Assessment number two (2) requires you to conduct an in-depth literature review of stakeholder engagement within the engineering and asset management sector as well as the literature pertaining to the actual parallel runway which was constructed in the late 1980s early 1990s, and other runway construction projects elsewhere in the world (eg: Brisbane’s current parallel runway project). This literature on actual runway projects will inform you of the expected reactions to the Sydney project if it was being proposed today. In other words, what have we learned as a result of the actual runway’s construction, and 25 years of operation that we would apply to a Stakeholder Engagement Plan for the project as if it was being proposed TODAY.
We expect that you will report on, and critically discuss the seminal works, the current academic research, case studies, as well as report on the important industry research that has been undertaken in these topic areas. You will need to identify the main issues that research and industry bodies have highlighted and identify where there are gaps in the literature. Some of the areas where gaps exist have been discussed in the lecture and tutorials.
Engineering and asset management project projects have many stakeholders, whose composition is often large (Cascetta, Carteni, Pagliara & Montanino, 2015). Includes premises, project managers, architects and project engineers, designers, shareholders, local authorities, judicial authorities, employees, subcontractors, suppliers, services and processors, competitors, banks, insurance companies, communications, society. representatives, neighbors, community, public institutions, guests, customers, regional development agencies, nature, press, interest groups, NGOs and more. The project's stakeholders are people who are interested in or expect from a project (Valdes-Vasquez & Klotz, 2012). Each of them has a different conflict and misunderstanding with the project.
Classification of Project Stakeholders
Individuals or as small groups, who can respond to the strategic future of organizations or projects, negotiate and change the future strategy. The project management institute has defined the interest groups as individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, small or whose benefits are positive or negative as a result of a project or successful implementation of the project. Stakeholders can be divided into internal and external organizations, such as neighbors, such as owners, customers, and suppliers). The local community, the general public, local authorities (Beringer, Jonas & Kock, 2013). In engineering and asset management project, the emphasis was on development. The stakeholders as a primary and secondary, and find that the main stakeholders are groups of people who have been involved in the project is important for the survival of the project organization since the organization cannot survive if they do not participate in the work on the project. This type of stakeholder can have an impact on the organization or organization is impacted by it. The main stakeholders can be contracted stakeholders who provide services, for example, contract stakeholders, sub-contract stakeholders, consultants or people directly related to the organization. The other stakeholders are those that influence or influence the organization. Secondary stakeholders that are not covered by formal contractual responsibility or commitment to the organization, but remain in the secondary or indirect relationship with the organization. They categorize the interests of the organization as internal and external and their relationship with the organization. An approach to classify stakeholder concerns by combining different attributes such as strength, legitimacy, and urgency.
Stakeholders and their levels of impact vary according to the nature of the project, its investment and its interests in the project. One of the common negative effects is that the stakeholders form a coalition to try to stop the project and important for the project team to be aware of what the basic principles of management are. There are many reasons why it is necessary to classify the affected parties, in particular, by providing a strong sense of the impact of the stakeholders in the projects when considering the alternative transport characteristics, determining the silence of the interested parties, the development of appropriate management responses to assess how each stakeholder group can enforce its expectations in relation to the project; if these groups have resources based on their power; and the possible impact of stakeholder expectations on the project strategy.
Stakeholder impact evaluation methods are power or predictability matrix and power matrix or interest. After the public external stakeholders are the regulatory bodies, local governments, and the national government and society agencies. The classification is made by analyzing who the external and internal stakeholders are, and sharing them on the public side, private demand and supply. On the private side, external stakeholders include local residents, local landowners, ecologists, ecologists, archaeologists and other external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are mainly those who cooperate directly with the project and are divided on the supply and demand side. On the side of the network, there are those who are directly involved in the project and include architects, engineers, main contract stakeholders, traders, suppliers, and materials. On the demand side are the clients, for whom the project is being built, the customer's employees, the line managers, the organization's customers and the suppliers.
