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MGT540 Management Of Change

tag 0 Download 0 Pages / 0 Words tag 20-06-2022
  • Course Code: MGT540
  • University: Charles Sturt University
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  • Country: Australia

Answer:

Introduction

Diversity is an essential part of the society, where people from various background and culture lives together. The management of diversity is essential since the people belonging to the various race, lifestyle, culture and education needs to dwell together in harmony. This research focuses on the lifestyle, culture as well as education of the people of Indonesia and Nepal, as compared to the people of Australia (Bhandari, 2014). This research mainly highlights the importance of management of the diversity, in the public sector workplace. The effective management of the diversity in the workplace has a significant role to play (Mehta & Karki, 2015). This is because; lack of unity in diversity in the public sector workplace will result in the mismanagement of the workplace along with disruption of the work (Bloom, 2014). Thus, diversity management has a significant role to play in the public sector services. The differences in the culture and lifestyle of the people of Australia, in comparison to that of Indonesia and Nepal have been shed light upon in this assignment (Mehta & Karki, 2015). 

Background of the study

Diversity is a part of every society in every country. Diversity refers to the concept of people of various culture, lifestyle and cast, all living together, as a part of the society (Mehta & Karki, 2015). Each of the people living in the society has their own culture, lifestyle, customs, and educational qualifications. They all live together, yet they differ largely from each other. Moreover, the people living in the countries Nepal and Indonesia, has a lot of difference in the lifestyle and the living than the people of Australia. This research attempts to highlight these cultural differences among the people of Nepal and Indonesia, form the people of Australia (Mehta & Karki, 2015). This identification is essential, such that they are able to respect the cultural differences of each other, and dwell together in a public service sector.

Rational of the study

The issue that is focused in this research is that ineffective diversity management is not acceptable in the society as well as in the public sector services. However, in order to ensure that unity in diversity is incorporated in the society, it is essential to understand the culture and lifestyle of various people (Lipton & Bhattarai, 2014). The understanding of the lifestyle of people of Nepal and Indonesia, in comparison to the people of Australia, needs to be understood and studies diligently to understand and mitigate the differences (Egawa, 2015).

This is an issue since the lack of understanding of the culture of people of various countries will result in misunderstanding the diversity (Baral, 2012). This will result in cultural differences, conflicts and hurting the sentiments of people of various cultures. Thus, lack of understanding and respecting the diversity is a major issue (Fold & Whitfield, 2012).

The workplace culture of a public sector service is a diverse one, with people from various culture and background working together (Bynner & Stribley, 2010). In order to work as a team, in cooperation with each other, it is essential that the people understands the culture of each other. Thus, the cultural difference of the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia is to be studied and understood (Suryadarma & Jones, 2013).  

Problem statement

The issue lies in the fact that understanding the cultural diversity among the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia is essential to ensure effective diversity management in the public service sectors.   

Research aim

The research aims to study and highlight the cultural differences of the people, specifically students of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia along with understanding their cultural differences, lifestyle differences as well as differences in the educational qualification of the students. This research also aims to ensure that the effective diversity management is done in the public service sectors.    

Research objectives

  • To find out the cultural differences among the students of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia
  • To identify the educational differences between the students of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia
  • To understand the differences of life style among the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia
  • To recommend the effective diversity management in the public sector services  

Research questions

The research questions are framed in order to achieve the research objectives. The research questions are as follows:

  • What are the cultural differences between the students of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia?
  • What are the differences in the educational qualification of the people of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia?
  • What are the lifestyle differences between the people of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia
  • What recommendations could be provided in order to ensure effective diversity management in the public service sectors?  

Significance of the study

The significance of the study lays in the fact that, effective understanding of the cultural differences among the people belonging to various countries will ensure that the effective diversity management is carried out among in the public service sectors. Moreover, understanding the educational differences is essential such that the level of knowledge and understanding of the average population could be identified. Finally, understanding the lifestyle of the people of the various country such as Australia, Nepal and Indonesia is significant, such that the students from these countries travelling to Australia for higher studies could be understood by the natives of Australia.  

