1. Explore how physical activity and sport are products of historical, social and cultural conditions
2. Articulate how the meaning and understanding of physical activity and sport change over time and across different cultural contexts
3. Demonstrate an understanding of the changing nature of movement, physical activity and sport within Australian society
4. Assess the impact of various cultural groups on the direction and nature of Australian sport and physical activity
5. Articulate the changing roles that institutions such as the government, schools and media have on movement, physical activity and sport.
Some norms are there to involve in participation in Australian sport. It was found previously that the Australian colonies did not make any system of division of class based on the quality of aristocracy. According to the author it is the feeling of Australian society which is marked as believer of equality of all people and not its social structure. This is a hypothesis which can be applied to the sports also (Adair, 2011). According to the sociologists the sport is for all and equality prevails in the contemporary society. According to historians the class and division of the status in sport was found in the 19th and the 20th century and not in modern times.
In Australian sports a division was formed as professional and amateur version of sports. It was mainly copied from Britain where amateur codes are required for the participation in games like rugby, rowing or Olympic. In Australia the non pecuniary amateur status was found to be more important than the class background (Adair, 2011). The amateur code was open and had different level of thinking and the penalties involved in wrong act against law use to vary. The officials associated can be harsh or some will ignore the matter (Adair, 2011). This conjugates sport and politics. It was previously thought that the professional and the amateur sport are separate part in Australia. But it was found that in around 19th century in some games prizes were given for the victorious amateurs. The sportsmen did not lose their amateur status and also participates in professional sports.
After the starting of live television broadcasts many changes occurred in amateur and professional sports of Australia. Sports like tennis and cricket did not offer careers in Australia until the players wanted the share of the revenue which was given to the non profitable sporting bodies. The sports like golf was played by rich people where they use to pay the clubs high prices and kept low paid caddies. This master servant relationship now has evolved and the prize money golf club has a high status and the prize money offered in Australia is used to increase the salary of golfer and caddy (Adair, 2011). The fees involved in tennis and golf clubs acts as an economic filter and also the social interaction of the members by the club boards.
There was a sense of gender inequality as previously only males used to participate in Australian sport. There was thinking that participation in sports required aggressiveness and strength, so men were selected whereas women were ignored. The history of women in Australian sport is marked with criticism and oppression from the male sportsperson (Adair, 2011). The feminist argued that the females are better than the males and it also found that in Olympic Games women perform better than males. There is a historical importance of women as fans and supporter of Australian sport history. In 20th century it was found that women were encouraged to play games like netball as there were few opportunities for them. Even nowadays the females get recognition only in Olympic and commonwealth games. The men and women are separated based on physical activity (Adair, 2011).
Adair, D. (2011). Making sense of Australian sport history. Youth sport in Australia, 1-25.