Following the survey of a random sample of the TechnoMart employees to evaluate job satisfaction, our firm MDB Corporation was contracted to analyse the survey and provide appropriate feedback. In my role as a senior data analyst in the above-mentioned organisation I have taken a thorough study of the data and is writing back to provide TechnoMart management with the necessary feedback.
From the company’s population of 9800 employees a sample of 400 staff members was randomly selected to undertake the survey. The selection of the sample was purely random and had no regard to gender, age or even occupation.
The first task involved a review of the total time spent at work for a period of one week. From this analysis, the average time spent by an employee doing duties delegated by TechnoMart was registered as 45.43. being that the Australian labour laws set the standard working hours at 40 hours per week, there is a general view that the employees of TechnoMart are overworking. Apart from the mean working hours another issue of concern was the 5% level of employees whose working hours seems to far above the expected range.
Afterwards, the union and non-union workers were analysed in relation to each other. In terms of hours worked minimal difference was detected and it can be generalised that the two groups of workers spent uniform amount of time at work. Reviewing the occupation structure of each group, a unique pattern was discovered in the two cases. For the union members labour, production and professional workers formed a large portion. The non-union workers meanwhile were mainly comprised of the managers, admins and support employees. The level of job satisfaction among this two groups indicated a uniformity with both showing a high level of contention with their current contract as TechnoMart. The non-union members though topped the list with 90% of them indicating satisfaction.
Analysis of the pre-tax income led to a number of discoveries. The income value rather than being a component of a single explanatory factor, was explained by a set of variables. Job experience indicated by years of working and the total number of years spent studying were the biggest contributors to the income variation among employees. In addition, hours worked, and occupation were also discovered to contribute to the income difference.
In a nutshell it can be stated that TechnoMart workforce is comprised of young employees, the company employees age has a mean of 39 years with around 59% of them being under the age of 40. This is an evidence that the management have nothing to worry about regarding employees retiring in the near future.
The final part of the analysis involved proving some of the claims. The average time employees spent at TechnoMart was approved to be over the industry time of 7.5 years. In addition, the rumours that union members spent over 45 hours at work per week was disregarded. This was due to lack of evidence from the data to support it.
The report is closed by a brief summary regarding data sampling and ways of ensuring the sample population is ideal and to represent the actual population.
Data Analysis outcome
- Overall view of TechnoMart work hours
- In general, the weekly working hours in TechnoMart do vary from employee to employee. Averagely each employee works 45.43 hrs in a week. This is slightly above the recommended working hours which is 40 hours in a week. This is an indication that some employees may be overworking. When the data is studied closely there is evident that majority of the employees working hours are high above the average.
The employee who spent the most hours at work have 89 hours of his/her week spent on duties delegated by TechnoMart.
Visual study of the data indicates that on the minimum end there is no employee who is spending less hours at work than will normally be expected, however the number of employees who are working more hour’s way beyond the normal 65 hours appear to be quit many. At least 5% of the sample are overworking to an extreme end.
The number of employees whose working hours exceed the normal 40 hours in a week stands at 44.36% for TechnoMart. Also 6.52% of the employees are working over 60 hours in a week.
Comparison of the non-union and union members
The non-union members work on an average 45.49 hours in a week. Most of the members though work more hours than that given by the average. The employees who work more spend 84 hours per week undertaking job duties. The employee who spend least hours working have 28 hours of his/her time allocated to job in a week.
On the other hand, the workers who belong to a union on average spend 45.14 hours weekly at work. The highest number of hours spent at work by the employees is 89 hours while the employee who spend fewest hours at work spend 32 hours. Also, in this case majority of the workers are working more hours than indicated by the mean
Most of the employees who are not members of a union are the managerial staff, with professionals, admin support and technical employees also taking a large proportion of those not engaged with union activities. Employees under service, production and labour category only form a small proportion of the non-union workers.
On the other hand, labour, production and professional workers consist of the majority who belong to a union. The managers and service providers are only a small proportion of this group
Over 90% of the non-union employees are either very or moderately satisfied with their job. This leaves less than 10% as the only group falling under the little or very dissatisfied group.
