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MN503 Overview Of Internetworking And Application Domains

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  • Course Code: MN503
  • University: Melborune Institute Of Technology
  • Country: Australia


Purpose of the assessment (with ULO Mapping)

This assignment is designed to assess students’ knowledge and skills related to the following learning outcomes:

a. Explain human factors in achieving business and technical goals through planning and design.
b. Investigate and develop an architectural internetworking design for the business and application domains.



Computer network can be defined as the collection of computer systems along with other computing hardware devices which are connected together by making use of the communication channels. This connecting channels are associated with facilitating the process of communication along with sharing the resources amongst numerous users. The classification of the computer networks are generally done according to the characteristics that they are having [1]. Computer networking is generally refers to the entire process by which the computer network is created and used by depending upon the various kind of hardware, protocol and software which includes the wired as well as the wireless technology. This also includes the various application of theories from different technological fields which includes the IT, science and computer or electrical engineering.

SOP or the Standard Operating Procedures present in the networking generally requires the selecting materials which includes the cables and the networking hardware and is initially associated with the establishment of the telecommunication protocols, hardware and the software which are required. The advancement in multiple networking hardware technologies are a result of the need for enhanced telecommunication and this hardware mainly includes the hubs, switches, and routers.

Human-centric design approach:

The different human centric design approach are listed below:

  • OSI Model: The OSI model or the Open System Interconnection model is considered to be the conceptual model which is associated with characterizing and standardizing the communication functions present in the telecommunication or the computing system. This is generally done regardless of the internal structure and the technology which underlies the telecommunication or computing system. The major goal of this OSI layer includes the interoperability of the various kind of communication system by making use of the standard protocols. This model is associated with partitioning the communication system into abstract layer whereas the original version of this model consists of 7 different layers [2].

Seven layers Of the OSI model includes the following:



Application Layer

This generally refers to the interface that is present between the network and the application software which includes the authentication service as well.

Presentation layer

This layer mainly includes the format and operation of the data and besides this it also includes the encryption as well

Session layer

Associated with the maintenance and establishment of the end-to-end bi-directional flow between the endpoints. Besides this the layer is associated with managing the flow of transactions

Transport layer

This is associated with provide different kind of services between two host computers which also includes the establishment of connection along with the termination, flow control, recovery of errors and segmentation of the large data blocks into smaller parts for transmission

Network layer

This generally refers to the logical addressing, routing and determination of the path

Data link layer

This is associated with formatting the data into frames which are appropriated for the transmission onto some physical medium. This also defines the rules that are responsible for determination of time when the medium can be used.

Physical layer

This is associated with defining the electrical, optical, cabling connectors and the procedural details that are generally required for the purpose of transmitting the bits that are generally represented as some form of energy which are passing over the physical medium.

Table 1: Seven Layers of the OSI Model

  • TCP/IP Model: The TCP/IP model is generally considered to be a suite of communication protocol which is generally used for the purpose of interconnecting the various network devices that are present in the internet. This is also used as one of the communication protocol for the private networks. The entire internet protocol suite or the set of rules and procedures is termed as TCP/IP whereas some other things are also included in the suite as well. This is associated with specifying the ways by which the data gets exchanged by making use of the internet which is associated with providing an end-to-end communication and is also responsible for the identifying the ways by which the data is to be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed and lastly received at the destination [3].

The table provided below depicts the four major layer of the TCP/IP model:



Application Layer

Associated with representing the data to the user and is also responsible for controlling the dialogues.

Transport Layer

Associated with supporting the communication that exists between the diverse devices present across diverse networks.


This is associated with determining the best path through the network

Network access

This is associated with controlling the hardware devices and the media that are responsible for making the network.

Table 2: Four Layers of the TCP/IP Model

Difference between TCP/IP Model and OSI Model



This model is consisting of 7 layers.

This model is consisting of 4 layers

Layering is Strict which results in the layer which are vertical in nature

Layering is Loose which results in the layer which are vertical in nature

Associated with distinguishing service, interface and protocol

Does not distinguish the service, interface and protocol

Table 3: Difference between the TCP/IP Model and the OSI Model

A brief discussion of the present-day technology of computer network 

The various type of Routing Protocols mainly includes the following:

