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MGMT 20134 Business Ethcis And Sustainability Individual

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  • Course Code: MGMT 20134
  • University: CQ University
  • Country: Australia

Question:

What is virtue?

What does it mean to be a virtuous person?

How do we identify a virtuous person?

  • Explain what is bribery, corruption and its link to ethics.
  • Examine bribery and corruption using ethical relativism. Can such practices be seen as part of a nation’s culture? If so what are the implications.
  • Contrast bribery and corruption from the perspective of consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics and how a manager would use to explain, defend or refute the practice.
  • Contrast the Australian legislation that addresses the bribery of foreign officials with at least 1 other country’s approach.
  • Based on the above discussion, draw your own conclusions as to whether you believe bribery and corruption is or is not ethical.
 

Answer:

Introduction

The ethical judgment which a person may have to make on various occasions is known as morale reasoning which is concerned with the choice of good or bad.  Decisions made in an organisation can be in relation to either employees or the managers. The culture of the organization influences the way in which people related to it makes decisions. The notion of bribery and corruption is not only illegal but also unethical. Whether or not a person wants to act in an ethical manner is totally dependent on personal choice. However when it comes to law, it is the obligation of a person to ensure legal compliance. Law and ethics usually go hand in hand. An action which is illegal will surely be considered as unethical according to the deontology theory.  This is because it does not allow an action which is against duty. On the other hand an illegal action will never ensure the happiness of the majority and thus it is also unethical under the theory of utilitarianism. An organization being a corporate personality and a citizen of the society has the obligation of working according to ethical principles. It has been argued by Mea & Sims (2018) that the level of corruption and bribery in the Indian construction industry is high. Thus for the purpose of this assignment Kaufmann and Rottenburger (2016) has been selected as the company within which issues related to corruption and bribery have been analyzed. 

 

Personal Career-relevance 

I believe that a person who is willing to pursue his or her career as a manager of a large organization has to understand the importance of ethical decision making in relation to business operations. This is because not only does ethical decision making ensures legal compliance but also ensures good reputation within the organization leading to increased productivity. When an organization is infected with the evils of bribery and corruption it is not able to sustain for long in the industry. Thus it is important to understand the principles provided by various ethical theories so that such bribery and corruption may be eradicated from the system.

Description of Key Ethics Scenario: 

The construction and development industry is the business in which the evils of bribery and corruption are mostly seen. According to a research conducted by Brophy (2015) it had been found that surveyed employees of various companies in the construction industry stated that they have been forced by the higher management to indulge in practices related to bribery and corruption. This is because completion in the market is so high that getting projects have become very difficult without external influence such as the government. In most developing countries it is difficult for Multinational Companies to survive without the support of the government. As India is subjected to political instability, the rate of corruption and bribery in the country is also very high. The senior management may have to indulge in unethical actions to make profit. However such actions are not beneficial for the organization in the long run. There are also other factors which influence bribery and corruption such as social and economic factors.  

 

Applied Theories:

I gained the knowledge that ethical considerations can go at least three ways – towards a virtue, deontological, or consequentialist approach. The one I found the most established convention in morals is the custom of prudence morals, and it has been passed down to us from the Ancient Greek scholars, for example, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. In this custom the measure for the evaluation of the ethical remaining of a specific demonstration, is not in the demonstration itself, nor in the outcomes of the demonstration, however is attached to the individual playing out the demonstration. To put it obtusely – idealistic individuals perform upright acts. The inquiries that definitely take after are: What is virtue? What does it mean to be a virtuous person? How do we identify a virtuous person? Anyway we answer these inquiries, one thing appears to be clear – in the event that we do have some definition, or if nothing else an obscure picture of what an ethical individual resembles, their ethical character is chosen in light of their ethical consistency. To be specific, an ethically high minded individual does not waver effectively, in light of the fact that it is in their propensity to act ethically. Along these lines, if a worldwide specialist/broker/director from nation A will be a prudent individual, and is put into a circumstance where they need to consider influencing somebody in nation C, we are slanted to expect that their conduct will be steady to their conduct in nation A – we will anticipate that them not will submit the demonstration of pay off in light of the fact that they are an idealistic individual. In the event that they are an evil individual, we will expect degenerate practices both in household and universal cases (Kaufmann & Rottenburger, 2016).