The employees who belong to a union on the other hand have 81% of their members either moderately or very satisfied with their job
Generally, most of the employees are not subscribed for union membership with around 82% falling in this category.
A cross check of both the sets indicate that most of the employees either union or non-union members are satisfied with their jobs.
The managers are the majority who are not subscribed to the union while labour workers are the majority in the union.
The number of hours dedicated to job in both camps seems to appear the same with both the groups recording a mean of 45 working hours per week.
Prediction of Pre-Tax Income
The pre-tax income earned by an employee is explained by not just one factor but a number of issues. For instance, those whose job occupation for under the managerial tend to earn high average pre-tax compared to employees classified as admins.
Furthermore, the hours worked by an employee also contribute to their earnings. 3.61% of the differences in income is explained by the different in the hours worked per employees. Another factor that is of concern is the number of years of education. This together with number of years spent working explain 8.28% and 9.27% of the differences in pre-tax income. The number of working years seems to be the a very significant factor when determining pre-tax income of the employees. Being that it explains 9.27% of the variations it can be graded as a stand out predictor of the pre-tax income.
Other factors like number of promotions and years worked for also explains the income differences though their influence is minimal.
- Employees nearing retirement
- Average age of TechnoMart employees
The statutory retirement age in Australia is 62 years though employers are allowed to offer employment to eligible employees until the age of 65. Averagely TechnoMart employees are 39.41 years.
Looking at the age structure of the TechnoMart employees its observable that 83.25% are less than 50 years of age. This indicates that the management have no reason to worry. Only 5% of the employees have surpasses the 60 years of age and are nearing retirement.
- Average time employees have worked for TechnoMart
Averagely the employees of TechnoMart have spent 8.66 years working for the firm.
Most of the employees in the firm have spent less than 40years in the company with 99.75% of the sampled employees indicating the same.
- Union membership
- The claim by the union that averagely the employees of TechnoMart stay in the firm for more than 7.5 years is valid. When the data is analysed sufficient evidence is found to rubbish any allegations that the average working hours in the firm is equal to 7.5 years. This means that the opposite claim is supported and it can be confirmed with 95% certainty that employees stay in TechnoMart for more than 7.5 years.
The scenario is reflected on both the male and female employees. overall it can be concluded by 95% certainty that the male employees as well as the female employees normally run their contract with TechnoMart industry for a period longer than 7.5 years which is the industry average.
- The data was analysed to check the claim that union members work for at least 45 hours in a week. In the analysis we tested if the average working hours for the union employees is 45 hours per week. Sufficient evidence was obtained to indicate that this is not the case. Fir this reason there is a 95% confidentiality that on average the union members work for less than 45 hours in a given week
- Future Surveys
- The calculation of the sample size takes in to account three parameters. One is the population or the sample standard deviation, two we have the confidence level needed and three we have the standard error which the test will allow for.
Now the confidence interval is used together with the excel function to obtain the Z score.
The ideal sample size will thereby be computed by the formula
In a case where the error allowed is 0.5043 and the confidence interval is set as 95%, then using the given formula the ideal sample size will be 1083 employees. This means that the 400 employees who took part in the survey do not meet the minimum number of participants needed. This proves that the concern regarding the in accuracy due to sampling errors is valid and need to be resolved.
To estimate the overworking problem among the employees accurately the confidence interval will be set at 99.99%, while the error will be allowed at 0.5023. the ideal sample size for this will be 5532 employees. This is the minimum number of participants which need to be interviewed before we can be certain that the sample size selected is a true representation of the entire population.
The analysis was conducted due to the request of the management of TechnoMart Industries. The data on the employees’ job satisfaction was obtained through questioners which were randomly distributed to 400 employees. Their results were documented and sent to DMB corporation for breakdown by data science experts.
Following a successful analysis of the data several significant discoveries were identified. The main issue of concern was the number of employees in the organisation who are classified as overworking.
The satisfaction level of the companies though is relatively very high despite the extra working hours.
A view of the pre-tax income variation among employees indicated its supported by several factors though work experience, occupation and education are the key explanatory variables. The company loyalty is also responsible for a slight difference.
In conclusion it can be stated that the company have very little concerns regarding the employees especially when it comes to job satisfaction and age structure.