  • Routing Information Protocols (RIP): This is generally considered to be the forceful protocol type that is generally used by the LAN and the WAN. This type of protocol is also considered as the interior gateway protocol which exists within the usage of the distance vector algorithm.
  • Interior Gateway Protocol (IGRP): This is a Distance Vector Interior Gateway Protocol that is used by the routers for the purpose of exchanging the data related to routing in a system which is totally independent [4].
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF): This is one of the routing protocol which is generally used by the IP. This can also be stated as the link state routing protocol which is present in a group of interior gateway protocol. This type of protocol generally operates inside an autonomous system is totally distinct.
  • Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP): This is routing protocol which is dependent upon the original IGRP whereas it can defined as a Cisco proprietary routing protocol. This can also be defined as a distance-vector routing protocol which is advance within their optimization for the purpose of lessening the unsteadiness of the routing which is incurred after the alteration topology along with the usage of the bandwidth and the processing power of the router which is associated with supporting the enhanced interior gateway routing protocol which would be associated with automatic reallocation of the routing information to the IGRP neighbours by means of exchanging the 32bit EIGRP metric to 24 bit IGRP metric [5].
  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): This can be considered to be the core routing protocol present in the internet which are responsible for the maintenance of the table of internet protocol network that are associated with authorizing the network reaching capability existing between the AS. This is also expressed as the “Path Vector Protocol”.
  • Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS): This is the great protocol that is generally used by the network devices for the purpose of determining the way that is best for promoting the datagram from side to side a packet switch network and this process is generally termed as routing [2].

Discussion on future computer networks

The use of various technologies helps a lot in developing the future computer network. Some of eth examples of future computer network includes eth following:

  • SDN or the Software Defined Network: This is a technical approach to the concept of cloud computing which is generally associated with the facilitation of the network management and is also responsible for the enabling of the efficient network configuration in a programmatic way. This is done for the purpose of improving the performance of eth network and also for the purpose of monitoring the network [6].
  • Cloud computing: This is the general term that is used for the purpose of delivering hosted services by making use of the internet. This is associated with helping the companies in consuming compute resources which includes a virtual machine, virtual storage space and many more. This is done virtually without building and maintaining the computing infrastructure [9].
  • Intelligent network: This is one of the telephone network architecture which consists of a service logic for a call that is placed in a separate location from the other switching facilities and is also associated with allowing the services to be added or changed without any need of redesigning the switching equipment’s [7]. The main section that is the intelligence is provided by the network nodes present in the service layer which is distinct from the switching layer. The IN or the intelligent network is owned by the telecommunication service providers which includes the telephone company or the mobile phone operator.
  • ch are generally embedded with the other electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity [8]. This in turn is associated with enabling the devices to get connected to each other so as to exchange the data. This in turn is associated with the creation of opportunities related to direct integration of the physical world into the systems which are dependent on eth usage of computers and initially results in improvements in efficiency, benefits in economy and many more.


The report helps in concluding to the fact that the old concept of network has totally changed and the new concepts and protocols are associated with changing the ways in which the humans work, communicate and many more. This had been forging in a powerful way into areas of human lives in such ways which has ever been expected. Along with the evolution of new technologies the lives of human would be changing gradually and they would live an enhanced life. It can be considered that most of the digital networking's current technologies are not associated with cutting the edge, but are rather considered to be the protocols and standards which are conceived at digital networking age.



S Yongjie, "Research on Communication Encryption Technology of Network Security", Telecom Power Technology, 2014.

L Dong, Y Peng, "Network Security and Firewall Technology [C]", proceedings of 2010 3rd International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering (ICCEE 2010, no. 2, 2012.

W Xiaolin, "Study on Computer Network Antivirus Mechanism based on Antivirus Software", Network Security Technology & Application, 2014.

L Mills, “Computer network time synchronization: the network time protocol on earth and in space”. CRC Press, 2016.

K. Mishra and S.K Pandey, “Dynamic model of worm propagation in computer network”, Applied mathematical modelling, 38(7-8), pp.2173-2179, 2014.

I Lee and K Lee, “The Internet of Things (IoT): Applications, investments, and challenges for enterprises”, Business Horizons, 58(4), pp.431-440, 2015.

Z Fadlullah, F Tang, B Mao, N Kato, O Akashi, T Inoue, and K Mizutani, “State-of-the-art deep learning: Evolving machine intelligence toward tomorrow’s intelligent network traffic control systems”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 19(4), pp.2432-2455, 2017.

T Naman, Y Wang, H.H Gharakheili, V Sivaraman, and D Taubman, “Responsive high throughput congestion control for interactive applications over SDN-enabled networks”, Computer Networks, 134, pp.152-166, 2018.

W Rittinghouse, and J.F Ransome, “Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security”, CRC press, 2016.


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