Figure 1: Parallel Runway Project
Parallel Runway Project Evaluation
This study showed that managing shares are one of the most difficult tasks because it involves two million stakeholders with the option of forming a coalition to stop various interests, resources, and projects (Aaltonen, 2011). Although the project management is aware of the existence of stakeholders, the project started without concrete stakeholder management plans. At various stages of the project's life cycle, interested parties formed a coalition to stop the engineering and asset management project in which the contracts led to judicial action. Engineering and asset management project work can be understood through the parallel runway project in Brisbane in 1980 and local politicians, who provide constant support to higher authorities, i.e. the Judicial Representation. Interested parties for the project include property ownership in the region of Brisbane. Maintenance specialists interested in protecting the original runway. Residents of Brisbane, who are opposed to changing the environment, Drivers have driven during engineering and asset management project works, fight to find a way to build, cyclists do not park and local politicians who perceive the project as indispensable for society.
In addition to the stakeholders in Brisbane, there were representatives of the municipalities near other areas in Australia. Different interests of stakeholders have been identified and have the ability to form a coalition with a strong voice, resources, and power to try and stop the project. Another reason was the residents who opposed changes in their daily lives at a time when the city was changed by engineering and asset management project works. The plan of the runway caused unnecessary delays. Stakeholders have given several reasons to oppose the engineering and asset management project. This is one of the reasons why engineering and asset management project works are carried out in this way. The new project has changed the cultural structure of Brisbane, redirected moving roads, in which drivers had a serious traffic problem. Evaluation of the area reflected, no danger in the old place, the new structure has changed the surroundings around the settlements. The new project, however, has caused complications in this area as environmental stakeholders did not want to change the environment
Engagement Strategies After Stakeholders Actions against the Project
The main problem with the stockholders of Brisbane, Australia was their ability to create a coalition and to act negatively for the implementation of the project. Stakeholders joined together to stop the engineering and asset management project of the parallel runway. Support from leadership and politicians played a major role in enabling the project to win the case. Such actions have led to a huge overrun of costs and delays in the timetable. Crawford and Helm (2009) defined the problem of a broadly indefinite extent as a problem occurred during the implementation of the project, which added to the already existing problems. The scope was too broad because too many subcontract stakeholders worked on the project at the same time. Xing, Horner, El-Haram, and Bebbington (2009) proposed at the beginning of the project, stakeholder management was not included in the strategic plans and their attributes were not evaluated. Stakeholder engagement strategy was deemed to be crucial for implementing and functioning of the project. The importance of transparency and openness, as well as the list of issues that need to be taken into account when communicating with stakeholders, included transparency and openness, entering information and updates, identification of access and communication with facts, details, available ways and an explanation of what is happening. There needs to be created and maintaining good relations with stakeholders, communal council cooperates with development committees. Social media, websites, information brochures, e-mail based communications have to be maintained.
The previous part discusses groups of stakeholders and their interests in building projects. The impact should be considered as essential and important steps in the planning, implementation, and completion of any building project. It is necessary to create a process involving the value of each project mechanism can be identified and understood that it will not take the assumptions about user requirements and expectations (Missonier & Loufrani-Fedida, 2014). This can be useful for gaining information on the possible impacts of different stakeholders at different stages of the project. The focus on participation should be to identify people affected by the project activities in the development and implementation of projects to ensure that the project is sensitive and responds to needs and local conditions. The rejection of the adversary's concern for external stakeholders leading the planning and planning process to a long delay due to hostile opposition to project participants due to lack of participation and taking into account their interests are considered. It is worth noting that the dynamics of stakeholder interests postpones the presentation (Mathur, Price & Austin, 2008). After the transition to finance the financial resources created in the project, the financiers now pay more attention to the project definition in order to ensure that their investment actually yields the desired dividend. Project partner management has become more challenging in the past twenty years.
