Unsupervised learning of spoken language with visual context. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (pp. 1858-1866).
This paper describes about the conventional automatic speech recognition or ASR Technology that I really is a performance of the highly supervised systems utilizing huge amount of data for training in expert knowledge. This technology has been developed with the resources required from different audio and parallel transcriptions for the utilization of training models of acoustic nature. While the process to develop this technique to there has been a huge number of text collections taken from the changing language models for crafting the linguistic trainings for lexicon mappings so that words can be mapped to their pronunciations. The entire cost of the accumulation of all the resources immersive Technologies and there has been utilization of more than 7000 languages that are spoken all around the world. The entire journal article also the dresses is technology is a highly supervise paradigm and that is not only based on the perspective of speech processing. the people states that the use of caustic phonetic units are the some words that are used as where structures of syllables in words are all constructed as high level information that can be utilized for the syntactic and semantic language elements.
The people presents all the technicalities of the automatic speech recognition technique, but it falls short of the description about how an individual is going to go through the entire process of ASR and make it work through the visual cortex of human body. Learning a different language is always a challenge for the humans and does it needs to be discussed in this journal article about the acceptance of human body in learning this particular technique or how this technical module is helping human body to get accustomed to learning a foreign language. Therefore it can be said that this journal article is not fulfilling as a presentable journal article for a conference. It also has technical errors in presentation of the entire paper. The Abstract presents questions and does not provide a gist of the entire idea about ASR Technology.
3D immersive karaoke for the learning of foreign language pronunciation. In 3D Immersion (IC3D), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
This journal article spotlight for the abilities of human in learning the pronunciation of foreign language. It clearly describes a foreign language pronunciation has to rely on the power of human mind and their ability of human body in identifying, listening, repeating, discriminating and pronouncing. Therefore it develops computer assisted pronunciation training that utilize the strategies of capturing the attention of every learner and helps in guiding them all through the learning pathway. This people would introduce further a scenario that is immersive and helps in the creation of the appropriate learning conditions. Therefore the creation of the entire scenario is explored through the use of virtual reality and 3D audio as well. This is a proposed learning technique that utilizes the interaction that has been orchestrated as a result of developing the entire technique through spoken karaoke. This technology has been presented as an approach for the processing of the spoken as well as the visual interaction modalities which further discusses the challenges that has been occurring in the technological advancements and it addresses these for enabling the self-evaluation of a learner. The authors propose the entire technique is an automatic pronunciation assessment which can have abs on both the audio modalities and the visual modalities of learning. The received is a feedback from the evaluation techniques have been received back as a 2D or 3D Technology for the visualization part. Foreign or second language easy learning take me that normally learners utilized for the enhancement of the pronunciation and this is a reason why the computer assisted pronunciation training or CAPT has been developed. It is stated by the authors that this is an opposing application for the majority of the traditional existing ones. the traditional application used to enter a global pronunciation score and based on the pronunciation of the learner it was returned to them and this was done with the objective of the pertinent collective feedback being presented to the learners in order to make them explain their pronunciation errors and make them find a way of acquiring a remedy to solve the problem.
This journal article describes effectively about the computer learning technique in foreign language learning and describes how human interactions and human abilities help in the entire process. All directions that the authors of presented in response of the previous techniques for computer learning and the latest techniques for computer learning using 3D visualization and audio clearly describes that a huge number of research has been conducted in order to make proper use of the resources for developing the latest computer learning techniques for making the learners effectively learn about the collective techniques for gaining efficiency of enunciating the foreign languages.
Visual” cortex responds to spoken language in blind children. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(33), 11674-11681.
This journal article puts forward the visual cortex of blind individual and how this can be also utilized in advantage of foreign language learning. The paper describes how the plasticity of a blind individual's visual cortex can provide an escape method inside the specialization mechanism of a cortex. The authors have conducted a research of foreign language learning in blind children within a specified time and understood the mental mechanism of the blind children through the plasticity. It has been found by the authors after the research that the visual cortices of the young blind children response particularly to specific sounds. This is the way where the responses against sounds that does not include between languages between the ages of 4 and 17 but it does include the visual inputs of the spoken language within the occipital plasticity. This oximetry plasticity is not dependent on the plasticity that is used for Braille. This is further been included by the authors in the journal article that the absence that is caused by the visual inputs forms the social spoken language and colonizers them within the visual system of the development that occurs during the enhancement of brain. The authors have put together their findings and presented a suggestion that the human cortex has been an exceptionally broad ability of computing. Therefore cortical tissues can be used for gaining visual perception and perform language functions.
Therefore working with the visual cortex is of blind children give the idea of the advantages of human brain that still works when a specific organ or sense of human individual is completely destroyed. It put forward the idea of utilizing the single most window which is a rare phenomenon and making it work as an advantage for language learning of blind individuals. This is a great approach by the authors and putting it together in a journal article is a commendable job. From the learnings of different other journal articles it can be said that this is the way that language learning should be preceded into to put forward a proper way of advancing with the technology for helping the individuals with disabilities. Utilizing technique and compassionate behavior towards the disabled people has been portrayed well in this journal article. The entire general article structure is also feasible as the Abstract producers of proper context of the entire paper with the formation of correct introduction and discussion part concluding with the suggestions of the author.
Multi-modal representations for improved bilingual lexicon learning. In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. 188-194). ACL.
