated that the production of wheat is decreased from 16.6 to 16.4 in the year 2015. The level of production of the spring barley and the winter barley is increased. The change in the production of cereals during the past year 2014 and 2015 is depicted from the table below (Gilbert, 2014):

Table 3

Crops

Yield produced per hectare (Tonnes)

Change in Percentage (%)

Production in tonnes

Change in percentage(%)

2016

2017

2016

2017

Wheat

8.6

9.1

4.7

16 605

16443

-1.1

Winter Barley

6.5

6.8

4.7

6910

7375

6.4

Spring barley

5.8

6.2

3.2

3818

3989

4.6

Oats

6.1

6.2

1.8

821

123

-7.3

Potato

5.0

4.5

-3.6

4554

4557

2.3

Sugar beet

4.3

4.5

1.2

7321

8222

5.4

Waste Biomass Produced by every crop under research study:

In the year 2016, the harvesting of the cereals like wheat and barley is decreased due to unfavourable climatic condition. The wheat is the second larger crop in the production. 29 thousands of hectares land is occupied for the harvesting of wheat over the country. The following graph shows the difference in the production of wheat in the year 2014 and 2015 at different location. The production of barley is increased from 4.6 % to 6.7 % tonnes per hectare. The highest yield is produced on the location named as Humber region in UK which is 7.7 tonnes per hectare. The agricultural farms supporting the production of the different crops are increased due to the benefit gained from the bio-energy utilization. The lowest production of barley is at location of Merseyside and North-West of UK which is around of 5.4 tonnes per hectare. The biomass produced from the different cereals are comprised of different characteristics such as content of moisture in it, demonstration of the calorific value, rate of carbon present, content of ash and residue, content of alkali metal, and cellulose (Department of food and rural affairs, 2015). The moisture content of the biomass can be controlled by the drying process. The exhibition of the moisture helps in producing good quality crop residue which increases the efficiency of the potential energy. The quantification of the biomass is done on the basis of dry biomass. The following table (Vasile, 2016) shows the percentage of biomass characteristics in different crops undertaken for study:

Table 4

Biomass of the crop

Percentage of Moisture present (%)

Volatile matter percentage(%)

Fixed carbon content(%)

Ash(%)

Lower Heating value (LHV)

(Mg/Kg)

Wheat

21

83

17

2

18.7

Barley

17

60

22

5

17.5

Oats

31

45

19

7

16.2

Potato

35

30

32

6

28.7

Sugar beet

12

36

46

9

35

The following table (Vasile, 2016) shows the content of carbon, nitrogen hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and ash in the crops undertaken for study which helps in judging the quality of the crop residue:

Table 5

Crop

Carbon (%)

Hydrogen (%)

Oxygen (%)

Nitrogen (%)

Sulphur (%)

Ash (%)

Wheat

56.0

6.5

37.5

0.2

0.1

0.3

Barley

49.8

6.8

43.2

0.3

0.1

0.45

Oats

56.1

6.2

41.2

0.5

< 0.1

1.2

Potato

48.2

6.2

39.2

0.4

0.1

2.3

Sugar beet

41.1

5.6

38.6

0.25

<0.1

0.67

Research study on the properties of the crops:

The research on the crops helps in analysing the percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, and oil present in the wheat, barley, oats, sugar beet, and potato. The significance of these components helps in measuring the quality of the biomass produced by the accumulation of the crop produced. The analysis of these components helps in balancing the ecological balance in the conversion process. Barley and wheat are having 15% of protein, 3% of fat, 10% of water, 2% of ash, and rest is carbohydrate. The following table (Falvey, 2010) shows the analysis of the crops to represent the amount of value present of carbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, and etc.

Table 6

Crop

Carbohydrate (%)

Protein (%)

Fat (%)

Fibre (%)

Oil (%)

Wheat

55.0

6.6

38

0.4

Barley

49.8

6.8

43.1

0.3

Oats

51.7

6.4

41.5

Potato

51.3

6.4

41.2

0

0.2

Sugar beet

48.2

5.6

23.5

0.5

0.4

The following properties (Falvey, 2010) should be taken under consideration during the election of the crops for generating the waste biomass for the production of bio-energy.