I got to know that deontological theory in morals separates itself because of the fact that the majority of its speculations assert that there is a sort of widespread good law that fills in as the last and most critical paradigm of how an individual should carry on in ethically significant circumstances. A fortiori, acting in agreement to one such good law is the obligation (Greek Deon = obligation) of each individual, and our activities are judged in light of their correspondence to such a law (Rendtorff, 2016). For this situation, we should say that differences in regards to which of these widespread good laws are valid, and how they ought to be classified, are conceivable and very genuine. In any case, I have identified that, that paying attention to to any contradictions, any deontological approach will guarantee that a particular arrangement of good laws holds all around. Subsequently, if a global specialist/broker/director from nation A holds certain ethical laws to be valid, and is put into a circumstance where they need to consider paying off somebody in nation C, we are slanted to expect that their conduct will be steady to their conduct in nation A – we will anticipate that them not will confer the demonstration of pay off, due to their adherence to a particular good law. In the event that they don't cling to any such good law, we will expect degenerate practices both in local and universal cases. It is likewise imperative to take note of that any interest to the particular principles of an organization being not the same as those of the general public everywhere, or to the contrasts between moral standards between social orders, does not change our decisions, since it is in the idea of the deontologist to think about good laws as all around authoritative (Brophy, 2015).

I also gained knowledge that inside the consequentialist convention the fundamental and just measure of the profound quality of activity are the results, or saw or anticipated outcomes of those activities. The best known about all consequentialist speculations is utilitarianism, with its renowned condition where good=utility=happiness. Obviously, consequentialist speculations are not as basic as that, but rather for contention we will manage them just as they were. Eventually, making sense of what the most ideal outcomes would be is no simple undertaking. In any case, makes these speculations intriguing that the emphasis on results opens us to contention in our specific problem in a way that utilitarianism and deontological theory cannot (Mea & Sims, 2018). Since we can without much of a stretch differ on what are the most ideal results in any given circumstance, we can likewise differ on what a really moral activity is in situations where a universal representative/broker/supervisor from nation A is put into a circumstance where they need to consider paying off somebody in nation C. They realize that fixing is ethically unsatisfactory in their own general public, however in the event that they don't make the influence, they may not close the arrangement", and in the event that they keep working that way, at last their organization may go bankrupt, making various individuals lose their occupations, homes, and so forth. All things considered, is remunerating unethical, if the inverse conceivably causes far and away more terrible outcomes, which may completely be considered as indecent results? Whatever a specific response to this inquiry might be, the essential conclusion ought to be that consequentialist thinking is the "genuine war zone" for these contentions, as in it is just inside this kind of thinking that the issue can be settled experimentally, and where a specialist/dealer/director can utilize their resources to the best of their capacities – to figure the most ideal result (ReesRees, Tenbrunsel & Bazerman, 2018).

 

Case study related to Larsen and Turbo in India:

According to my research there have been various instances where the selected company has been targeted by the governing authorities for indulging into practices of bribery and corruption. Bribery and corruption have since quite a while ago swarmed the construction business. The theme is viewed by numerous as synonymous with construction and designing projects. However, the acquisition and culmination of such undertakings requests association between the members; it includes a specific level of collaboration to arrange the various exercises which make up the development procedure. The harmony between exercises which lawfully encourage this procedure and those which are polluted by ideas of remuneration, or debasement isn't generally clear (Mani et al., 2016).

I identified that Indian firms pay 50 for every penny of aggregate undertaking cost, on a normal, as rewards to accelerate clearances for land and framework wanders, as indicated by a report by the World Economic Forum (WEF) on corruption in the nation.

I also came across the fact that high level of bribery and corruption might affect the rate announced of different sorts of monetary wrongdoing as well. For instance, construction and development administrators likewise report a higher-than-normal rate of bookkeeping misrepresentation. As rewards and related installments are not generally recorded precisely in budgetary explanations, a debasement issue can rapidly transform into a bookkeeping misrepresentation issue also. Also, construction and building ventures regularly utilize complex bookkeeping evaluations to record income, prompting potential anomalies. (ARORA, 2015).