Literature review

The second chapter of the research is the literature review. This chapter is concerned with the in-depth analysis of the various relevant themes and concepts related to the management of the diversity among the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia. Diversity refers to the variety of the people of a country and society, in terms of the culture, lifestyle, education as well as the overall lives of the people. The people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia vary significantly in terms of their lifestyles, educational aspects, customs as well as the culture. Diversity management has a significant role to play and these are highlighted through the review of various books and relevant literature.  

Comparison of the lifestyles

Life style of people of Nepal

The country of Nepal is one of the developing Asian countries with 23 million natives known as Nepalese. The people of Nepal has almost 69 different culture and linguistic groups. These are known as the ethnic groups and each of these groups have their own language, culture, customs and dialects (Kohrt et al., 2013). Though the people of Nepal prefer communicating in their native languages, however, they are fluent in communication in English. The Nepalese prefer wearing their native clothes, along with western wear. With the progressive society, they also adapt themselves to the modern technology. The people, especially the young students are becoming tech savvy with the advent of globalization. The people of Nepal are hard working and they live a simple lifestyle (Sharma et al., 2013). They prefer staying in small social groups and celebrate various social functions in these social groups. The Nepalese give due respect to the elders of the family such as their parents and grandparents. Most of the women of Nepal are working. In the urban region the women work in offices and small IT companies. However, in the rural region, the women work in small shops of their own or send the time collecting woods. Thus, the overall life style of the people is busy and they live in peace and simplicity in large families and closely knit society.   

Lifestyle of people of Indonesia

Indonesia is one of the Asian countries where people coming from other parts of the world, get to see the actual picture of Asia (Jala, 2013). The people of Indonesia prefer living in small groups. They are full of curiosity and many of the western etiquettes have not yet affected the ass of Indonesia (Wicaksono & Friawan, 2011). The Indonesians are not very punctual in their time, as they have flexible working hours (Somasundram, Razali & Santhirasegaram, 2016). These people show curiosity in very trivial issues and staring in public is not considered impolite in their culture (Jones, 2010). The people are peace lovers and they prefer avoiding conflicts and confrontations (Muhammad & Rabu, 2015). Most of the people speak in their native language; however, the people living the in urban region speak in fluent English (Nisa, 2011).  The people of Indonesia prefers receiving and giving complements for the work they do. They enjoy working in small groups from their own ethnic groups (Pin, 2011). The people of Indonesia eat using their hands and burping in public is not considered impolite (Ihwanudin, Amatayakul & Karuncharernpanit, 2015). Thus, the refined etiquettes of the western world are not seen among the people of Indonesia.  

Lifestyle of people of Australia

The lifestyle of the people of Australia are much different that of Nepal and Indonesia. Most of the Australians are very friendly people. They are playful and has a great sense of humour. The majority of the Australians live in the coastal regions and visiting the sea beaches are part of their daily routines (Garling et al., 2013). Most of the Australians speak Australian English, with a minority of the population speaking Mandarin and Cantonese. The Australians reflect a great love for sports and the food habits of the people are healthy. Most of the Australians are great competitors and the competition among the friends and peer starts right from their school days. High competition is an integral part of school, college and office life. The food habits of the Australians include the savouring of Asian, American, British as well as Mediterranean food. The people of Australia lead a luxurious life and they are vey addicted towards shopping. Australia has some of the biggest credit card debts in the world and the people engage in frequent buying of goods and products of luxury.

Comparison

From the above-mentioned lifestyles of the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia, a clear comparison has been highlighted. The lifestyle of the people of Nepal and Indonesia are much similar to each other and differs widely from that of Australia (Suhaimee Ibrahim & Wahab, 2016). The culture and lifestyle of Australians are similar to the developed countries such as America and London. The fast living and the technological advancements makes Australia a progressive country. The lifestyle of Nepal and Indonesia are much slower than that of Australia, as they people there do not use much technology. Moreover, the Australians are much tech shrewd than the Nepalese and the Indonesians.     

Comparison of the cultures

The cultural comparison among the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia is made based on the cultural dimensions of the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. The six dimensions of culture that are identified by Hofstede are the power distance, masculinity, long term orientation, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and indulgence (Hofstede, 2010).

