1: Winfield has served actively being the general longer than any other individual in the history of America and many of the historians have rated him as the “best American commander” of his time (Bourdon, 2016). In his career of 47 years, he had commanded the forces in numerous military programmes and campaigns. With the same, he has also served as being the Commanding General of the army of United States for about 20 years, which is longer than any of the other holders of the office. It is also to mention that Winfield Scott is also known by the names like “Grand old Man of the army” and “Old Fuss and Feathers”. He was basically known for being able to beat the odds. The Mexican-American war started on the matter of a dispute over the 1845 annexation of Texas of the United State government (Cummings, 2015). In 1847, the forces under him invaded Mexico three miles south of the Vera Cruz. His campaign for capturing the Mexico City was conducted under some gruelling conditions because of the severe head which his troops were encountering along with the severe challenge that they faced while surmounting the very natural threat from the opposition side. His performance as being the commander at the time of the campaign stands out as one of the unique and the best examples for studying on the subject of contemporary operational artists. His continuous focus and calm nature and attitude on the strategic objective along with his level of self-confidence and an in-depth understanding of the military, social and the economic condition and the tactical and operational patience has enabled and assisted the military forces of United States in achieving its strategic objective, notwithstanding the fact that he was outnumbered in hostile environment. He has very skilfully balanced the opportunity and the risk with his operational approach with the help of three lines of efforts for attaining and achieving the strategic objective by means of arranging a wide range of major operations in the time, purpose and the space. Scott has utilized his knowledge regarding the internal situation in Mexico fur turning the risk into advantage by means of making sure that the forces of United States have treated the civilian population with respect and dignity. He had enforced martial law and punished the assaults on the civilian population by the soldiers of U.S. With the same, the forces of U.S. paid for supplies retrieved locally, and also respected the local religion and culture. At the Cerro Gordo, the very first war after leaving the Vera Cruz, he spend a total of five long days in the preparation for the attack on the positions of Mexican that were very well-prepared (Lytle, 2015). He laid focus on thorough reconnaissance of the Mexican positions for gathering the best intelligence before planning for attacking. Moreover, he had also attained the true purpose that he visualised for the battles in between Mexico City and Vera Cruz for increasing the political pressure on the government of Mexico. Although Scott has multiple flaws as well but still he was successful in leading correspondingly small force and that too, deep into the hostile territory and have also achieved strategic objectives that are defined by the government of United States.
2: General Andrew Jackson had served as the president for the war of 1812 as well as that of the Revolutionary war. On 8th January, the General Andrew Jackson, along with his troops had won the Battle of New Orleans (Braund, 2016). Although, it was the waning moments of the 1812’s war and that it had officially ended two weeks earlier with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, the news of the very treaty had not yet reached up to the United States from the Europe and the military clashes in between the Americans and the British continued. Again, after a long three years of struggle on the opposition to the superior British land and the naval forces of British, the opposition American army along with the Marines were successful in ensuring prevention of the British from attaining a staging in the South part of western Florida and Louisiana. It is also to note that the battle of New Orleans had provoked the sense of nationalism among the American people (Colvin, 2016). The Pride over the victory efficiently brought an end to the increasing pains of the political divisiveness which then had plagued the U.S at the starting of the very war. Winning the Battle of New Orleans not only assisted the U.S in maintaining its newly won independence and not only increased the sense of patriotic sentiments among the Americans, but it also turned Jackson into a widely acclaimed national hero and had also paved the path for his ascent to the presidency in the year 1828. It was Jackson, the independent, tough and resourceful lad who had epitomised the national image of the frontiersman of America (Atkins, 2015). In the initial period of the war in 1812, Jackson had earned a very grudging respect from the soldiers under him and he was also given a nickname of “Old Hickory” by them because of his refusal of an order for disbanding his troops in the Mississippi and instead of that he started marching them back to their respective base in the Tenessee. The very bold leadership style of Jackson along with his relentlessness and so humble background have inspired the ragtag army of America at the New Orleans. All these are the major factors behind his success. The image that he created of himself as a citizen-soldier and a common man have made significant contribution to the worldwide popularity of Jacksons. Furthermore, the war had boosted the self-confidence of the Americans and had opened the way for the territorial expansion as well. It shaped the U.S’s political landscape until the very Civil War and finally, marked the beginning or the birth of the establishment of American military (Smith, 2015).
Atkins, J. M. (2015). Tennesseans at War, 1812-1815: Andrew Jackson, the Creek War, and the Battle of New Orleans by Tom Kanon. Journal of the Early Republic, 35(3), 488-491.
Bourdon, J. (2016). Sweet Irish Brogues, Mellifluous German Catholics, and African Slaves Ignored: Winfield Scott's Caricatured Presidential Speaking Tour in 1852. Ohio Valley History, 16(2), 41-59.
Braund, K. H. (2016). Glorious Victory: Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans by Donald R. Hickey. Alabama Review, 69(2), 169-171.
Colvin, A. (2016). Tennesseans at War, 1812–1815: Andrew Jackson, the Creek War, and the Battle of New Orleans by Tom Kanon. Alabama Review, 69(4), 338-341.
Cummings, J. W. (2015). Towards Modern Public Finance: The American War with Mexico, 1846-1848.
Lytle, W. H. (2015). For Honor, Glory, and Union: The Mexican and Civil War Letters of Brig. Gen. William Haines Lytle. University Press of Kentucky.
Smith, G. A. (2015). Tennesseans at War, 1812-1815: Andrew Jackson, the Creek War, and the Battle of New Orleans. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 45(3), 625.