Simple surface machining operations
Machining refers to a term that is used to describe removal of materials from the work pieces. The process includes; abrasive, cutting process and advanced machining process such as electrical, lasers, thermal, hydrodynamic and chemical.
Simple machine operations are systems that comprise of the following:
- Machine tools cutting tools
- Cutting parameters.
Face milling refers to the milling of surfaces which are perpendicular to the axis of the cutter. Mostly the surfaces which are generated by face milling are flat and the machine which are used works to the required length. The process of face milling the feed can either be vertical or horizontal.
In face milling, the teeth that are located at the edge of the cutter do the basic the basic cutting. Nevertheless, when the cutter is grounded properly, the face teeth essentially removes a small amount of the stock that is left due to the springing of the cutter or the workpiece.
The figure below shows the various types of face milling and face milling movements.
Profile milling covers the multi-axis milling of the concave and the convex forms into two and three dimensions. The bigger the element and the more complex the shape is to the machine, the more significant the process planning becomes.
The profile machining process is divided into three operation s.
The super-finishing milling is performed by use of the high-speed machining methods, is sometimes needed milling of the remaining stock which is referred to as rest milling that is included in finishing and semi finishing operations.
The finishing operation is needed to be carried out in a 4/5 axis machine tool which is having advanced programming and software methods.
It is the most widely used machining operation. In pocket milling the material that is inside the randomly closed boundary on the flat surface of the work piece is removed to the depth which is fixed. Usually the mills with flat bottom ends are used for pocket milling. First roughing operations are performed to remove the bulk of the materials and then the pocket is finished by a finish end mill (Olling, 2013, p. 341).
Complex surface milling using the advanced techniques
In copy milling there are many entrances and exists into the material. Nevertheless this means that powerful machines, softwares and other cutting tools are applied in very limited level.
The outcome of the copy mills include
- Heavy load on the insert centre point
- reduced tool life
- Longer cutting time and programs
- Reduced feed rates
- Form faults
- Mechanical effect
Flow line milling
Flow line milling is a new technique which is used to mill free form surfaces with tool paths which reflects the nature of the forms of the surface.
Drilling operations and setup
The drilling operations involves the choosing of the proper twist cutter or drill for the work, then properly installing the cutter into the machine spindle, settling the speed and feed, opening a hole at the centre and then the hole is drilled to the specifications and the prescribed tolerance (Smith, 2016, p. 184).
Tooling and machine set up
Set up refers to where one gets the CNC machines all ready to run.it is a requirement to ensure that it has all the required tools in the tool charger, the correct gcode program loaded and ensure that the machine is ready to run. There are set up sheets for the professionals who are in the market of carrying out CNC machine set ups.
Operations machining time optimization
Machine time optimizations in the CNC programming plays a very significant role in the planning, manufacturing process and scheduling. It is one of the key determinant factor for the estimation of cost of Niazia.
Tool path optimisation
Tool path optimization refers to the use of the softwares which embeds the simulations into the post processing phase then identify the optimal tool path and then automatically apply the results. The softwares can also be transferred between various five-axis CNC setup and machines, thus. Making adjustments without any help from the programmers
Federated tools refers to the tools that have been optimized to be used in a given group of regions, countries or organizations.
Olling, G. J., 2013. Machining Impossible Shapes: IFIP TC5 WG5.3 International Conference on Sculptured Surface Machining (SSM98) November 9–11, 1998 Chrysler Technology Center, Michigan, USA. 2nd ed. Texas: Springer.
Smith, G. T., 2016. Cutting Tool Technology: Industrial Handbook. 4th ed. London: Springer Science & Business Media, .