External stakeholders now have more powers in this process, as evidenced by the increasing institutionalization of external legal actors due to the increase in environmental activism due to the reduction of massive emissions. This supports the need for stakeholders to participate in the entire lifecycle of the project so that the definition of project assignments is of great importance. This requires that all stakeholders are committed to achieving the objectives of the project. The fact that users are dynamic and their impact on the project changes over time, depending on the factors that can lead to uncertainty in each project, if necessary, for stakeholders and their potential to accurately identify, but not to manage. They can do it by receiving support, resistance or being indifferent to the project. They emphasize the need for project managers or managers for interest management to understand the practices of different stakeholders and their response to the implementation process.
Forecasting to potential stakeholders, impacting on themselves: The fact that different stakeholders and stakeholders can influence project outcomes is no doubt, and the scientists have stressed that they need to be acknowledged by the influence of various stakeholders. The potential impact of stakeholders on the project: As stakeholder involvement is not static, stakeholders are needed in the different phases of the project are analyzed throughout the project, life cycle information can affect the different stages of the impact project. In addition, requirements for project evaluation and lobbying are considered necessary and an important step in any project of planning, implementation, and implementation. This also supports the need for project managers to anticipate the influence of stakeholders to develop appropriate measures to address them.
This means that the design and design team will collaborate from the start of the project, while external players will also be transferred when and when needed. In order to be effective, project managers must identify and analyze the various stakeholders they are dealing with. These difficulties are due to the fact that stakeholders did not analyze in the previous phases prior to the construction plan. In another to overcome this problem, it is necessary to investigate why it is difficult to conduct stakeholder analyzes that focus not only on the design phase but also the early stages of the project (Nicholas & Steyn, 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to identify, acknowledge and respect the expectations of the project's interest in projects minimizing their negative impact on the project, and it cannot be expected to respect stakeholders. They report on these involving stakeholders in the project, including support and contributions from stakeholders in the project, the best possible results and efforts to highlight the stakeholders, and not focus on a number of stakeholders.
This department is focused on the discussion about the need for stakeholders to manage building projects, reveals the bottom of stakeholders influence changes over time as the project progresses. The needs and expectations of stakeholders, governments, and management consultants are of the opinion that social and political relations are of great importance, while the private sector attaches great importance to the creation of project caliber and tactical lobbying mechanisms for managing stakeholder needs and expectations (Rowlinson & Cheung, 2008). It has also shown that it is necessary for stakeholders to get the start of management early and transfer them to the end of the project. But the question is still how to control stakeholders to increase the likelihood of success in construction projects. Design and design teams must collaborate with each other in engaging / managing stakeholders in the project they are part of. But it is not enough to control stakeholders, it must be done efficiently. It takes project proposals involving stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, especially in front-end planning, and highlights the overall communication with different stakeholders to get customization and feedback among them. In addition to good project management in the initial stages of the project, there are possible ways to eliminate more problems that prevent the success of the project.
Project managers face some problems with applying current guidelines for stakeholder analysis in the building plan, and the outcome is crucial for the decision of the parties involved. Aaltonen and Kujala (2010) proposed that it takes a long time for an analysis of stakeholders due to the difficulty of accessing one of the players identified as important to the project, thus ending the development strategy and implementation strategy for external stakeholders to gather necessary information (Nicholas & Steyn, 2017). When different stakeholders are identified and understood, they are classified as successful project management / commitment to success. Researchers, led by stakeholders, support the view that project stakeholders are involved under the guidance of stakeholders and have proposed several classification models. Stakeholders behave differently by expressing concerns and focusing on the project. The behavior of stakeholders as part of perceived behavior, possibilities of cooperation and competitive threats. Stakeholders generally tend to act as draftsmen, impartial or inconsistent with the objectives of the project. In order to make use of the visibility of their project, they appear to be or are involved in the project through the strategies, direct source network, indirect strategy, and resource development strategy, coalition building strategy, conflict expansion and building strategy credit. Therefore, there needs to be stakeholder engagement such that a project can be completed within the desired time frame and within budget.
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