Inside India, the Forum analyzed the administrative framework for construction licenses, arrive obtaining and arrive title enrollment in Maharashtra as a pilot as it contributes the greatest offer to the Indian economy and pulled in 22 for every penny of the nation's land interests in 2014-15. These administrative spaces confronted the most squeezing corruption dangers, it found in the wake of counseling common society and industry administrators (Bandyopadhyay, & Leonard, 2019). From the above discussion I can make out that these organizations are not acting ethically in relation to their business operations. They are only willing to look after making profit rather than any other ethical aspect of the organizations. I can also understand form the discussion that the ethical theories which have been discussed above are also not taken into consideration by the organizations.

 

Conclusion

All in all, I can state that the contentions against bribery and corruption in worldwide business, regardless of whether we consider social, political, and moral contrasts over the globe, merge flawlessly towards the traditional finish of business ethicists – moral business hones are great business hones. As I have identified, out of the three extraordinary conventions in standardizing morals, the best hypothetical battle is by all accounts show in the consequentialist custom. In the light of the situation in which the selected organization finds itself it can be stated that it does not base its decision on ethical theories like deontology and utilitarianism.  The organization has to ensure that it makes effort to ensure ethical compliance which would not only ensure that the organization will be subjected to legal compliance but also will enhance the reputation of the organization in the society and thereby enhancing productivity. It will also enhance employee satisfaction and better consumer services which would positively impact the organization in the future. 

 

Reference:

Allhoff, F., Sager, A., & Vaidya, A. J. (Eds.). (2016). Business in ethical focus: An anthology. Broadview Press.

ARORA, P. (2015). WHISTLE BLOWING: IS IT SO HARD IN INDIA?. CLEAR International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 6(3).

Bandyopadhyay, P. K., & Leonard, D. (2019). Business Excellence Models and the Plight of Contract Workers. In Responsibility and Governance (pp. 183-195). Springer, Singapore.

Bowie, N. E. (2017). Business ethics: A Kantian perspective. Cambridge University Press.

Brand, V. (2016). Still Insufficient or Irrelevant: Australia's Foreign Bribery Corporate Whistleblowing Regulation. UNSWLJ, 39, 1072.

Brophy, M. (2015). Spirituality incorporated: Including convergent spiritual values in business. Journal of business ethics, 132(4), 779-794.

Davids, C. (2015). Combating bribery of foreign officials: a counter corruption strategy in developed countries. Government Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, 215.

Deresky, H. (2017). International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India.

Jain, A., Leka, S., & Zwetsloot, G. I. (2018). Responsible and Ethical Business Practices and Their Synergies with Health, Safety and Well-Being. In Managing Health, Safety and Well-Being (pp. 99-138). Springer, Dordrecht.

Kaufmann, L., & Rottenburger, J. R. (2016). The Big Bluff Theory: A Reconceptualization of Business Bluffing. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2016, No. 1, p. 16602). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Latimer, P. (2017). Anti-bribery laws–compliance issues in Australia. Journal of Financial Crime, 24(1), 4-16.

Mani, V., Gunasekaran, A., Papadopoulos, T., Hazen, B., & Dubey, R. (2016). Supply chain social sustainability for developing nations: Evidence from India. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 111, 42-52.

Mea, W. J., & Sims, R. R. (2018). Human Dignity-Centered Business Ethics: A Conceptual Framework for Business Leaders. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-17.

Michael, T., Kumar, A., & Kumar, S. (2016). CHALLENGES AND EFFECTS OF UPGRADING EXISTING HIGHWAYS; A CASE STUDY OF NH-12 KOTA-JHALAWAR SECTION) RAJASTHAN INDIA. International Journal Of Advanced Technology in Engineering and Science (IJATES), 4(19), 550-557.

Paswan, R. K. (2015). Role of ethics in modern business: an important key aspect of the concern. https://www. internationalseminar. org/XIII_AIS/TS, 201, 20.

Rees, M., Tenbrunsel, A., & Bazerman, M. (2018). BOUNDED ETHICALITY AND ETHICAL FADING IN NEGOTIATIONS: Understanding Unintended Unethical Behavior. Academy of Management Perspectives, (ja).

Rendtorff, J. D. (Ed.). (2016). Power and principle in the market place: On ethics and economics. Routledge.

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