1. Organizational culture is defined as an organization's existing way of life in the long run which includes all day to day activities of the organization (Martinez et al, 2015). The main factors included in the organizational culture include the experiences, expectations, hopes, beliefs and the shared values of an organization (Kumar, 2016). Organizational culture is reflected in the self image of the organization, its internal and external activities and its actions in the future (Madu, 2012). Thus, the organizational culture includes the norms in moral and ethical terms, developed in an organization (Madu, 2012). The unique organizational culture of each company, in turn, influences the performance of the organization and directs the stakeholders of the organization. The main elements of organizational culture are defined as the values, ethics and beliefs in an organization along with the empowerment, decision, responsibility and the norms (Kumar, 2016).
Organizational culture is important for the new applicants to decide about whether to work in the company or not (Sokro, 2012) .It is helpful to identify the potential problems faced by an organization. It is required for the employee motivation in developing innovative ideas and think creative for the development of an organization (Sokro, 2012). Organizational culture is important in understanding about how the organization responds to the demands of the customer and how it faces the most important threats to the organization like changing technologies and high competition( Kumar, 2016). Understanding organizational culture also helps in identifying the nature of behavior required towards each stakeholder of the organization (Kumar, 2016).
Organizational culture is the driving force of an organization which enables the success or failure of an organization (Michaela and Catalin, 2014). The employees are made accountable by the strong organizational culture and make them work for the success of the company. The management more easily understands the actions of the employees when they are directed by a strong organizational culture (Madu, 2012). The company with a strong culture ensures that employees do not get an outward feeling and make them part of the processes in an organization (Michaela and Catalin, 2014).
Along with these, the culture in an organization moulds the way in which the company responds to changes in the organizations due to internal and external environment factors (Burdus, 2012). This is especially true in the ongoing process of globalization when the company has to adapt to the changing business environment and competition through expansion of the business (Madu, 2012).
2. Based on the perspective of an organization, the effectiveness is the extent to which an organization achieves its goals through minimum possible resources at limited time (Wang, 2011). The three main dimensions which are targeted by the organizational development programs that impact the performance of an organization are managerial effectiveness, managerial efficiency and the motivation climate ( Analoui, 2007).
Among these three dimensions, the managerial effectiveness is defined as the attainment of goals and objectives, which are specific to the organization (Brown and Harvey, 2006). Manager is said to be efficient as this is achieved more and more (Wang, 2011). Thus, based on the expectations of what the managers are supposed to obtain, how much they achieve in reality is included in the term managerial effectiveness. There are three types of managerial roles namely interpersonal roles, informational and decisive roles (Liccione, 2005). The effective manager performs these three roles in the best possible extent with the minimal possible resources at the limited time. When the organization comes very near in the attainment of its strategic goals, the organization is defined as highly effective (Wang, 2011).
The goals need to be achieved at the minimum possible cost within limited time, which is called efficient managerial capacity (Analoui, 2007). Thus, how much resources are required to produce maximum output is included in the term managerial efficiency (Brown and Harvey, 2006). Though a manager can be efficient, it is not ensured that he is effective and though a manager is effective, he need not be efficient (Brown and Harvey, 2006).
Motivational climate is defined as the different attitudes and morale of the employees which influence their performance (Brown and Harvey, 2006). There are two types of motivational factors namely extrinsic and intrinsic factors in an organization affecting the motivation of employees (Keegan et al, 2010). Extrinsic factors are those outside the organization while intrinsic are those internal to the organization (Keegan et al, 2010). Organizational development aims at the improvement of the above mentioned three aspects namely managerial effectiveness, managerial efficiency and the motivation climate.
3. A sociogram is a map denoting the relationships and communication in interpersonal terms through representing the group formation and changes (Cargan, 2007). Sociogram occurs in instances where people assemble in groups. For social interaction, people use some aesthetic criteria which is sociometric (Cargan, 2007).
Three types of sociograms are distinguished namely role diagram, perceptual sociogram and sociogram at the moment (Borgatti et al, 2013). There are five fundamental stages for sociogram administration namely selecting criteria, formation of matrix, charting of sociogram, analysis and application (Borgatti et al, 2013). In the case of criteria selection, it is based on many choices through which the respondents want to interact with others like race, age, color, situation etc. Next stage is the formation of sociometric matrix, which is a summary data sheet that portrays the choices or rejections for social interactions, presented by the respondents. There are different cells in the chart which lists the names of the different respondents with the positive choices denoted by + symbol and negative choices denoted by - symbol. Along with the choices and rejections, it is also recorded the choices and rejections selected and received by each member. The first three choices of a person can be listed using this information and also the choices which are not desired by a person can also be listed using the sociometric matrix in this manner, by listing the choices and their directions (Cargan, 2007). Thus, it is possible to find out those who desire to work together and not desire to work together.
Sociogram development evolves from the sociometrc matrix by forming a map indicating the positions of each member and his relationships with other team members (Cargan, 2007).Classic and target sociograms are the two most popular types of sociograms. Many symbols are used in sociograms to indicate different members and choices of different types. Along with presenting the choices and their directions, there is another technique namely categories development before observing so that there can be easy checking of the response types ( Borgatti et al, 2013). Thus, there can be break ups of the huge number of responses into different categories so that they can be checked easily. Modern technologies like tape recorders and cameras can also be used for stopping the selective perception and the possible bias resulting from it though this very time consuming and requires lot of money and difficult to be managed.
There is a limitation of the sociogram, which is the neglect of the reasons for the existence of relationships, the methods of their development and the neglect of the intensity of the feelings in the relationships (Cargan, 2007). There is also a restriction for using sociogram namely small size of the group used, which is another major limitation.
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