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Students will develop an understanding of managing logistics across international boundaries; analyze operations and logistics problems on a global scale; All requirements must be addressed as your assigned country exporting to Canada.

Identify the sources of rules, regulations, standards, protocols, guidelines and legal obligations that may impact business operations.

Determine and utilize the documentation required for international transportation.

Understand the different stakeholders, regulations, trade agreements, and rules of origin, contract and insurance policy provisions necessary to facilitate the efficient and ethical acquisition, distribution and movement of goods or materials from your assigned country to Canada.

Analyze the steps required to avoid the violation of regulations, standards and stakeholder requirements in a global supply chain.

Examine the quality control and assurance programs or product identification/certification standards used to facilitate global supply chain transactions between your assigned country and Canada.

Demonstrate compliance of Canadian government regulations for both imports and exports.

Evaluate the use of insurance in protecting both the buyer and the seller against loss.

Weigh all methods of payment, letters of credit, drafts and terms--how they are used in negotiation to gain additional sales and how to use them to gain added protection against loss.

Calculate freight rates and how to find hidden ways to reduce freight rates for you or your company.

Differentiate all foreign trade terms, abbreviations and the many documents used in import/export.


Discuss the role of the freight forwarder and how to use forwarders to improve your position. The 20 largest trade partners of Canada represent 94.0% of Canada's exports, and 91.9% of Canada's imports as of December 2016. These figures do not include services or foreign direct investment. The largest partners of Canada with their total trade (sum of imports and exports) in millions of Canadian Dollars for calendar year 2016 are as follows:

Understanding International Logistics and Compliance with Regulations

Hunger has been a global malady throughout human existence. On paper, it is a problem that can be solved easily, however, more than 1 billion are undernourished world over. With the current population standing at 7 billion people, nature is producing enough food to sustain this population. Most people are left asking themselves why there are cases of hunger and malnourishment all around the globe? This paper will focus on the causes, measures and possible solutions that will help in the realization of zero hunger.

Zero hunger relates to the attainment of food security, sustainable agricultural practices, improved and nutrition as a web of actions that will ensure improvement on the statuses of peoples’ health and the general wellbeing which will ultimately affect global prosperity and peace, (Chappell, 2018).

The immediate causes of hunger highly rely on the underlying environmental conditions. There are many events that cause this phenomenon. These events include over-exploitation of natural resources, population poverty traps, poor agricultural practices, natural calamities and incidents of war. The poverty trap refers to poverty cycles that might be as a result of a limited diet that leads to birthing of malnourished children, (Jarvis et al 2019). This may lead to slower growth and development this will lead to a continuous birthing of the malnourished population.

Conflicts displaces people from their homes and land. This dwindles their productivity leading to disruption of the present economies leading to the creation of an unstable market. This leads the affected people susceptible to malnutrition. Lack of basic agricultural infrastructure such as roads, warehousing, and poor infrastructural development leads to increased production costs and deficiency in storage facilities. In order to improve these infrastructural developments, it will cost a significant amount of resources which will put the affected government into greater debt leaving other basic departments such as health and education which are already experiencing underfunding.

Environmental exploitation is majorly caused by overcropping practices, deforestation, overgrazing and employment of poor farming practices. Environmental overexploitation leads to soil erosion, desertification and soil salination making the agricultural farms to become less fertile leading to more hunger in the world. Soil salination as a result of soil erosion that strips of important nutrients leaving unfertile and salty soils. Soil salinity leads to poor plant growth thus poor harvests being collected. Poor harvests lead to fewer people being fed and more go hungry. From the early 70s, humanity has aggressively strived in reducing the number of people being affected by hunger. Currently, the number has dropped to 791 million people.

Identifying Challenges in Achieving Zero Hunger

United Nations 2030 sustainable agenda contains a political set of manifestos that will be used in fighting hunger for the next decade. The document contains objectives for all people in the globe, national governments, institutions, and various organizations, (Von Grebmer et al 2016). The primary purpose of this document is to make sure that the people and the planet as a whole thrive in achieving zero hunger. The primary action is reaching to the most affected people.

A 2016 global hunger index reveals that more than 50 countries are severely affected b hunger currently. Most of the affected countries are African and Asian continent. Nevertheless, countries from these two countries have made tremendous steps in eradicating hunger since the turn of the millennium, (WFP 2016). The 2030 sustainable agenda classifies all countries as developing. This requires all countries to change their modus operandi in tackling hunger and poverty. They are required to consider the policies they apply since the effects of the policies spill beyond their borders. This contributes to the achievement of a desired sustainable future.

