Discuss about the Mental Health and Mental Disorders.
Mental health is a very big challenge in Australia particularly depression and suicide. As far as depression is concerned, approximately one million people from Australia currently suffer from depression. 10,000 young people from Australia live with depression every year. Out of all the new mothers in Australia, fourteen percent of them are affected by postnatal depression Management. According to statistics, depression affects one in every seven people at some point in their lives in Australia. Furthermore, it is projected that in twenty years, apart from heart disease, depression will be one of the prominent causes of death and disability in Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016).
As far as suicide is suicide in Australia is concerned, there is a reason to worry. According to the Australian Bureau of statistics, there were 2687 deaths recorded between the year 2011 and 2015 which are as a result of suicide in Australia. According to preliminary data in 2015, there is an average of 8.3 deaths by suicide every single day. Suicide is approximately three times higher for males than it is for females. In 2015, 2.8 percent of all female deaths were attributed to suicide while on 0.9 percent of all female deaths are accredited to suicide (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016).
In Australia, the Aboriginal cultural group is at risk of depression compared to the general population in Australia. The history of the aboriginal people is marred with grief, trauma as well as the loss which are perfect ingredients for depression. There are widespread grief and trauma among the aboriginal people which be traced back in history to the time when most of them were killed and their land was taken away from them (Clancy, 2014).
Secondly, they also face a lot of discrimination based on their culture in Australia and this takes at all on them psychologically since they are made to feel inferior and insignificant compared to other populations in Australia. This lowers their self-esteem and consequently leads to depression (Flood, 2006). Thirdly, they suffer from physical health problems. This is attributed to poverty which makes it virtually impossible for them to access healthcare since they cannot afford to pay for it. Fourthly substance abuse is also a crucial risk factor. Many aboriginal people start misusing drugs management at a very young age due to desperateness and hopelessness. Fifthly, violence is a very big problem among Aboriginal people especially women. According to statistics, one in every five Aboriginal women experienced physical violence in the last one year. This is in comparison to just seven percent of the non-indigenous women. This kind of atmosphere of violence is likely to drive people into depression. Sixthly, Aboriginal people record the highest number of incarcerations in Australia. Going by statistics, the national imprisonment rate for Aboriginal adults is recorded to be fifteen times higher than that of non-indigenous adults. In December 2013, Aboriginal people consisted of twenty-eight percent of Australia’s full-time adult prison population. This is a huge number taking into consideration that the community is not very large (Liberman, 2017). When family members such as the parent or the mother are incarcerated, then the children are left under the care of their extended family and this burden can lead to depression for both the children and the family especially considering the financial hiccups they also face. Finally, depression can result from the impact of stolen generations and removal of children. Roughly one in every twelve Aboriginal adults is part of the stolen generation. 26,900 people confirmed that they were taken from their natural family. Many report high levels of psychological distress when told assess their health. The psychological distress is a risk factor for depression especially when no intervention is taken (Aitken & Adkins Productions, 2015).
Are far as suicides are concerned, young people who are between the ages of fifteen to twenty-four are at risk. According to data from Australia, the suicide rate for young are at its highest compared to numbers from the past ten years. Furthermore, one in every three deaths of young people is credited to suicide. What is shocking is the fact that forty-one thousand young people have made a suicide attempt at one point or the other. This clearly shows there is a problem. There are several risk factors that make young people vulnerable to suicide. First, living in remote areas is tough for young people or simply geographical isolation (Donald, 2016). According to Australian Bureau of statistics, the suicide rate for people living in rural areas has increased drastically. This number of suicide rates is three time that of the young people living in cities in Australia. Young people living in rural areas feel disconnected from what they consider as the real world. They feel hopeless and this psychological distress compels them to commit suicide (Birleson, 2014). Second risk factor for young people is sexual orientation. Same sex young people in Australia as six times likely to commit suicide in Australia compared to the general population. There is a big number of young people who identify themselves as homosexual or lesbians (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2013). Most of the times they feel judged based on their sexual orientation and this drives them to commit suicide. Third, cyber bullying and use of technology increase their risk significantly. Many young people in Australia spend a large portion of their time online texting and chatting on several social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook among others. This makes them more susceptible to cyber-bullying who derive their confidence by making others feel bad about themselves. Once rumors start spreading, it’s very difficult to stop or control hence the person ends up avoiding other people because of share and this loneliness drives one to commit suicide (Wagner, 2016). Furthermore, young people use the internet to obtain information on how to attempt suicide. Four, young people are thought to be at risk because of their tendency to abuse drugs and alcohol. Alcohol is the most used drug in Australia. Abuse of alcohol has been recognized as a great contributor to suicidality for many years. Among those people who die as a result of suicide, alcohol disorders tend to be the second most diagnosed disorder among them. Young people under the influence of alcohol or drugs end up making poor judgments and also engaging in risky behaviors such as unprotected sex while some are raped. Once they sober up, they feel shame because of their actions and some who cannot handle the shame end up committing suicide (Birleson, 2014).