Table 7

Crops

Types of waste

Moisture content (%)

High heating value (MJ/KG)

Fixed carbon content (%)

Variable moisture content (%)

Ash content (%)

Alkali Metal content

Wheat

6.6

21.5

17.2

82.5

0.5

4.6

Barley

8.1

20.2

18.3

72.3

1.2

15.2

Oats

60

21.4

19.6

79.4

1.3

12.23

Potato

42

17.3

13.2

66.5

2.1

11.34

Sugar beet

45

18.5

23.8

35.2

4.2

14.32

Research on the generation of waste biomass:

The analysis of the crop production helps in analysing the residue components which present in the wheat, barley, oats, potato, and sugar beet. The development of the power plant helps in the conversion of the waste biomasss into the production of efficient energy. Different power plant works on collection of crop residues such as stalk, husks, bagasse, and others (Renewable energy association, 2016). The bioenergy produced from different power plant is supplied to industries like rice and sugar.

Classification of the part of the plant which is utilized for the generation of the waste biomass

Wheat is the second larger production in the United Kingdom. There are two types of variety of wheat which are classified as hard wheat and the soft wheat. The hard wheat is responsible for producing husks and pod as a biomass produced. The soft wheat is responsible for producing bagasse for the production of bioenergy. Barley and wheat are having 15% of protein, 3% of fat, 10% of water, 2% of ash, and rest is carbohydrate. Hard wheat produce more biomass waste than soft wheat. The following table (Das, 2013) shows which part of the plant is used for converting the waste biomass accumulated into the potential energy.

Table 8

Sn.

Feedstock

Trade

Conversion technology

Calorific value

Mg/kg

Potential of biogas

Tonnes

Busk density

Kg/m3

Ash content

%

Moisture content

%

1

Wheat

Bales

Fermentation and combustion process

16.7 to 20.2

240 to 445

25 to 45

No data required

No data required

2

Barley

Bales

Fermentation and combustion process

16.7 to 20.2

240 to 445

25 to 45

No data required

No data required

3

Oats

Pelletized

Combustion

15.2 to 19.2

Not required

220 to 265

0.3 to 1.6

10 to 55

4

Potato

Shredded

Fermentation and combustion

14.9 to 20.6

240 to 440

20 to 45

6.7

1.5

5

Sugar beet

Pelletized

Combustion and fermentation

18.9

240 to 325

30 to  50

4.5 to 9.2

1.5

Processing undertaken for the agricultural practices of the crops

The wheat is grown in the plenty and little rain condition. 400mm of rain is required for the irrigation. Loamy soil is the best suitable soil for the growth of the wheat production. Mild winter is the suitable climate for the wheat healthy production.

Modern technology is used for the production of the wheat with the use of mechanical sowers and the drilling methods are shown in the table below (Das, 2013).

Table 9

Crop

Soil Required

Rainfall

mm

Temperature

Centigrade

Season

Modern technology

Wheat

Loamy soil

400 mm

20 – 25 centigrade

Hot and dry summer

Drilling methods, broadcasting methods, tractors, and mechanical sowers (Zhang, 2012).

Barley

Clayey and sandy soil or loamy soil with the Ph of 6-7

390 to 430 mm

5 to 27 centigrade

May- June

Drilling methods, broadcasting methods, tractors, and mechanical sowers (Ignatius, 2016).

Potato

Well-drained clayey soil

300 mm

15 to 20 centigrade

All over the year

Crop rotation

Oats

Well drained loamy soil

120 to 150 mm

15 to 25

January to march

Techniques for seed germination

Sugar beet

Sandy soil and clayey soil of ph 6.5 to 7

460 mm

15 to 21 centigrade

February to April

Crop rotation

The methodology which is opted for the production of bio-energy from the waste biomass includes various step which are described below:

Crop selection procedure:

The crop is selected on the basis of the residue collected from the drops like husk, pod, bales, and etc. The residue production ratio can be calculated for categorising the type of residue collected from different crops which are taken under research study. The potential constraints which are discovered during the course work are categorised as climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation and bio-geographical factors such as biodiversity, altitudes, water supply, and nutrient availability (Eurostat statistics explained, 2017).

Estimating the potential of the crop residue:

The by-products of the crops can be measured on the basis of the quality of the crop residue. The potential of developing energy depend on the amount of gross residue produced from the crops.

Gross residue potential:

The three parameters are used for measuring the gross residue potential are named as land area, crop yield, and residue production ratio (Saeed, 2011).