Power distance

This refers to the distribution of power and the ways the subordinates accept the power. This is an essential cultural dimension, as people of a particular culture have greater acceptance than the people belonging to other cultures. In terms of the Power distance, the scores of Nepal and Indonesia are higher than that of Australia. This highlights the facts that people of Nepal and Indonesia are more accustomed to accept the hierarchy in the business organizations, than the Australians (Hofstede, 2010).  The Australians prefer a decentralised method of the workplace, in which the empowerment of the people is given more importance. Hence, the power distance score is much less in the Australians (Hofstede, 2011). 

Individualism/ Collectivism

Individualism refers to the focus on individual growth and understanding, rather than working collectively in a group. In this context, the score of Australia is significantly high, than the scores of the other two countries (Hofstede, 2011). This highlights the facts that the Australians are much more focused and career oriented. They are ambitious and are focused on the individual growth. However, the people of Nepal and Indonesia prefer working in groups and their culture reflects teamwork and collectivism.    

Masculinity/ Femineity

The scores of Nepal and Indonesia reflect lower masculinity than of Australia. This highlight the fact that the society of Nepal and Indonesia are less competition oriented than Australia (Hofstede, 2010). Moreover, they are less career oriented as well as less materialistic than the people of Australia. The refined values such as love, care, empathy are given much more importance than materialistic values (Jong, Saad & Hamir, 2016). However, in Australia, the people are more competition oriented and they are more materialistic, thus having high Masculinity score.  

Uncertainty avoidance

This dimension highlights the ease of adaptability to the changes in culture and flexibility. The slightly higher score of Australia highlights the fact that the Australians are much flexible in adapting new changes in the culture as well as in the society (Minkov & Hofstede, 2011). On the other hand, the lower score of Nepal and Indonesia emphasises on the facts that the people are less flexible and adaptive towards frequent changes in the culture as well as in the structure and policies of the organization (Hofstede, 2011). Thus, the uncertainty avoidance clearly highlights the culture of the country and its people.  

Long-term orientation

The long-term orientation highlights the connections of the past, with the current and the future actions. In the given figure, the scores of Australia and Indonesia are obtained (Migliore, 2011). The higher score of Indonesia highlights the fact that the Indonesians are focused on achievement of the long-term goals, as compared to that of Australians. The culture of Nepalese reflects that they focus more on the short-term goals (Minkov & Hofstede, 2011).  

Indulgence

Indulgence reflects how active the people of the country are and how they indulge in the participation to various cultural events, sports and leisure activities. The scores of the people of Nepal are not reflected in the given graph (Hofstede, 2010). However, the Nepalese indulge in participating various events and leisure activities. The high scores of the Australians are of the opinion that they indulge in various sports activities as well as leisure activities (Hofstede, 2011).

Comparison of education

The education system has a key role to play in understanding the diversity and its effective management. The educational qualification of the people of Nepal are much low than that of the people of Indonesia and Australia. Since Nepal is a developing country, hence the literacy rate has been increasing day by day, but cannot be compared with the literacy rate of Australia. The people of Indonesia have the basic literacy (Hill & Wie, 2013). However, they lack refinement as well as higher education. The mass of Nepal lacks the basic education. The adult literacy rate of Nepal is 56.6%. There is a huge variation between the literacy rate of the men and the women. While the male literacy rate is 71.6%, the female literacy rate is just 44.5%. Hence, with the mass of the women of Nepal lacking literacy, the country is yet to be a progressive one.

In contrast to the literacy rate in Nepal, the Indonesians are educated (Suryadarma & Jones, 2013). The female literacy rate of Indonesia is 93.82% (Susanti, 2011). The overall youth literacy rate is 99.7%. This proves that the society and the people of Indonesia are progressive and the majority of the people have received the light of education (Sohn, 2013). Moreover, the number of schools and colleges in Indonesia highlights the fact that the natives are well aware of the importance of education in their lives and hence a picture of progressive society is highlighted (Postlethwaite & Thomas, 2014).

Australia could be called the educational hub of the world, after London and US. With almost 99% mass literacy, Australia is the hub of some of the best universities of the world. People from all over the world visits Australia and studies in the top universities. Thus, in comparison to Nepal and Indonesia, Australia is far ahead (Weiner, 2011).  The people are progressive, open-minded and career oriented. They believe in individualism. The mentality of high competition among the Australians makes them strive for excellence.

