Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

The purpose of the assignment is to compare the wireless communication technologies and evaluate the LTE/LTE-A network security. Students will be able to complete the following ULOs:

  1. Compare standards-based technologies used in various networks;
  2. Test and evaluate various wireless networks performance;

All work must be submitted on Moodle by the due date along with a completed Assignment Cover Page.

  • The assignment must be in MS Word format, 1.5 spacing, 11-pt Calibri (Body) font and 2 cm margins on all four sides of your page with appropriate section headings.
  • Reference sources must be cited in the text of the report, and listed appropriately at the end in a reference list using IEEE referencing style.

The assessment requires the students to compare wireless communication technologies and evaluate the wireless communication standards for wireless cyber physical systems and internet of things. The students are required to submit a report, which includes:

  1. Comparison of the existing cellular networks generations in terms of:
  2. Communication spectrum
  3. modulation techniques
  4. medium access control mechanism
  5. Network speed and bandwidth utilization
  6. Security techniques and risk
  7. Explore the architecture of LTE/LTE-A
  8. Evaluate the LTE/LTE-A attacks on the access and core networks.
  9. Identify and analyse the attack with highest criticality, and explain the countermeasures taken to address such attack.

Overview of Assignment

The digital revolution give rise to emphasis on the security parameters associated with the sending of data and information over the network. The long term evolution security model was proposed for increasing the efficiency of the cellular network by reducing the latency rate. The performance of the LTE model can be analysed by the association of vulnerability to the security attacks [1]. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the comparison of different technologies used for wireless communication and evaluating the working model of LTE/LTE network security model. The testing and network evaluation of the network performance helps in analysing the efficiency of the security architecture.

The following table shows the comparison of the existing cellular network generations:

Technology and Features

Ist Generation

2nd generation

3rd generation

4th generation

5th generation

Start of technology advancement

1963-1975

1975-1990

1991-2005

2005-still

Future

Bandwidth of the data transfer

32 kbps

64 kbps

2 mbps

2 mbps to 1 gbps

More than 1 Gbps

Use of technology

LAN

LAN, MAN

LAN, MAN, WAN

Wireless Network

Artificial Intelligence

Delivery of service

Sending of packets

Sending of packets

Sending of packets

Sending of packets through wireless technology

Sending of packets by using AI technology

Multiplexing and de-multiplexing

Frequency division multiplexing

Time division multiplexing

Code division multiplexing

Code division multiplexing [2]

Code division multiplexing

Code division multiplexing

Switching technology

Circuit switching network

Circuit switching network

Packet switching network

Packet switching network

Packet switching network

Packet switching network

Core networks

Public switched telephone network

Public switched telephone network

Packet switching network

Packet switching network

Packet switching network

Communication spectrum

Radio based

Dynamic Spectrum management

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Worldwide interoperability for microwave access

Multiple input and multiple output

Ultra wideband wireless technology

Modulation techniques

Pi/4 DQPSK

GMSK

BPSK

GFSK

GFSK

Medium access control mechanism

Time division multiple access and frequency division multiple access

Time division multiple access and frequency division multiple access [3]

CDMA

FDMA/ TDMA

TDMA/FDMA

Network Speed and bandwidth utilization

48.6

269.388

1225.8

73

640

Security techniques and risks

None

Post office protocol

Wireless application protocol

Wireless application protocol

Wireless application protocol

The LTE architecture is comprised of three major components which are classified as user equipment, evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN), and evolved packet core. The communication between the data packets is managed through the evolved packet core which is used for managing the private network by making use of Internet protocol [4]. The following diagram shows the correlation between different parts of the LTE system architecture.

The User Equipment: The LTE architecture makes use of GSM based mobile devices. The communication between the mobile devices is handled by the Mobile Termination point (MT). The streams of data packet are terminated by using the terminal equipment. The SIM cards are used for running the application to manage the correlation between mobile devices and equipment.

Evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network: The deployment of the radio communication helps in managing the sending of packets between the nodes on the wireless network architecture. The one packet can be send between the stations by making use of radio communication [5]. The low level control signals are used for managing the mobile operations. The following diagram shows the architecture of the E-UTRAN:

Evolved Packet core (EPC): The EPC control architecture is used for managing the equipment identity register. The policy controls and charging rules are used for sending the packets over the registered devices.