Surplus residue potential:

The surplus residue potential can be calculated on the basis of number of crops and the quality of crop residue (Kumar, 2015).

Estimating the potential of the bioenergy:

The potential of the bioenergy depends on the gross residue potential, surplus residue potential, and their resultant variation (Eurostat, 2015).

Potential waste generated from each crop

The quality of the crop residue helps in determining the amount of potential energy produced from the biomass collected for processing (Omer, 2011). The crop residue which is used for production should have very low amount of moisture content in it to yield higher amount of heat content. The pre-treatment of the crops to convert it into dry biomass helps in reducing the amount of moisture present in it. The implementation of anaerobic digestion process is helpful in adding more amount of hydrogen and carbon component in it. The balance of the components present in the crops is maintained by the wheat, barley and sugar beet while the contents can changed in potato and oats due to the application of anaerobic digestion (Leff, 2010).  The following table (Foley, 2004) shows heating values generated from the crops undertaken:

Table 10

Crop

Residue

Heating value MJ / Kg

Wheat

Straw

15.54

Husk

15.54

Barley

Straw

1.3

Sugar beet

Bagasse

20

Top and leaves

20

Potato

Stalk

1.1

Peel

3

Oats

Cob

0.34

Stalk

0.3

Husk

4

The following table (Foley, 2004) shows the difference in the gross potential and surplus potential energy produced:

Table 11

Crop

Gross potential Tonnes

Surplus potential Tonnes

Wheat

131.1

28.4

Barley

1.6

0.3

Oats

0.6

3.5

Potato

6..3

1.4

Sugar beet

110.6

55.8

The following table shows the risks and constraints associate with the potential resources. The potential constraints which are discovered during the course work are categorised as climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation and bio-geographical factors such as biodiversity, altitudes, water supply, and nutrient availability. The production of the biomass can be influenced by these factors which are discussed in the table (Foley, 2004) below:

Table 12

Constraints

Research question

Description

Water

Availability of sufficient water

Requirement of the water for long term project

Impact of water on the project

The need of water and its availability should be measured.

The bioenergy crops depends on the availability of the water.

Climatic zone

Weather hazards

Supply of biomass

Risk assessment of the weather condition

Mapping of the digital tool for measuring the weather condition in relation to the rainfall and temperature

Ideal condition for crops

Availability of land and soil

Suitability of the soil

Circulation of the epidemic speicies

The soil should be suitable for the healthy growth of the plant

The epidemic species can harm the plantation of the crops. Grazing farming system should be implemented.

Determining of the equipment required for the accumulation of the waste biomass

The awareness program should be arranged for managing the ecological balance for the production of energy produced (Department of food and rural affairs, 2015). The accumulation of bio waste helps in generating bio energy which is eco-friendly. The by-products of the agricultural crops should be accumulated for generating the biomass. The collection of straw, husks, and chaff from different crops generate the biomass for converting it into bio fuels and bio energy (Lal, 2004). The electrical energy should be supplied to the boiler for the conversion of biomass. The fuel receptors are used for handling the moisture control on the waste biomass accumulated over the area. The focus should be given on the carbon and nitrogen components in the yield produced of the undertaking cereals because it will result in improving the quality of the waste biomass generated from the accumulation of the crops (Kendry, 2002). Arable lands are used for collecting cereals to create waste biomass. The crops which are collected for developing the waste biomass are wheat, barley, oats, potato, and sugar beet. The crops were calculated from 30 different field located at 5 different locations. The biometric factors for every crops are calculated for measuring the numbers, diameter, length, and accumulation of the mass at each internode.

The equipment which are used for the conversion of biomass into potential energy are listed below:

  • Good quality steam boiler for the deployment of biomass combustion plant
  • Bubbling fluidized bed technology is used with the combination of boiler to develop the power plant.
  • Circulating fluidized bed is used for combining with the water and steam boiler for the construction of the biomass plant
  • Deployment of the organic Rankine cycle.
  • Anaerobic digestion in the biogas plant.