Thus, from the above literature reviews the comparison of the lifestyles, culture as well as the education of the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia has been highlighted. The differences in the culture of the Nepalese, Indonesians as well as Australians have been compared (Fredericks et al., 2015). The unique features of each of the countries have been identified. The differences in the educational qualification, along with the basic literacy rates have been found out, from the peer reviewed articles and journals. This is useful in understanding the diversity among the people of these countries and this understanding is important for the effective diversity management.    

Gaps in the literature

While the researcher studies the peer-reviewed literatures, various gaps in the existing literature has been identified. Since this research focuses on identifying the cultural and educational differences among the people of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia, hence the number of literature obtained is limited. Moreover, many of the relevant journal articles are outdated and hence the information obtained from those might not be relevant to the present scenario. The authentication of the data obtained by the researcher might not be authentic, since the sources of the secondary research might not be reliable. The use of information from the outdated articles might not present the actual cultural and educational scenario. The researcher has avoided these resources, as they might degrade the quality of the research and the literature review. 

Research Methodology

In this chapter, the researcher discusses the research methodology that is chosen in order to conduct the research. The outline of this research includes the choosing of the positivism philosophy, descriptive design, and the deductive approach. For the conduction of the research, secondary data is collected using literature review and for primary data collection, postgraduate students are interviewed. A qualitative semi-structured interview approach is used for the purpose of primary data collection (Novikov, 2013). The semi-structured qualitative interview is the most appropriate one for conduction of interview.   The chosen research philosophy, research approach, research design as well as the research design has been discussed in the following paragraphs (Mackey & Gass, 2015).    

Research Onion

The research onion helps the researcher to conduct the research in layers. Each and every layer of the research onion assists the researcher to conduct the research in an authentic manner. The research onion has six layers. These include the research philosophy, research strategies, time zones, choices, procedure and the techniques.

Research philosophy

The research philosophy includes a set of beliefs that are used for the conduction of the research. The three basic research philosophies include the positivism, interpretivism as well as realism (Bergh and Ketchen, 2009). In order to carry out this research, the positivism philosophy has been chosen. The positivism philosophy helps to identify the issues, whereas the realism philosophy is a hybrid of the positivism and the interpretivism approaches (Silverman, 2016).  The interpretive philosophy highlights the management of the business and various other activities (Collis & Hussey, 2013). After analysing the current research area, the researcher chooses the positivism philosophy (Bernard, 2011).

Justification for the chosen philosophy

The researcher chooses the positivism philosophy. This philosophy helps the researcher to investigate the research topic and logics in a critical manner (Clerk, 2015). The researcher has eliminated the use of the realism and the interprteivism philosophy, since these are not appropriate for thos research. Interpretivism is based on the perceptions of the human beings and the realism is based on the outcomes of the study (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2012). Hence, these are not used.

Research approach

Two types of research approaches are mainly used for the academic researches. These are the deductive approach and the inductive approach (Panneerselvam, 2014). The deductive approach deals with the existing models as well as the theories. However, the inductive approach highlights the set of new theories and models that will be used. The deductive approach will be chosen for this research (Smith, 2015).    

Justification of the chosen approach

The researcher has chosen the deductive approach. The researcher has taken help from the existing models and the theories, hence this approach has been chosen. The researcher has avoided the inductive method since no new models and the researcher has developed theories (Miller, Birch, Mauthner & Jessop, 2012). This is the best suitable approach for the chosen research work, hence the deductive approach has been chosen.  

Research design

The research designs that are followed usually include the descriptive, exploratory and the explanatory approaches.  In the descriptive design, the researcher analyses the various approaches in a detailed and descriptive manner (Green, Camilli & Elmore, 2012). The exploratory design helps in the conduction of the of the study, based on hypothesis. Hence, these methods are not chosen (Bynner & Stribley, 2010).   