This paper deals mostly with bilingual lexicon learning or BLL can works in revealing the potential of visual representation for the same kind of learning. The entire paper deals with the potential of visual representation and image based BLL methods. It states that this image based methods still fall short of linguistic approaches and there is a simple but effective multimodal approach that helps in the learning of these bilingual semantic representations which has the potential of using the linguistic and visual inputs. The proposed bilingual multimodal embedding have a significant display of performance gains and what's in a pair of three languages over to benchmarking sets of test.
The author also describes how this technique is a task to find words sharing common meanings in different languages. There is a possibility that a word may be used in several languages but they have different meanings. This is identified by the bilingual lexicon learning and this place a very important role for finding out the cross lingual Information retrieval as well as translation of statistical machines. Mostly these models focus on learning the lexicons of the data compared between several languages. This learning technique is another model that is based on the waiting technique of image dispersion. The production of visual information has been fused within the Representation and this shows that the robust multimodal models and the requirement for fine tuning the parameters for further fusion.
This journal article also clearly describes how different Technologies can be used to enhance the learning methodologies but this research is a bit different from the others as the particular paper focuses on finding the meaning of finding a relationship between different languages. Based on this bilingual lexicon learning method it can be clearly identified about the origin of a specific word and how this is found different meanings within various other languages. as a journal article also this paper is appropriate since it follows all the standardized structure of forming a journal article.
Managing cognitive load in technology-based learning environments. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(4),
This paper under review focuses on the cognitive load theory that has been expressed as an approach towards instructional theory for foreign language or any language learning. This paper describes that the proposed theory uses the knowledge of human cognitive architecture and then it processes the limitations of working memory which is further utilized to effectively enhance the instructional design and its capabilities. The people reviews the primary examinations and the assumed principles of the cognitive load theory and further it puts into discussion about the application of the theory based on technology learning environment. In addition to that the paper concludes a brief introduction of the entire structure of the cognitive load theory and its application towards Technology based environment. the people suddenly put forward the idea of Technology based learning environment and describes that this kind of environment has the ability to offer a huge load of educational opportunities which has yet not been achieved by the traditional face to face forms of learning and providing instructions. furthermore the paper also put forward few examples where it is clearly shown that Technology based learning environments and much more advanced than that of the traditional forms of learning face to face.
The paper explains how cognitive load can be help to define the working memory resources that is required for an individual to complete a learning task for any kind of activity picked up as a form of learning which any kind of specific Label of knowledge that has been acquired prior to the learning process. The entire form of theory has been believed to be developed as a magnitude of the cognitive load that has been determined by how the element of interactivity works. The entire inter connectivity between the elements related to the information and that needs to be processed in a simultaneous way for the working memory has also been described. Therefore this paper entirely focuses on the memory of an individual that is utilized for the learning techniques and acquiring them within a given time. The higher levels describing the cognitive load theory has primarily caused the higher degrees tasks of learning like learning the complex grammar rules as assigned in a foreign language. It also explains that if an individual tries to process the separate information and elements of a foreign language, like a learning vocabulary items, the person who do not need to attend any other related elements and search materials would not have any effect on the cognitive load issues.
Based on that it brings forward many researches that has been conducted so far and then it Infosys a cognitive load theory based on those research is done over the past decades and explain how it advances rapidly and has been applied effectively to enhance the learning in instruction processes in various subject areas. However the journal article falls short of presenting the side of the learners who have been going through this kind of learning processes. They approach and feedbacks towards this learning process is not clearly describe within the journal article and how the cognitive load theory affects the visual cortex in foreign language learning processes is not also describe within. The structure of the article is also not feasible enough for the journal article as it describes entirely on the cognitive load theory in technology based learning environment and does not focus on the traditional forms of learning and how cognitive load theory could have helped the latter form of language learning.
Critique of the “Visual” cortex that responds to spoken language in blind children
The visual cortex of blind individual and its utilization in advantage of foreign language learning is the main discussed about technology. The technology describes how the plasticity of a blind individual's visual cortex can provide an escape method inside the specialization mechanism of a cortex. There has been innumerable researches conducted for foreign language learning in blind children within a specified time and understood the mental mechanism of the blind children through the plasticity. It has been found by after the research that the visual cortices of the young blind children response particularly to specific sounds. This is the way where the responses against sounds that does not include between languages between the ages of 4 and 17 but it does include the visual inputs of the spoken language within the occipital plasticity. This oximetry plasticity is not dependent on the plasticity that is used for Braille. This is further been included that the absence that is caused by the visual inputs forms the social spoken language and colonizers them within the visual system of the development that occurs during the enhancement of brain.
Working with the visual cortexes of blind children gives the idea of the advantages of human brain that still works when a specific organ or sense of human individual is completely destroyed. It put forward the idea of utilizing the single most window which is a rare phenomenon and making it work as an advantage for language learning of blind individuals. This is a great approach for the advancement of learning techniques and further studies that are being conducted as a result would be a commendable job. From the learnings of different other journal articles it can be said that this is the way that language learning should be preceded into to put forward a proper way of advancing with the technology for helping the individuals with disabilities. Utilizing technique and compassionate behavior towards the disabled people forms an advantage of dealing with the entire procedure of the discussed technology.
There are also further added disadvantage to this technique since working with the blind people only reduces the chances of attaining a proper advancement of language learning within the intern mass. It only deals with the blind people and not everybody around and thus it only puts together a specific group of people and not the entire population. There is a lack of learning techniques provided for the people with disabilities and this methodology only deals with the blind people. All disabled personalities are not blind and this is a factor that forms as a disadvantage for this methodologies since the visual cortex is of blind people are taken into consideration and this technique does not utilize the other disabilities of different people to find a way out within their disabilities in making them learn a foreign language or any kind of language.
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