The following table (Joint nature conservation committee, 2009) shows the deployment of the technology in the construction of biomass plant during different phases:

Table 13

Technology

Research and development phase

Demonstration

Early commercial

Commercial

Water and steam boiler

Bubbling fluidizied bed

Circulating fluidized bed

Organic rankine cycle

Downdraft gasification

Updraft gasification

Fluid bed

Torrefaction

Pyrolysis

The following table (Joint nature conservation committee, 2009) shows the type of biomass and technology applied on it:

Table 14

Biomass

Typical humidity (%)

Technology applied

Wheat

>65%

Biogas technology

Barley

>65%

Biogas technology

Oats

<60 %

Combustion technology

Potato

< 60 %

Combustion technology

Sugar beet

< 60 %

Combustion technology

Handling of biomass and energy produced:

The fuel received from the biomass accumulation and treatment should be handled carefully for storing purposes (Frear, 2005). The boilers are used for converting the biomass into subsequent potential energy. The release of the fuel gases should be kept under pressure in the steam boiler. The electrical energy should be supplied to the boiler for the conversion of biomass. The fuel receptors are used for handling the moisture control on the waste biomass accumulated over the area. The fuel yard management is used for storing the biomass. Shredding, drying, and grinding process is used for handling the fuel oil. The risk associated factor in relation to the fire should be handled carefully. Environmental issues with the government and local community should be resolved for managing the supply of biomass to the bioplant organized for the production of bio-energy.

Reception of the fuel:

The reception of the fuel focuses on managing the moisture control in the biomass used for producing the energy. The fuel supplier is responsible for the delivery of the fuel at the destination. The biomass is kept for 24 hours at the temperature of 430 centigrade to control the moisture content present in the biomass and convert it into dry biomass.

Preparation of the biomass for the production of potential energy:

Three processes are involved for the preparation of biomass to produce potential energy which are named as drying, pelleting, and grinding and shredding process. The moisture content of the biomass can be controlled by the drying process. The exhibition of the moisture helps in producing good quality crop residue which increases the efficiency of the potential energy.

Calculation procedure for the calculation of the waste biomass

The waste biomass collected is stored at dryer for the period of 24 hours in the temperature of 105 centigrade. The parameters which are calculated for estimating the waste biomass are highlighted below:

  • The mass density of the internode is calculated on the basis of area 1cm. sq.
  • The calculation of the ratio between the dry weight of the grain and total weight of the grain which is called as harvest index.
  • The accumulation of energy on the basis of harvest index with the union of straw and husks
  • The multiplication of the mass with the production of straw is used for calculating analogical calculation.
  • Straw loss in different natural climatic condition

20 atmospheric pressure and 10 kilolitre higher heating value of the biomass is used for measuring the energy concentration produced from the waste biomass. The following indicators are used for the calculation of waste biomass. UDM is the unit which is used for calculating energy produced by the dry matter of the waste biomass shown in the calorimeter. Internodal Mass is the mass of the moisture content in the dry matter if present.

WI = UDM * Internodal mass of the dry matter (Eurostat statistics explained, 2017)

CE = ∑ WI1 + WI2………..Win

SI = WI * 100 / CE (Eurostat statistics explained, 2017)

Where WI stands for value of whole internode

CE stands for total energy produced by the units of dry matter

SI stands for share of energy produced by the dry matter.

For Example:

Wheat:

Internodal mass of dry matter = weight of the grain / total weight of the dry mass

Weight of the grain = 1.116

Total weight of the dry mass = 3.592

Total Internodal mass of dry matter = 1.116 / 3/592

= 0.310

Similarly we will calculate for every unit of Barley, wheat, and etc.

WI = UDM * Internodal mass of the dry matter

WI1 = 17.94 * 1.02

     = 18.29

WI1= 17.57 * 2.98

       =52.35

Similarly,we will calculate WI2 …….Win

Than, Summation of all the value of the whole internode to calculate total energy produced.

One way ANOVA method is used for the analysis of the waste biomass.

The following table (Joint nature conservation committee, 2009) shows the difference in the characteristics value of the different crops which are taken:

Table 15

Characteristics of the crop

Wheat

Barley

Oats

Potato

Sugar beet

Length (m)

2.9

8.5

13.4

17.4

22.5

Low heating value (MJ / Kg)

0.26

0.32

0.48

0.86

1.24

Weight (Kg)

0.058

0.175

0.243

0.296

0.312

Diameter (mm)

0.005

0.013

0.019

0.021

0.027

Level of significance

3.15

3.93

3.94

3.73

2.76

The following table (Slade, 2015) shows the difference in the characteristics of the internode taken for crops:

Table 16

Internodes

Wheat

Barley

Potato

Oats

Sugar beet

Length mm

1

6.2

4.5

4.7

4.7

4.2

2

12.4

11.8

9.8

11.3

9.6

3

24.1

16.7

13.6

14.9

13.8

4

38.8

21.9

22.8

20.8

18.2

5

28.5

29.3

18.7

35.4

80.8

83.4

80.3

70.4

81.1

Weight Tonnes

1

0.141

0.093

0.052

0.078

0.061

2

0.246

0.210

0.214

0.217

0.132

3

0.361

0.234

0.332

0.241

0.198

4

0.369

0.231

0.320

0.280

0.291

5

0.176

0.312

0.348

0.294

1.116

0.944

1.464

1.405

0.976

Table below (Slade, 2015) shows the Calculation of dry weight according to the characteristics of the crops:

Table 17

Internodes

Wheat

Barley

Potato

Oats

Sugar beet

Calculation of dry biomass per unit length Kg /M

1

22.77

21.98

21.98

31.12

25.88

2

19.56

22.30

17.69

25.84

23.18

3

15.33

19.41

13.91

22.48

20.31

4

9.90

16.13

10.62

18.67

16.66

5

11.05

6.25

14.99

10.00

LSD

0.847

1.349

1.236

3.263

2.007

Calculation of dry biomass per unit weight Kg / M

1

12.7

5.3

10.1

3.7

9.8

2

21.7

15.7

22.1

14.6

17.3

3

32.5

22.4

24.7

22.6

21.4

4

33.2

29.4

24.5

21.8

29.3

5

27.1

18.6

21.5

22.2

LSD

3.952

0.847

0.861

1.454

1.278

The table below (Slade, 2015) shows the estimation of the energy produced by the dry matter accumulated from the crop taken:

Table 18

Internode

Wheat

Barley

Oats

Potato

Sugar beet

UDM (KJ / g)

1

18.34

17.73

17.72

18.06

17.62

2

17.04

16.66

17.81

17.39

16.79

3

17.59

17.98

17.80

18.37

17.38

4

17.69

16.56

17.78

18.47

16.22

5

17.56

17.07

16.87

18.31

16.61

LSD

0.12

0.16

0.08

0.13

0.21

WI (KJ)

1

2.84

1.30

0.93

1.08

1.05

2

4.07

3.73

3.80

2.34

2.08

3

6.53

5.48

5.73

3.62

1.98

4

6.26

7.34

5.45

5.38

2.07

5

6.67

5.45

5.35

1.53

0.97

0.40

0.62

0.44

0.24

SI in CE%

14.3

5.3

10.4

3.5

10.0

20.7

15.4

21.5

15.0

17.6

33.2

22.3

25.7

22.2

21.7

31.8

29.8

23.9

21.6

28.2

27.2

18.5

22.3

22.6

LSD

3.98

0.84

0.90

1.21

1.31

Table 19

Indicators

Year

1

2

3

4

5

6

UDM (KJ / g)

2016

17.94

17.57

17.24

17.46

17.39

17.63

2017

18.13

16.83

18.08

16.91

17.66

17.01

LSD

0.06

0.12

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.22

WI kg

2016

1.02

2.98

4.27

5.24

5.51

4.49

2017

1.58

2.87

3.61

4.10

3.71

4.50

LSD

0.13

0.24

0.33

0.35

25.5

SI in CE %

0.57

0.70

0.63

0.99

1.66

0.99

From the above calculation it is estimated that significance can be given to the electricity produced through the accumulation of the biomass waste. 20% of the potential energy produced through the biomass is used for transmission of electricity to the destination area such as industrial sector and commercial sector. 30 to 45% I used for generating the steam turbines of the biogas power plant. The 60% of the efficiency can be increased by the integration of integrated gasification combined cycle. 20 % of the energy is supplied to the power plant generation. 20 atmospheric pressure and 10 kilolitre higher heating value of the biomass is used for measuring the energy concentration produced from the waste biomass. 35% of the electricity is produced from the biogas which is generated from the management of the waste biomass of the crops production.  The efficiency of the steam and water boiler depends on the quality of the crop residue which is used for the conversion of biomass.

Conversion of biomass to the potential energy

The four conversion techniques are used for converting the waste biomass of the crops to the required potential energy to increase the efficiency of the specific product which are categorised (Sahiti, 2014) below:

Table 20

S.no.

Types of conversion methodology

Description

1.