Justification for the chosen design 

The descriptive design has been chosen since it helps in conduction of the research (Lantis & Charlton, 2011). Using this method, the researcher has done in-depth analysis of the various models and theories (John, 2012). Hence, the descriptive design has been chosen. The exploratory design helps to conduct the research at the initial stage. The explanatory design helps in developing a relation between the two existing variables in the research. Hence, the researcher has appropriately chosen the descriptive design.   

Research strategy

The research strategy assists the researcher to conduct the research in the right direction. The research strategies include the case studies, survey methods, interview procedure, and focus groups. The research has chosen to use the strategy of interview (Williams, 2011).  

Justification for the chosen strategy

The researcher has chosen the strategy of interview. This is because, using the method of interview, the actual viewpoints of the chosen group could be understood. Hence, the chosen strategy on interview is justified (Danping & Lee, 2011). Moreover, since the research project deals with understanding the culture of the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia, hence the process of interview is the best chosen one for this research.

Sampling methods and sampling size

The two types of sampling techniques available include the probability and the non-probability sampling. In this case, the non-probability sampling method has been chosen to interview the postgraduate students (Liamputtong, 2013).  For the purpose of primary data collection, 6 post graduate students have been chosen, belonging to the countries of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia.  

Data collection and analysis

In this research, the primary data is collected by interviewing six postgraduate students from Nepal, Australia and Indonesia (Gelman et al., 2013). For the collection of secondary data, literature review has been done, along with thematic analysis. The researcher has used both these methods for the collection of data (Agresti & Kateri, 2011). The primary data collection helps in interacting with the people who are able to give the most appropriate reply to questions. The secondary data analysis helps the research to conduct the research work successfully.    

Ethical considerations

It is essential that the researcher conduct the research in an ethical manner, such that all the ethical considerations could be fulfilled. The participants should not be forced to participate in the interview (Lee & Kotler, 2011).  Moreover, prior consent needs to be taken from all the participants. Moreover, the it is essential to ensure that the participants are not forced to participate in the process of interview. Moreover, the researcher has to ensure that the data collected is used for only academic purposes and not for academic purpose.    

Research limitations

The research has various limitations that the researcher had faced. One of the major limitations includes the conduction of the interview with 6 post graduate students only. However, if the interview could be conducted with more number of participants them more accurate  analysis could have been done. Moreover, since the articles were limited in number, hence an in-depth analysis could not be done.  Apart from these, the limitation of time was also a major factor. Moreover, since 6 post-graduate students are selected for the process on interview from various countries, the actual scenario might not be captured. The geographical location is a major constraint that was faced by the researcher. These are some of the research limitations faced by the researcher while conducting this research.   

Project milestones (Refer to Gantt Chart)

Activity Date

Submission of Proposal 14th April 2017

Finalizing Literature Review 24th April 2017

Conducting Interview Analysis 30th April 2017

Submission of Final Report 29th May 2017

Data analysis and interpretation

The present chapter, data analysis from the themes and interviews is the important chapter of the dissertation. The chapter helps to get an effective result from the gathered data. For the research purpose, the researcher has chosen the qualitative data analysis and secondary data analysis to analyse the collected data. For the qualitative data analysis, the researcher has selected two questions for the interview purpose. However, the researcher selected two participants from each of the three countries. On the other hand, for the thematic analysis, the researcher made three themes based on the research questions that were made in the chapter 1. The primary qualitative data analysis and the secondary thematic analysis helped to identify the importance of the diversity management in a public sector. Moreover, the data analysis has helped to understand the perspectives of the students about the diversity management in the public sector. Data analysis is a significant chapter that helped to guide this research study towards success.

Qualitative Data Analysis and Findings

Q1). Why do you think diversity management is necessary for an organization?

The first student from Australia stated that the cross- cultural diversity is inevitable in the public sectors with demands of the raising globalization. As the economy is growing worldwide, the public sectors needs to adopt the multicultural work environment. These approaches will provide benefits to the organization.  On the other hand, the second student argued that to apply the multicultural work environment in an organization, it is necessary to examine various factors including lifestyle, culture and educational background. Moreover, the people of different cultural needs to understand the background of others and people should be ambitious regarding their career. The first student of Nepal stated that he has faced biasness during his post graduation. He thinks that people needs to be more soft and polite in a multicultural work environment that will help to reduce the conflict and develop the culture of the organization.