There are two factors that may have contributed to the development of the client’s mental health concerns and risk. One of them is the family history of mental disorder. In the case study, Elizabeth explains that her mother also experienced anxiety and depression during her first pregnancy too. Her mother had to be given anti-depressants medication after exhibiting suicidal behaviors. Once a mother experiences depression and suicidal tendencies during pregnancy, there is a higher chance of passing the same condition to the unborn child. This is attributed to the changes in the child’s brain which are popularly known as amygdala whose role is primarily to control emotion and stress (Sperry, 2016). As such, researchers are advocating for intervention measures to be carried out before a child is born rather than after he or she is born (Smith & Jury, 2017). The passing of the condition from mother to child can be clearly seen in this case study. Elizabeth is showing all the signs of depression and suicidal tendencies since she feels hopeless, buys painkillers with the intention of killing herself by overdosing, wishing to die and low self-esteem. Furthermore, children learn by the process of modeling and Elizabeth’s mother modeled her to accept depression and suicide as an option for coping with stress in life and that is why in her adult life she contemplates suicide as the only option (Nydegger, 2014).
The second factor that has contributed to the development of the client’s mental health concerns and risk is the environment of isolation. Elizabeth is on maternity leave which she went early because of high blood pressure so she spends most of the day and some nights alone since her husband by the name Craig has secured a track driving job that keeps him away from his family. Furthermore, the fact that the rental company also wants to terminate their contract compounds to the stress that she is experiencing and the stress is overwhelming to her. Isolation allows a person to overthink and concentrate on the failures which eventually leads to suicidal thoughts. When one is within a social circle of friend, one is distracted hence leaving very little space for suicidal thoughts since friends joke about and create humor which important for relieving stresses (Maville & Huerta, 2013).
Beneficence constitutes doing good to the patient as a nurse. Elizabeth is showing very clear signs of depression Management and suicide and the best thing to do for her is to admit her in the hospital before the situation gets worse before the situation gets worse which in this case is suicide. Non-maleficence is the ethical principle that states that a nurse should not do harm to patients. As a nurse, it would not be appropriate to leave a child the care of Elizabeth since she is in a bad state psychologically. She may end up committing suicide and leaving the baby alone and hungry considering Craig is always at work. As a nurse, it’s important to strike a balance between these two ethical principles since any acting taken will either be lean towards Zoe, Craig or Elizabeth but as long as the benefit outweighs the potential harm them it is perfectly alright. The mental health act of 2007 grants a mental health professional the right to forcibly medicate a patient if he or she does not comply with the regime in the community. The act also redefines professional roles giving a nurse power to act in the best interest of the patient. This will ensure that Elizabeth gets the treatment she deserves for the sake of herself and her family (Urden, Stacy & Lough, 2016).
Elizabeth’s wish to die is a high priority health risk. She considers herself a failure and in the last 48 hours, she has exhibited suicidal behavior by actually going to the chemist and buying pain killers with the sole intention of overdosing. One of the interventions that ought to be taken as far as Elizabeth is concerned is to provide medical treatment to her. This is because her condition has progressed and she has a lot going on and based on her symptoms, her mental state is very bad. Hospitalization may prove necessary for Elizabeth with constant inpatient care. The second intervention involves assuring, listening and talking to Elizabeth. Elizabeth was used to partying and she does not know how to handle isolation.
Furthermore, she does not want to feel like the baby is attached to her. All these are things that need counseling and a listening ear (Meadows, Singh & Grigg, 2013). This intervention will be beneficial especially when combined with medication to ensure that there is fast progress. Hopelessness is one of the reasons why Elizabeth is contemplating suicide hence making this intervention the best since it is based on the assumption that suicide is instigated primarily by hopelessness. By undergoing counseling, Elizabeth will be guided on how to focus on the negative elements of her life hence changing her perspective of life (Engdahl, 2014).
As far as mental health problems are concerned, Elizabeth is suffering from anxiety. During her pregnancy she experienced anxiety. She also fears that just like her mother, she will be depressed and start depicting suicidal behavior since this is her first pregnancy and this stresses her a lot. A nurse can intervene in this situation by simply educating the patient (Slade, M., Oades & Jarden, 2017). The nurse can help by presenting her with the literature on depression, suicidal behavior and how to manage them. Giving more information on the factors that are stressing her will help in reducing the anxiety levels which in turn will improve her health physically, mentally and spiritually. Secondly, the nurse should encourage Elizabeth to exercise regularly. Exercise has been proven to improve mood, reduce anxiety and depression. When vigorous exercise sessions are carried out, they can help alleviate symptoms for a very long time. When these interventions are successfully implemented, Elizabeth will feel more revitalized and her anxiety will slowly diminish.
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