Thermal conversion of biomass into potential energy

The oxygen and the heat is supplied to the conversion of biomass material into the specific form of required energy.

2.

Thermochemical conversion of biomass into potential energy

The chemical process and the quantity of heat is supplied for the conversion of biomass into potential energy

3.

Biochemical conversion of biomass into potential energy

Accumulation of enzymes, microorganism, and bacteria are used for the conversion of biomass into potential energy through the process of fermentation and anaerobic digestion

4

Chemical conversion of biomass into potential energy

Biomass is converted into chemical energy through the accumulation of chemical agents.

Thermal conversion:

There are different processes which comes under the thermal conversion of the biomass to the potential energy such as pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and torrefaction. The oxygen and the heat is supplied to the conversion of biomass material into the specific form of required energy. The description of each process (Department for environment, 2017)  is given below:

Table 21

Category

Types of processes

Description

Thermal conversion

Combustion

The furnaces and boilers are used for providing direct combustionfor driving the turbines to produce relevant potential energy.The air and water is supplied for he conversion of biomass into the relevant potential energy. The transformation of the renewable energy is done through the process of co-firing.

Gasification

Combined heat and power supply is supplied for the production of heat and electricity. The waste heat is directly used for heating the equipment.

Torrefaction

The biomass is converted into potential energy in the absense of oxygen. 200 to 320 centigrade temperature is required for the conversion of waste biomass to the potential energy. The process of torrefaction is applied during the pre-treatment of the biomass at the temperature of 300 to 400 centigrade in the absence of oxygen for developing into volatile biomass components.

Pyrolysis

430 centigrade high temperature is required for the generation of potential energy at pressurized environment wih the suply of low amount of energy. The biochar is the form of charcoal which is collected as the by-product of this process.

Thermochemical conversion:

The use of chemicals and fuel gases are used for converting the biomass to the potential energy through the process of thermochemical conversion. Multiple processes are laid down in the complete cycle. The fuel gases are released in the first stage of conversion process. The gases are then converted into oils through the process of condensation. The syngas is produced in the third stage of thermochemical conversion which contains high amount of carbon and hydrogen which are capable of producing ammonia and other lubricants. The chemical process and the quantity of heat is supplied for the conversion of biomass into potential energy. The use of turbo generator plays an important role in production of the electricity. The crop residue which is used for generating the electricity should be in the range of 17 to 21 MJ/KG. The analysis of alkali metal helps in knowing the quality of the residue. 

Gasification:

The high temperature is applied to the waste biomass for the conversion into fuel gas. The partial conversion is to be undertaken for producing gas and charcoal by the proce of chemical reduction. Gasifier is implemented for the designing and implementing waste biomass. 800 centigrade temperature is supplied in the process of gasification. In this process combined heat and power supply is supplied for the production of heat and electricity. The waste heat is directly used for heating the equipment.The energy produced by the biomass plantation can be doubled with the use of gasifiers for the production of electricity at large scale. The direct coupling process is applied to the process for the movement of the gas turbines.

Biochemical Conversion:

The accumulation of the microorganism is applied on the waste biomass for producing the large amount of ethanol. The treatment of waste biomass helps in producing ethanol through the process of fermentation. The fuel and fertilizers are processed through the anaerobic digestion process to carrying out the breakdown process of organic component. The main process which is used in the biological conversion of the waste biomass is the process of anaerobic digestion. Accumulation of enzymes, microorganism, and bacteria are used for the conversion of biomass into potential energy through the process of fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

Anaerobic digestion:

The microorganism react in the oxygen free environment for the breaking down of the organic products through the process of anaerobic digestion. The crop residues are rich in methane and carbon components for the preparation of manure. The emission is released from the landfills for treating the waste water management system. Multi-stage process is laid down for the determination of the anaerobic digestion. 0 to 60 degree temperature is supplied to the biomass for converting it into biogas components.

Fermentation:

The yeast is used for converting the carbohydrates into alcoholfor the production of bioethanol. The waste biomass is combined with water to form slurry. The application of enzymes on the slurry is responsible for breaking down into simpler and finer slurry. The glucose sugar is prepared from the starch with the use of enzymes. The fermentation of the sugary sluury is done with the process of 40 to 50 hours fermentation to prepare alcohol.