The second student of Nepal expressed his interest in the question and opined that diversity in the public sector expands the knowledge and helps to get in touch with people of various culture and background. To reduce the problems in between the people of multicultural work environment, training can be arranged to teach the diversity management system. The first student of Indonesia argued that the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia vary significantly in terms of their lifestyles, educational aspects, customs as well as the culture. The people of Indonesia prefer living in small groups. They are full of curiosity and many of the western etiquettes have not yet affected the ass of Indonesia. Therefore, they face problem in the multicultural work environment. The second student of Indonesia provided negative response due to the discrimination in the public sectors. He became disappointed and left the conversation.

Q2). How do you promote diversity management in your organization?

The first student from Australia stated that he would try to respect the culture of other people. Moreover, they will try the effective communication system and motivate others to respect the different culture and lifestyle. People in a public sector should get appropriate chance to show their talent. The second student argued that training session is necessary for the diversity management so that people can understand the necessity of respecting different culture and lifestyle. The managers or employees can arrange employee assessment and take their reviews for the wellbeing of the organization. The first student of Nepal stated that people in the public sector need to focus on the similarities and avoid the focus on differences. This has helped the employees to maintain the public sector diversity and avoid the discrimination. In the public sector of Australia, the employee empowerment gets the main importance, which needs to be reduced. The second student of Nepal opined that Australian belongs to the Western culture whereas the Nepalese and Indonesian people belong to the Eastern culture. Both the cultures are different from each other.  Therefore, they need to help each other to understand the both culture. Everyone needs to adopt the different skills of effective communication that can remove the barrier. The first student of Indonesia stated that the people of Indonesia and Nepal need to understand the culture and lifestyle of people of Australia and vice- versa. Effective communication is necessary to reduce the gaps created in people between the Eastern and Western countries. People should understand the difference in the culture and lifestyle of the people of Australia, in comparison to that of Indonesia and Nepal. The second student of Indonesia stated in the interview people of Australia are much focused in case of the career. They are more focused and ambitious than the people of Indonesia and Nepal. Therefore, the people of Indonesia and Nepal need to adopt the good and strong qualities of the people of Australia.

Secondary data collection: thematic analysis

Theme 1: Cultural difference between the students

The cultural difference can affect the students adversely. To reduce the cultural difference, it is necessary to understand the cultures of others (Barak, 2016). Australian belongs to the Western culture whereas the Nepalese and Indonesian people belong to the Eastern culture. Both the cultures are different from each other. The Australian students have more knowledge in English in comparison to other two countries Indonesia and Nepal. The reason behind this is the language problem. Therefore, the students of Australia face problem to understand the culture of the students of Indonesia and Nepal and therefore the cultural difference influence the students.

Theme 2: Educational difference between the students

The Australian students are higher educated in comparison to the students of Indonesia and Nepal. As the people in Australia are more ambitious and focused, they do not show respect to others, which create biasness in the classroom. People need to show the respect everyone to avoid the educational gap. Moreover, new governmental policies need to be implemented in the developing countries like Nepal. On the other hand, the people of Indonesia have the basic educational qualification that helps them in verbal and non- verbal communication with others.

Theme 3: Lifestyle difference between the students

The lifestyle of people of Indonesia and Nepal are quite similar as both are the Asian countries. On the other hand, Australia is the British country that is completely different from the Asian countries. The Australian students are habituated to live a lavish and luxurious lifestyle. They spend more on the eating foods and luxury lifestyle whereas the people of Indonesia and Nepal spend money on cultivation and religious purpose.  Both the Eastern and Western culture are different. As a result, their lifestyles are different, which they need to understand to maintain the diversity in the public sectors (Klarsfeld et al., 2016).

Conclusion and Recommendation

The chapter concludes research work to shed light on the relationship with previous chapters. The data analysis helped to find out the differences of the lifestyle, education and cultural parameters for the people of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia. The study has identified the impact on the diversity management in the public sector services. Moreover, the research study identified the importance of the management of diversity in public sectors. Unity plays the significant role in the diversity management in a public sector that helps to manage the workload. The research study identified the difference in the culture and lifestyle of the people of Australia, in comparison to that of Indonesia and Nepal. The lifestyle, culture and education system in Indonesia and Nepal is different from Australia. Each of the people living in the society has their own culture, lifestyle, customs, and educational qualifications. However, everyone should respect the cultural difference in a public service sector.  

