Mesoporous Iron Oxide material is a type of material which consists of pores. This nanoparticle can be used in the detection of glucose, for bio mimicking the peroxidase enzyme and also in the detection of the micro-organisms. This particle can also be used in the diagnosis of the cancer. These nanoparticles are used to bind in drugs, proteins and it can be penetrated into a tissue or an organ. It can undergo a phase transition in a controllable way. It is highly active in the catalytic reactions and it is stable in the reduction action of alkyl compounds of nitrogen into the aryl amines and oximes.
The detection of glucose can be carried out using the Mesoporous Iron Oxide nanoparticles. The glucose can not only be detected using our naked eyes. It can also be detected using the spectrophotometer, nanoparticles of gold, silver and iron oxide. The concentration range of glucose level is from 5 to 7 micro meter and it has the limit of detection up to 3 micro meter (Stanciu, Won, Ganesana & Andreescu, 2009). The detection of biomolecules is achieved using the aqueous solution. The detection of the glucose can be performed by depending upon the shift detection using the magnetic susceptibility which is based on the frequency level. This helps in increasing the hydrodynamic radius which is used in the binding of molecules. Magnetic nanoparticles that is prepared from the iron oxide is used in glucose sensors. These nanoparticles combines with the carbon nanotubes to detect the glucose. The nature of magnetism in the iron oxide nanoparticle can be used in simplifying the assembly of GOx-labeled particles in to the surface of the electrode. So this nanoparticle is also used in the detection of blood glucose level of the diabetic patients (Cash & Clark, 2010).
Mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles are used in many significant fields because of their excellent properties known as magnetism. It is used in the activity of bio mimicking of the enzymes. The method of co precipitation is used in the mimicking process of the enzymes. It is found that the natural peroxidase is used to increase the effectiveness of the oxidation process by using the presence of H2O2. This oxidation process produces 2 different coloured solutions are obtained. The first product is a blue-coloured charge transfer property of the diamine and the oxidised product of the TMB. The second solution is the conversion of blue colour into yellow by adding the acid into it (Gao, Fan & Yan, 2017). The two different enzymatic activities of the iron oxide nanoparticles is specified in the form of equation and those two equations are represented below (Masud et al., 2017).
These two enzymatic activities always play an important role and it is critical in nature. It is used in preventing the aerobically respiration organisms from cellular damage which is oxidative in nature. It is determined that the enzyme activity is first found in the nanoparticles of iron oxide.
The nanoparticles of mesoporous iron oxide can be used to detect the biomolecules which helps in the metabolic activities. The iron oxide nanoparticles are mixed in the sample solutions for detecting the presence of the biomolecules. It is used to detect the biomolecules on both human and animals. This method is represented with the limit of detection of about 0.05. This nanoparticle of iron oxide can be used to find the non-viral vector for the delivery of a vascular endothelial growth factor which is combined with the green fluorescence protein (Cao, Qiu & Mao, 2013).
Microorganisms called bacteria and fungi can be identified using several methods. These micro-organisms are very significant in the fields like diagnosis in clinic, food safety and in the field of biology. The diverse surface changed particles of nanotechnology can provide a differential response for the organisms with electronic properties. The colorimetric sensor is used in detecting the large number of micro-organisms (Li et al., 2017). These iron oxide nanoparticles are fabricated by the use of plant which extracts the fungi and the algae. Gold, silver, alloy and other nanoparticles also play an important role in identifying the microorganisms.
In the recent days, the nanoparticles of various metals are used in the diagnosis of the cancer. The nanoparticles can find the growth of the cancer cells in the oral and colorectal cells of cancer which is present in vivo and in vitro. The oxidation process in the nanoparticles of iron oxide is used to decrease the cytotoxicity activity of the cancer cells. The magnetism and optical property which is present in the nanoparticles of iron oxide helps to detect the cancer in the earliest stage itself. This iron oxide nanoparticle can be used to improve the magnetic resonance images which is obtained using the MRI Scan process. This makes the physician to help in diagnosis of cancer in the earliest stage itself (Sailor & Park, 2012). It is not only used in the detection of the cancer but also in treating the cancer in an effective way. Breast cancer cells are spiked into the suspended mixture of the blood samples. After 2 minutes of shaking, the cells which are attached with the nanoparticles are being differentiated using the magnets. Then the cells are identified using the fluorescence imaging process (Fan, Fu, Yu & Ray, 2014).
The report is about the analytical chemistry. This report specifies the uses of the nanoparticles of the mesoporous iron oxide. The mesoporous iron oxide particles are used in the detection of glucose and in the detection of the biomolecules like protein, lipids which play vital role in the metabolism activities. The iron oxide nanoparticles are used in the mimicking activity of enzymes, identification of the microorganisms and in the field of medicine to diagnose the vulnerable disease called cancer in the earliest stage of development itself.
Cao, B., Qiu, P., & Mao, C. (2013). Mesoporous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by polyacrylic acid etching and their application in gene delivery to mesenchymal stem cells. Microscopy Research And Technique, 76(9), 936-941. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22251
Cash, K., & Clark, H. (2010). Nanosensors and nanomaterials for monitoring glucose in diabetes. Trends In Molecular Medicine, 16(12), 584-593. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2010.08.002
Fan, Z., Fu, P., Yu, H., & Ray, P. (2014). Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment. Journal Of Food And Drug Analysis, 22(1), 3-17. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.001
Gao, L., Fan, K., & Yan, X. (2017). Iron Oxide Nanozyme: A Multifunctional Enzyme Mimetic for Biomedical Applications. Theranostics, 7(13), 3207-3227. https://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.19738
Li, B., Li, X., Dong, Y., Wang, B., Li, D., Shi, Y., & Wu, Y. (2017). Colorimetric Sensor Array Based on Gold Nanoparticles with Diverse Surface Charges for Microorganisms Identification. Analytical Chemistry, 89(20), 10639-10643. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02594
Masud, M., Yadav, S., Islam, M., Nguyen, N., Salomon, C., & Kline, R. et al. (2017). Gold-Loaded Nanoporous Ferric Oxide Nanocubes with Peroxidase-Mimicking Activity for Electrocatalytic and Colorimetric Detection of Autoantibody. Analytical Chemistry, 89(20), 11005-11013. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02880
Sailor, M., & Park, J. (2012). Hybrid Nanoparticles for Detection and Treatment of Cancer. Advanced Materials, 24(28), 3779-3802. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201200653
Stanciu, L., Won, Y., Ganesana, M., & Andreescu, S. (2009). Magnetic Particle-Based Hybrid Platforms for Bioanalytical Sensors. Sensors, 9(4), 2976-2999. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s90402976
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