Chemical Conversion

The chemical conversion process is used for converting the biomass into different forms of useable energy with the application of sequence of chemicl interaction. The most commonly used chemical converion process is named as transesterfication. This process is used for making oils from the fatty acids and alcohol from the accumulation of grease and fats.The viscosity of the fatty acids can be reduced through the process of combustion. Biodeisel is prepared from the bio-oil collected from the conversion process of waste biomass.  Biomass is converted into chemical energy through the accumulation of chemical agents.

The raw biomass is treated with the solar energy to make it into dry biomass. The process of gasification is applied on the raw biomass for the release of carbon, hydrogen, and hydrocarbon. The quality of the bio-energy produced through the conversion process of biomass depend on the measurement of moisture content in it. The biomass is pre-treated to minimize the moisture content in it through the accumulation of high temperature with the support of water and steam boiler. The calorific value of thefuel can be measured on measuring the ash component present in the system. The power generation through the biomass components helps in managing the ecological balance with the environment. The compression technique applied on the biomass for reducing the size of it to be handled easily and hence reducing the cost of transportation. The quality of the crop residue depend on the the alkanity of the soil components during the growth of the plant because it helps in inducing the required amount of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen components in the crop residue whih are essential for the production of ethanol. The process of torrefaction is applied during the pre-treatment of the biomass at the temperature of 300 to 400 centigrade in the absence of oxygen for developing into volatile biomass components. 

  1. Time Plan

Work Breakdown Structure:

Gantt chart

Results and Discussion

Description of Crops Undertaken for research

a. Wheat:

The wheat crops in first largely produced crop in UK. 23% of the total agricultural yield of the wheat is used for accumulation of waste biomass. 1354000 tonnes is the total residue produced from the agricultural yield in UK. The wheat straw is the main part of the wheat which is used for waste accumulation (Omer, 2011).  The parts of wheats which are used as a waste biomass for the production of the bio-energy are categorised as Sawdust, wood chips, peat, bark chips, wheat straws, husk, bran, and other which ar highlighted in the figure below

Figure 15

(source: Google image)

b. Potato

The potato is the international crop which is available in around 4000 varieties across the world. It was grown from 16th century. It is the fourth largest agricultural crops produced in the world. Potato is the stem tuber which is used as cooked food for eating.

Figure 16

(Source: Google Image)

The following graph shows the top 10 varieties which are grown in UK in the year 2016

Figure 17

(Source: Google Image)

The research study helps in analysing that in the year 2017, the potato production was around 4,876,000 approx. tonnes in the United Kingdom only. The 139,000 hectare area is used for the production of the potato in the UK. With the aggressive consumption of the potato, the government has to import 1.3 million tonnes potato in the country for managing the supply and demand of the potato. Root, stems, fruit, and leaves are the main parts of the potato which are used for waste biomass.

c. Barley

The Barley is the energy rick agricultural crop which is 6 largely produced crop in UK. Cellulose, starch, bagasse, acetyl groups, ash, and proteins are the major components of the biomass collected from the waste of barley because it is protein rich agricultural crop. 6% are the barley components present in the waste biomass collected for the production of the bio-energy.

Figure 18

(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

The barley waste is used in the fermentation process of sugar, proteins, anti-oxidants, and others. 85% of the waste barley is used for recycling for the development of the by-products. It is used for the production of beer. The following diagram shows the bio-process used for generating by-products of the barley crop.

Figure 19

(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

d. Oats

The quaker oats are prepared by the process of steam boiler for the production of quaker oats products. The Oats Hull is the waste produced in the process of making quaker oats which is used for the production of bio energy. 1500 tonnes of the oats hull is used for producing the bio energy. The steam production of the boiler is used for converting the oats into quaker oats for the domestic purpose. 42% of the oats production is converted into waste biomass which can be utilized for bio energy production process. The following figure shows the parts of the oats plant which are used as fuel (Kumar, Kumar, Baredar, and Shukla, 2015).

Figure 20

(Source: Google Image)

e. Sugar Beet

The sugar beet is the lowest produced among the crops taken under study in the UK geographical location. The heavy agricultural machines are used for harvesting of the sugar beet (Sriram, 2012). The part of the sugar beet which is used as an accumulation of the waste biomass for the production of bio-energy to be consumed for domestic and the industrial purpose are shown below in the figure. The leaf, crown, and taproots are the major parts of the beet root which are used for the production of the waste biomass and relative waste energy.