The LTE architecture is composed of various parts as illustrated in the diagram above such as HSS, PDN, S-GW, MME, and PCRF. The HSS stands for home subscriber server which is used for managing the information of the networking parties in the central database [6]. The transfer of packets over the network can be managed by using the SGi interface through the packet data network gateway. Access point name is used for initializing the data packets over the GSM architecture. The routers are used for delivering the packets on the destination by using the serving gateway. The signals are send for carrying out operation by using the mobility management entity. The operational functional program and the decision making controls can be managed by using the policy control and charging rule function. The implementation of the gateways in the LTE architecture helps in controlling the flow of information between the participating external and internal nodes of the mobile architecture. The E_UTRAN is responsible for inter-cellular flow of data packets, radio based controls, connectivity of the mobile architecture, control of radio transmission, and scheduling process for dynamic allocation of the data packets over the network [7]. The EPC is responsible for providing the network security, handling of the idle state of the data packets, EPC control program, anchoring and the mobility process, allocation of the IP address, and filtering of the data packets for secure transmission. The functions performed by the E-UTRAN and EPC can be depicted in the diagram below:

Comparison of Wireless Communication Technologies

The following table shows the functionality of the different components of the LTE architecture:

Components of LTE architecture

Description

PDN Gateway

The PDN gateway (P-GW) is responsible for managing th interface on the Internet services by using the internet protocol [8]. The IP address is allocated to the data packets for sending it to the destination port. The CDMA and WIMAX connectivity are used for carrying over secure transmission

Serving Gateway

The serving gateway is responsible for managing the interface between the devices and the PDN-Gateway [9].

Mobility management entity

The Mobility management entity (MME) is responsible for managing the authorisation and authentication to provide secure architecture to manage sending of data packets from source mobile device and equipment to the destination devices [10]

S1 Mobility management entity

It is used for managing the interface evolved packet core devices

ENB

The operational and the functional interface with the cellular equipments can be effectively handled by the ENB interface

Home E-Node

The Home E-Node is also known as Femtocell which helps in improving the correlation between the home premises.

Home E-Node gateway

It is used for managing the accumulation of the traffic over the network.

The LTE architecture is comprised of various attacks which can results into the threat caused to the privacy, integrity, and availability of the information [11]. The following table helps in analysing the different attacks which can threat the data and information available on the cellular networks.

Category of attack

Types of attacks

Description

Privacy attacks

Eavesdropping attack

Stealing of confidential information

Parallel session attack

Continuous hacking of information from parallel location

Replay attack

Sending of same data packets

Man in the middle attack

Modification and manipulation of information

Impersonation attack

Access of corporate data

Collaborated attack

Correlation between various parties

Tracking attack

Tracking of packets send and receive

Spoofing attack

Sending of same data packets

Privacy violation attack

Loss of confidentiality

Adaptive chosen cipher text attack

Modification in the cipher text

Chosen plaintext attack

Modification in the plain text

Stalking attack

Unwanted entrance of information

Masquerade attack

Change of information

Disclosure attack

Disclosing of the confidential information

Integrity attacks

Spam attack

Spoofing of information

Message blocking attack

Blocking of messages

Cloning attack

Sending of same data frame

Message modification attack

Change in the messages

Message insertion attack

Adding of new information to the messages

Tampering attack

Change of information

Availability attack

FIFO attack

Hacking of the first packet

Re-direction attack

Redirection the packet to the other destination

Physical attack

Physical network attack

Denial of service attack

Sending of same packet

Skimming attack

Third party attack

Free-riding attack

Analysing the information

Authentication attack

Stolen smart card attack

Stolen of the smart card information

Partial message collision attack

Collision in the message

Leak of verifier attack

Verification process

Forgery attack

Execution of false action

De-synchronization attack

Random sending of wrong data packets

Brute force attack

Accessing the password and login details information

Password stealing attack

Accessing the password and login details information

Dictionary attack

Changing the information in the data dictionary

Off-line password guessing attack

Guessing of the password

The following diagram provides the information about the different categorise and associated attacks with it:

The security architecture of the LTE environment should be equipped with the countermeasures for resolving the issues of different attacks which can threat the privacy, integrity, and availability of the information and data available over the LTE network [11]. The countermeasures are divided into three categories which are classified as cryptography methods, human factors, and intrusion detection methods.

Cryptography methods: The cryptography methods are used for managing the security related to the authentication and authorisation of the information on the LTE network architecture. The public key infrastructure is the protocol which is used for developing the encryption and decryption keys for securing the privacy of the information. The encryption keys are developed by using the formula  whereas the decryption keys are constructed by using the formula . The digital signatures are provided to access the information over the network. The RSA algorithms are used for developing strong digital signatures for securing the privacy of the information to be hacked by the third party [12]. The advanced symmetric encryption procedures are used for establishing the communication between the mobile devices. The hash functions are used for calculating the hash value for storing the data packets over the network securely. The integration of the data can be formulized by using the encrypted messages.