Linking with the objectives

5.2.1 Linking with objective 1: To find out the cultural differences among the students of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia

From the data analysis section, it is known that cultural of the three counties are different. In previous chapters, the six dimension of culture are indentified that are masculinity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, indulgence, long- term orientation and individualism. In case of power distance, Australia is much developed in comparison to Nepal and Indonesia. In the public sector of Australia, the employee empowerment gets the main importance. However, in case of business organizations, Nepal and Indonesia is higher than Australia. People of Australia are much focused in case of the career. They are more focused and ambitious than the people of Indonesia and Nepal.

5.2.2 Linking with objective 2: To identify the educational differences between the students of Australia, Nepal and Indonesia

As education system plays a major role in understanding the diversity, it helps to manage it effectively. As Nepal is a developing country, the educational qualification of people in Nepal is lower in comparison to the people of Indonesia and Australia. However, the literacy rate in Nepal is increasing with the time. The literacy rate in Australia is the highest and in case of Indonesia, the people have basic literacy. In comparison to Indonesia and Australia, Nepal is lack of governmental policies, which is necessary for the basic education. From the past decades, the literacy rate increases to 65.9 % in 2011.

5.2.3 Linking with objective 3: To understand the differences of life style among the people of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia

From the data analysis, it is found that people of Indonesia, Nepal and Australia has different lifestyle. Nepal is one of the Asian countries and has approximately sixty- nine different culture as well as linguistic groups. The people of Nepal communicate in their native language. However, they are fluent in English to communicate in international standard. The Nepalese are very hard working people, which are reflected in the students. On the other hand, the people of Indonesia have no flexible working hour and they work in small groups. The lifestyle of people of Australia is completely different from the Asian countries. They love to spend on buying foods and sports. The people in Australia spend a luxurious lifestyle, which is different from the people of Nepal and Indonesia.  

Recommendations

5.3.1 To reduce cultural difference in public sector

To reduce the cultural difference in public sector and maintain the public sector diversity, effective communication is necessary. It is not possible for the employees to learn different languages at a time. Therefore, there should be one particular language to communicate appropriately. The employees can use non- verbal communication skills like sign language, and proper body language. The diversity in the public sector helps the employees to learn about different things like foods, ceremonies, and lifestyle.

5.3.2 To reduce biasness and gaps

People in a public sector should get appropriate chance to show their talent. People should be hired as per their capabilities and educational qualification. In case of diversity management, discrimination needs to be avoided for a better outcome. In such cases, training can help the employees to avoid the conflicts. Gender gaps is a big issue in the management of the diversity in a public sector. Therefore, the managers need training to avoid the biasness and employ new female employees.

5.3.3 To manage the cultural diversity in public sector  

The managers or employees can arrange employee assessment and take their reviews for the wellbeing of the organization. While taking the employee review, the managers need to observe the body language, attitude of the employees that has helped in managing the cultural diversity in the public sector. People in the public sector need to focus on the similarities and avoid the focus on differences. This has helped the employees to maintain the public sector diversity and avoid the discrimination.

Limitation of the research

The sample size was small and standard errors were found. The researcher faced limitation of time as the time was bounded. The research variables and the interaction were tested with the help of data analysis. The improvement of themes and qualitative data analysis were subjected to interference of the research bias preference. Moreover, the researcher had budget issue as well as time issue. Diversity management is a domain that needs appropriate knowledge and other necessary efficacy. The researcher failed in limiting the errors. Moreover, the research methodology requires the further development to eliminate the errors.

Future scope

The research study has enough scope for the future research. As the researcher had the time limit and budget issue, therefore he was unable to collect more relevant information about the research topic. Identification of the diversity management issues is necessary to compare the cultural, educational and lifestyle of Nepal, Indonesia and Australia. The relationship of variables and the interlink of the variables with the other variables requires further study so that clear idea can be gained. The public sectors provide wider scope of the research. However, the lack of the literature support provides scopes for the further research.

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