Figure 21

(Source: Google Image)

The analysis of the crops parts which are used for waste biomass and production of the bioenergy helps in revealing that sugar beet is effective in producing high amount of bio energy which can be used for the operational working of the small and medium sized organization. The high amount of bio-potential energy can be gained from oats and sugar beets over the production of wheat, potato, and barley. The potato is the least producer of the bio-energy in relation to the high amount of biomass. It is advantageous to develop the agriculture farms of wheat, sugar beet and barley over oats and potatoes because they are the larger producer of bio-energy than potato and oats (Kajikawa, and Takeda, 2008). The statistical analysis of the waste consumption in producing bio-energy helps in estimating the amount of carbon component reduced in the environment for achieving sustainability. The selection of the crops for the research study depends on the agricultural production in the geographical location of the United Kingdom. The effective harvesting methods should be used so that the waste of the agricultural farms can be used for the production of the bio-fuels. In the United Kingdom, 5.5 % bioenergy  is consumed for performing business operations of the big organizations. It increases the dependability of the industries on the renewable form of energy. It helps in reducing 1.3m tonnes of carbon di oxide in the environmental surroundings which ultimately helps in reducing the level of pollution and effects of global warming. The strategy should be developed for consuming the bio-energy up to 31% till the year 2020. The following graph shows that the waste biomass of the crops will be the largest producer of bioenergy in 2025.

Figure 22

(Source: Sriram, 2012. Renewable biomass energy. 1st. ed.)

Research on the generation of waste biomass:

The analysis of the crop production helps in analysing the residue components which present in the wheat, barley, oats, potato, and sugar beet. The following table shows the analysis of the crop residues present in the variety of crops undertaken for the study:

Table 22

Crops

Production of the crops in Tonnes

Production of wastes

Residue to

Crop rotation (Tonnes)

Residue in the production (*103)

(Tonnes)

Collection

(*103) in (Tonnes)

Calorific value (MJ/Kg)

Heat content (*106)

Wheat

4823.4

Husks and stalk

0.2 and 1.5

964.8

337.64

15.17

5.13

Barley

25213.7

Pod and stalk

0.4 and 1.6

7564.15

2648.45

14.48

38.5

Sugar beet

55308.5

Bagasse and top leaves

0.35

18252.9

6386.14

15.64

97.8

Potato

3708.3

Cobs and stalk

0.4 and 3

1113.5

389.6

16.15

6.4

Oats

3245.67

Husks and stalk

0.33 and 1.5

7412.6

2593.84

14.45

6.2

Accumulation of heat content in the five crops

4.8 * 108

Obtaining energy

1400

Efficiency

40 %

Total average requirement in UK

70 %

Conclusion

In this paper, we have concluded the amount of potential energy produced from the biomass of crops wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and sugar beet. The volume of the bio-fuels produced from the waste biomass has been increased in the last five years due to the awareness of the people toward the environment and making use of renewable energy. The agricultural farms supporting the production of the different crops are increased due to the benefit gained from the bio-energy utilization. From the year 2015, the wheat becomes the second larger crop produced in the country. 9.0 tonnes per hectare yield is produced by the country. Environmental issues with the government and local community should be resolved for managing the supply of biomass to the bioplant organized for the production of bio-energy. The calorific value of thefuel can be measured on measuring the ash component present in the system. The furnaces and boilers are used for providing direct combustionfor driving the turbines to produce relevant potential energy.The air and water is supplied for he conversion of biomass into the relevant potential energy. The transformation of the renewable energy is done through the process of co-firing. The waste biomass collected is stored at dryer for the period of 24 hours in the temperature of 105 centigrade for converting it into dry biomass. 20% of the potential energy produced through the biomass is used for transmission of electricity to the destination area such as industrial sector and commercial sector. 30 to 45% I used for generating the steam turbines of the biogas power plant. The 60% of the efficiency can be increased by the integration of integrated gasification combined cycle. . The balance of the components present in the crops is maintained by the wheat, barley and sugar beet while the contents can changed in potato and oats due to the application of anaerobic digestion. The purpose of producing a bio-energy from the food crops waste is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, helps in keeping the environment clean, renewable source of energy, and others. It helps in meeting the sustainable development of the environment and urbanization of the United Kingdom. The bioethanol, fossil fuels, and biodiesel are the by-products of the bioenergy produced through the transformation process of biomass generated from different crops collected

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