The twentieth century has been a remarkable century with respect to the rise of the professional managers. These professional managers often base their management approach upon a particular theory of the favoured management theorists. Management theorists have long been speculating on the type of management which will be best for the humans in a professional setting. The management theories are based on the ideas that provide a structural framework for the effective management. The management theories act as strategies that motivate and also bring the best out of the employees (Witzel 2016). This study is based on the comparison and contrast of the management theories of Max Weber with that of Henri Fayol.
Henri Fayol and Max Weber were both the figures of the twentieth century and both had the similar type of management and administrative theories. However, both used the different types of the strategies in order to reach the same goal. The major similarities that exist between the two management theorists are that both provided a clear set of guidelines that the managers can use to work efficiently and effectively. Both the theorists emphasized on the and established the proper links between the rewards and performance that are the central theme in the contemporary theories of leadership and motivation (Buono and Savall 2015). Both the men worked for the attainment of the same goal but they used different principles. Max Weber emphasized on the theory of bureaucracy and the six principles on how to achieve authority. He also set the standard operating procedures, norms and rules. These rules, in turn, helped in increasing the performance of the bureaucracy through the rules that are mentioned in the behavioural guidelines. On the other hand, Henri Fayol pointed out the 14 principles of management and emphasised on the pivotal role played by the informal authority (Khorasani and Almasifard 2017).
A German sociologist named Max Weber (1864-1920) at the end of the 19th century described the term bureaucracy for the first time. This is also known as Max Weber theory, bureaucratic management theory, the bureaucratic theory of management (Niskanen 2017). Max Weber used to believe that bureaucracy is the most efficient and effective way to set up an organization and administration. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) proposed the administrative theory. Fayol in his theory also mentioned about the 14 principles of management through a practical way. Henri Fayol in his theory laid the foundation of the modern scientific management (Fayol 2016). These principles are called the principles of management and it consists of the factors necessary for the successful management. Weber used to believe that the theory of bureaucracy is different and better than the traditional structures. Within the bureaucracy, the division of labour in described clearly for each of the employees. According to the bureaucratic theory, the organizational structure is indispensable within the large organizations that employ a large number of employees. Also, it is important to note that the promotion, selection in a bureaucracy occurs on the basis of technical qualifications. In the year 1916, a book was published by Henri Fayol which was called General and Industrial Management and it consisted of management and research. The 14 principles mentioned in the book consisted of the management statements and are considered as fundamental truth. These principles serve as guidelines for the management actions and decision making (Schimmoeller 2012). While the bureaucratic theory states that there are three types of power in an organization and it includes the legal power, charismatic power and traditional power. Weber mentioned that all the aspects of bureaucracy are on the basis of laws and rules so that the established jurisdiction prevails. The six principles of bureaucratic theory are hierarchal authority, rules of requirement, impersonal, task specialization, formal selection and career orientation (Adhikary 2016). The bureaucratic structure is perceived as an organized form where the work is divided among the employees depending on the specializations of the employees. Division of hierarchy of authority and the work are all the vital aspects of an organization. Bureaucratic management is also perceived from the viewpoint of behavioural aspects and Weber mentions that if the bureaucratic management develops to its fullest extent, then it might get intermingled with capitalism. The bureaucratic management system is also judged from the perspective of realisation of the objective. For this reason, bureaucratic management is considered as a tool. The bureaucratic management system is a type of management which brings with itself maximum amount of efficiency and within the administration if an organization (Adhikary 2016). This is the most effective management process and for the complex and modern large organizations. It is suitable for the maintenance of the discipline, dependence, appropriateness and stability. However, the bureaucratic system of management is also suitable for decision making. There are certain problems with bureaucracy and it is that employees receive no opportunity so that they can voice their opinion and have any other means of influence the decision making. Bureaucracy in this situation can demotivate the employees in the long run (Olatunji 2013). The 14 principles of management according to the Fayol, are the esprit de corps, initiative, stability of tenure of personnel, equity, order, scalar chain, degree of centralization, remuneration, subordination of individual interest, unity of direction, unity of command, discipline, authority and responsibility, division of work. The 14 principles serve as the guidelines for the management of organizations and the tools used for the for the proper management are coordination and control, decision making, organization management, process management, planning and forecasting (Peaucelle 2015).
Thus, from the above study, it can be concluded that administration is a social part and this optimizes the sources and the products so that the economic development or the globalization is possible. In an effective administration, the whole process of administration is based on implementing operations, controlling and planning. The administrative processes are highlighted by both the Henri Fayol and Max Weber. The theories developed by both these management theorists later served to be as guiding principles for organization and enterprises world over. Both the theorists propounded theories considering the same type of goal.
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