Managing human resource is an important aspect of an organisation. The concept of management evolved over time and in the modern world, it is considered as one of the most common aspects that define an organisation (Hendry, 2012). The report focuses on the working definition of management along with the types of managers that exist in an organisation. The evolution of the concept since its first inception in the 1900s is taken into consideration in the report. The perspectives that scholars have on management are analysed along with the roles played a manager in order to earn a competitive advantage for an organisation.
Concept of management
The term management may vary from one person to another depending upon the type of work that is performed by an individual. For example, a non-professional individual may term management may mean a person who occupies a huge room without duties. Other people may view the duties of a manager as putting signatures in documents. However, Armstrong & Taylor (2014) stated that management the art of understanding the things that need to be done and analysing the cheapest and efficient way to conduct the work. It consists of a process that involves planning, organising, controlling and leading. These processes together aid an organisation to achieve long-term success in the future with a reflection about the things that could have been done better. The managers adopt proper decision-making techniques in order to improve the conditions of the organisation. It can be said that various types of managers exist that responsible for certain work and departments in an organisation.
Types of managers
Buckingham & Coffman (2014) stated that in an organisation following a vertical hierarchy the types of manager begins from the top-level managers and continues until the first-line managers. In between, the middle managers and project managers exist that form the middle layers of the hierarchical pyramid.
Top-level managers: The managers are the main head of the organisations and are responsible for every managerial decision taken. The top-level managers analyses and formulates strategies that can help in the growth of the business.
Middle-level managers: Managers at this level reports to the top-level managers and gain feedback from them regarding the progress of an organisation. They are responsible for the units of business and the major departments that exist within the business organisations.
Project managers: Tarakci, Ates & Wooldridge (2015) stated that these are temporary managers taking control during the time of the development of a project. These managers play a role of a leader in order to oversee the smooth working of the projects in an organisation. It may also involve the participation of qualified individuals from outside the organisation as well.
First-line managers: These managers are directly responsible for the production of goods and services. Such managers exist in the manufacturing companies in which every product is critically analysed before being shipped.
Evaluation of management models
The mode of managing people in organisations has evolved with the change in time. The era of slavery is over and human beings are treated with respect in the society. The formulation of and continuous change in ethical laws and competition among the sectors have prompted organisations to develop the process of managing employees. In the first 25 years of the development of the term, management was considered as the ways to achieve the goals of an organisation (Quinn et al. 2014). However, with time the development of the human relations model and open systems model have helped in developing various strategies that can affect an organisation. Currently competing values framework is adopted by the organisations in order to compete with the companies of the same industry. Hence, it can be said that the development of management has been initiated with the changes in the business environment.
Perspectives for management
Rosenzweig (2014) stated that the perception regarding management has varied definitions that are essential for understanding the concept. It has been seen that on most occasions organisations stress the importance of people rather than the other physical resources in the organisation. On the other hand, Ahearne, Lam & Kraus (2014) focused on the importance of informal relationships that can help organisations to grow if managed properly. However, with the effective application of the Hawthorne effect, it can be said that the motivation of the employees has been considered as one of the important aspects in order to understand the concept of management.
Roles of managers
As observed by Beardwell & Thompson (2014) the role played by the managers is important in order to help an organisation to grow and prosper in the industry. In this regard, some of the roles of the managers can be analysed in order to provide a proper understanding of the importance of managers in an organisation. The managers help in the mentoring and developing of employees in an organisation. The managers guide the juniors and enhance their skills so that they can succeed in the organisation. Apart from this, they provide orientation and training to the new employees that join the organisation. This training is provided in every form so that the employees remain active in the organisation. The most important role played by the managers is the evaluation of the performances of the employees. This is done in order to motivate the employee that perform better and help in improving the skills of the other employees. Thus, the roles of the managers are as important as the roles played by the employees in an organisation.
Hence, it can be said that management is one of the most important elements that every organisation needs to embrace. It is required to make connections between the organisational activities that are taking place at the present to shape the future in a proper manner. The managers adopt an organisation with the current state of the work environment and shape the organisation that remains effective in the industry. The roles of the managers are important in order to maintain the organisation and the efficiencies of the employees.
Ahearne, M., Lam, S. K., & Kraus, F. (2014). Performance impact of middle managers' adaptive strategy implementation: The role of social capital. Strategic Management Journal, 35(1), 68-87.
Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Beardwell, J., & Thompson, A. (2014). Human resource management: a contemporary approach. Pearson Education.
Buckingham, M., & Coffman, C. (2014). First, break all the rules: What the world's greatest managers do differently. Simon and Schuster.
Hendry, C. (2012). Human resource management. Routledge.
Quinn, R. E., Bright, D., Faerman, S. R., Thompson, M. P., & McGrath, M. R. (2014). Becoming a master manager: A competing values approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Rosenzweig, P. (2014). The halo effect:... and the eight other business delusions that deceive managers. Simon and Schuster.
Tarakci, M., Ates, N. Y., & Wooldridge, B. (2015). Performance feedback and middle managers’ divergent strategic behavior. In Academy of Management Proceedings(Vol. 2015, No. 1, p. 16577). Academy of Management.