Human factors:

 The human is highly responsible for the hacking and loss of confidentiality of the sensitive information. The information related to password, and others login credentials are highly sensitive which should not be shared by anyone because it can used for stealing the sensitive information of the user without their knowledge. The human should not share the information related to the password, PIN numbers, and the RFID code. The strong passwords should be used for securing the accounts which should be easily hacked by the hackers. The common passwords should be avoided such as date of birth, phone numbers, and others.

Intrusion detection methods:

The defensive and secure environment can by created by implementing the intrusion detection techniques and procedures. The access point for the delivery of packets should be authorised by using the wireless communication protocol. The development of the fuzzy system is used for managing the random synchronization of the data packets. The intrusion detection tools which are used for preserving the confidentiality and sensitivity of the information over the network are presented in the table below:

Intrusion detection methods and tools

Description

Ranking functions

The ranking functions are used for tracing the occurrence of the unauthorised accessing of the information. The biometric protocols and methodologies can also be used for preserving the confidentiality of the information

Zero knowledge user authentication protocol

It helps in analysing the occurrence of the anomalies

Public key infrastructure

The development of secret keys helps in managing the security of the information

Three-factor authentication protocol

It is used for managing the mutual authentication

Pro-verif tol

It is used for verifying the password for accessing the information

Game theory

The bipartite protocol is used for authorising the flow of information

Probabilistic function

It is used for managing the encryption policies

Handover authentication protocols

This protocol is used for authenticating the user after verification and validation process

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that the LTE architecture is comprised of various types of security attacks which are responsible for the loss of privacy, integrity, and availability of the information. The implementation of the gateways in the LTE architecture helps in controlling the flow of information between the participating external and internal nodes of the mobile architecture. The defensive and secure environment can by created by implementing the intrusion detection techniques and procedures.

References:

[1]L. He, Z. Yan, M. Atiquzzaman, "LTE/LTE- A network security data collection and analysis for security measurement- A survey", International journal on internet of thing big data trust management, 2018.

[2]C. Michael, Comparative study and security limitations of 4G network, 2015.

[3]M. Cimino, N. Celandroni, E. Ferro, D. Rosa, F. Palumbo, and G. Vaglini, Wireless communication, identification, and sensing technologies enabling integrated logistics: A study in the harbour environment.  2014.

[4]S. Song, and B. Issac, Analysis of WiFi and WiMax and Wireless network coexistence, International journal of computer networks and communications, 6(6), 2014.

[5]M. Majdi. A comparative overview of modern communication system and standards, 2017.

[6]Alliance, Communication technologies and network for smart grid and smart metering, 2015.

[7]M. Masud, Survey of security features in LTE handover technology, International journal of scientific research, 3(3), 2015.

[8]R. Clarke, Expanding mobile wireless capacity: The challenges presented by technology and econmics, International journal of telecommunication policy, 38 (9), 2014.

[9]R. Mitra, D. Agarwal, 5G mobile technology: A survey, 2015.

[10]S. Mohapatra, B. Swain, and P. Das, Comprehensive survey of possible security issues on 4G networks, International journal of network security and its application, 7(2), 2015.

[11]Hicham, M., N. Abghour, and M. Ouzzif, Device to device communication under LTE advanced networks, International journal of wireless and mobile networks, 8 (1), 2016.

[12]A. Shaik, R. Borgoankar, S. Park, and J. Seifert, On the impact of rogue base station in 4G/ LTE self-organizing networks, 11th Conference on security and privacy in wireless and mobile network, 2018.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2021). Essay On Comparing Wireless Communication Technologies And Evaluating LTE/LTE-A Network Security In An Essay.. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mn603-wireless-networks-and-security/evaluation-of-lte-a-network-security.html.

"Essay On Comparing Wireless Communication Technologies And Evaluating LTE/LTE-A Network Security In An Essay.." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mn603-wireless-networks-and-security/evaluation-of-lte-a-network-security.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Essay On Comparing Wireless Communication Technologies And Evaluating LTE/LTE-A Network Security In An Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mn603-wireless-networks-and-security/evaluation-of-lte-a-network-security.html
[Accessed 13 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Essay On Comparing Wireless Communication Technologies And Evaluating LTE/LTE-A Network Security In An Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mn603-wireless-networks-and-security/evaluation-of-lte-a-network-security.html> accessed 13 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Essay On Comparing Wireless Communication Technologies And Evaluating LTE/LTE-A Network Security In An Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 13 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/mn603-wireless-networks-and-security/evaluation-of-lte-a-network-security.html.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close