Employment of innovations, advanced technologies and forging positive cooperation are very crucial principles of the necessary actions that are required to transform the world and greatly eradicate hunger. Causes of hunger are interlinked hence very complex in nature hence it requires the employment of integrated management approaches in farming and doing business, (Gertz, Kharas, McArthur, & Noe, 2017). The proposed agenda is indivisible as it points out that people are not found in silos in various parts of the world. It recognizes the continuum existence of people who are interrelated with the ecosystem. Therefore, zero hunger can be achieved when there is a total revolution on the way groups organize themselves and the way they work towards attaining sustainability in their locality. A proactive type of leadership is required in all strata in order to achieve objectives of crucial variables of countries according to the allocated budgets.

There are numerous propositions that have been put forward on how to attain zero hunger in the world. Some of the propositions have been effective to some extent. One of the most important things in the world leaders is what is to be done. Discussed below are some of the solutions that can be used in attaining zero hunger in the world.

Sustainable food: in order to achieve sustainable food globally, there is a need to initiate transformation in the agricultural sector. Organizations and governments need to fund agricultural products so as people will be able to feed themselves in a more sustainable manner. This is among the very effective approaches; this is because it will reduce greatly the number of malnourished people and prevent them to over-rely on the food aid.

Possible Solutions to Achieve Zero Hunger Globally

Access to affordable credits: most organizations in the world today have enabled people from poor backgrounds to access credit. Most of the loans offered are repaid after some time. This has helped in the creation of many small-scale industries some growing to the level of medium enterprises, (Von Grebmer et al 2016). These companies have helped in the creation of a sustainable food supply for the local people as well as improving the economic status of a country. With no access to affordable credits, it is difficult for people to set up firms that can be used in combating poverty and improving livelihoods.

Self-dependence transition: there is a need to ensure that families affected by poverty transition to a more positive self-dependence transition, (World Bank 2010). This can be achieved by providing the affected families with food as the governments or organizations proactively find solutions that will bring empowerment to the people to become self-sufficient.

Promoting urban farming: according to the statistics, more than 25% of the malnourished population live in the urban setup. Most bodies have pushed for urban farming. This practice will ensure that malnourished families take charge of their own source of food.

Access to proper and quality education: education is viewed as the most effective weapon to fight against hunger and poverty. It is most effective in developing and underdeveloped nations. Proper and quality education offers people with better employment opportunities hence leading to high levels of income and quality food. Additionally, some governments have initiated feeding programs in schools. it is a life-saving undertaking in underdeveloped and developing countries.

Social transformation and change: change is inevitable and social transformation is critical in attaining zero hunger. However, this is not an overnight undertaking. Wars and international conflicts pose a major challenge in attaining zero hunger. This can be achieved when countries choose to solve their issues in a more amicable diplomatic manner as compared to exacerbation of issues.

Birth control: high birth rates is a major problem in finding hunger solutions. Most people from poverty-stricken areas have very little education on reproduction and the importance of birth control, (Ansell, 2015). They rarely use birth control contraceptives. Availing contraceptives gives better family planning and economic freedom.

References

Ansell, A. (2015). Lula's assault on rural patronage: Zero Hunger, ethnic mobilization and the deployment of pilgrimage. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42(6), 1263-1282.

Chappell, M. J. (2018). Beginning to end hunger: Food and the environment in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and beyond. Univ of California Press.

Gertz, G., Kharas, H., McArthur, J., & Noe, L. (2017). When will things change? Looking for signs of progress on ending rural hunger. Brookings Institution.

Jarvis, D., Ramirez, M., Gauchan, D., Turdieva, M., Bai, K., De Santis, P., ... & Drucker, A. (2019). Climbing to Zero Hunger with crop biodiversity.

Von Grebmer, K., Bernstein, J., Nabarro, D., Prasai, N., Amin, S., Yohannes, Y., ... & Thompson, J. (2016). 2016 Global hunger index: Getting to zero hunger. Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

Know Your World: Facts about Hunger and Poverty. The Hunger Project. 2015. Web. Accessed 11 Nov 2019 at https://www.thp.org/knowledge-center/know-your-world-facts-about-hunger- poverty/

Oxford University Press. (2013). Oxford English Dictionary. Definition for malnutrition.

World Bank Updates Poverty Estimates for the Developing World”. Research at the World Bank. (2010). Web. Accessed 11 Nov 2019 at

https://econ.worldbank.org/external/default/main?theSitePK=469382&contentMDK=21882162&menuPK=476752&pagePK=64165401&piPK=64165026

World Hunger Falls To Under 800 Million, Eradication Is Next Goal”.World Food Programme. (2015). Web. Accessed 11 Nov 2019at

https://www.wfp.org/news/news-release/world-hunger-falls-under-800-million-eradication-next-goal-0

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