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Factors Affecting Labor Productivity in Construction Industry

The contemporary construction issue which is being investigated here is labor productivity and the lack of proper models to show labor productivity. For several decades there have been numerous researchers who have reported chronic problems in the productivity of labor in the construction industry. It is extremely challenging to make the issues easier because the productivity of the construction is affected by several different factors such as climate, topography, differences in the skill level in the labor force, and the demand of the workload (Khanh et al, 2021). The factor related to the temperature is the most significant in the construction industry, especially in the equatorial parts where it is extremely hot.

This topic is central and has to be examined because productivity in the construction and the engineering sector is classified into the industry-level productivity and the project-level industry and finally task-level productivity. In construction, the main aspect is the masonry which is needed in the implementation phase (Bhatti et al, 2019). This is the reason, the search for the task level productivity of this masonry work plays a significant focus in the whole management of the project. This is the reason; the topic of productivity has to be discussed (Khanh et al, 2021). If the productivity in the masonry work is low then the whole project productivity can become lower than the expected amount. This study of the masonry work aimed to determine the actual amount of productivity based on the qualifications of the workers. It also developed a model to find out the quantity which affected the worker’s experience and the level of the skills on the masonry performance (Khanh et al, 2021).

The improvement of the productivity of the construction projects as well as the masonry jobs is a critical issue and challenge for the managers in the construction industry. The engineers and the workers are the individuals who create the product in the end and this implies that there have to be proper solutions that have to be used to improve the safety factors of the construction worker and reduce the lifetime risk as well as the risk of low productivity. There have been comments by companies, stakeholders, and industry officials on this issue (Flouris et al, 2018). Choudhry and Zafar (2017), have concluded that motivational skills and personal skills are the predictors of the competency of the worker competency that will affect the construction and the productivity. This information shows the fact that the characteristics of the4 workers have an important role to play in creating very high productivity. this crisis is not being solved at the present moment. The nationwide survey which involves 1996 craft workers in the USA had found that the workers had a good understanding of the different facto5rs which were affecting their daily results and their productivity but the perceived aspect of productivity was already very low.

Improvement of the construction productivity for the project basis tasks and the masonry work is always a very big hurdle and a challenge because there are no proper resources for the increase in productivity. the risks of the construction workers could cause huge low productivity and also cause social problems. Therefore, one of the main solutions, in this case, would be to improve the productivity of construction can be secured by taking care of the human factor. It is also recommended by the paper that there needs to be an increase in the salary through the aspects of promotion and allowances for overtime work (Karthik and Rao, 2019). It is also recommended that the workers are given holidays and increments so that it can work as a positive reinforcement for the improvement of the performance of the construction and masonry workers (Vidakovi?, Hadzima-Nyarko and Marenjak, 2020).

Importance of Labor Productivity in Construction Industry

The general methodologies chosen in research to investigate the issue is wor sampling design. This study has the primary aim to model the connection and the relationship between the experience of the worker and the productivity of the masonry work. There was the employment of the on site measurements on purpose. According to the literature review, this model and the study has used the equation of Productivity ðm3 =hrÞ     ¼ Total volume of brick wall completed / ð Finishtime  Start time Þ x number of Number of workers involved in order to calculate the productivity. there were some statistical tools that were used and adapted in order to discover the expected outcomes from the data which was collected and the hypothesis of the test. The one-way analysis of ANOVA has also been used in order to determine the difference in the productivity difference between the group of workers and groups of workers. These solutions can make productivity increase in the construction market and improve the state of the masonry workers (Johari and Jha,  2020).

The general conclusions of the study are related to labor productivity and the manner in which the models suggested in this study can help increase the productivity of the masonry workers. The productivity of the labor is of the utmost significance in order to bring the most amount profitability to every construction project. Several studies have portrayed important factors which affect the productivity of the labor in the industry f construction. The experiences and the skill set of the works have been recognized and identified to be one of the most significant factors which can alter productivity. the result of this paper has revealed the low productivity which is lower than the baseline productivity for the 110mm as well as the 220mm wall. The result of this research also showed that there is no difference in the productivity average between the experienced group of workers and skilled workers. The study has developed a model based on the logistic regression and this model can forecast the productivity of the brick masonry task under the influence and effect of the experience of the workers and their skills (Arfah and Putra, 2019). The solution given by all the managers is that the workers need to be trained and briefed properly before they are given the actual job or the project. Therefore, when the work is completed, the work and the result of the project would be authentic and without fewer errors. The training course will also help in the understanding of the qualification of the workers by the managers. This is one of the possible solutions to eliminating low productivity.  It is also noted that maximum of the construction workers and their health, as well as morale, has not been checked or taken care of before they started their job (Viviani et al,2021). The conditions of working as well as the construction method used in the brick masonry projects have not been properly researched and investigated in order to know what and how the workers are involved and face in the working environments. Another solution to this problem of low productivity is to see the skills of the workers and train them in a manner that can increase their skill set. The effect of the experiences of the workers and their skills on productivity in the brick masonry industry has to be quantified (Bilau and Bamgbade, 2021). The result of the study can help the stakeholders select masonry workers in a systematic manner so that the productivity is more than the expected amount (Paikun et al, 2021). Besides the solution of being taught through training classes, the workers can also be trained and instructed in a direct manner by the field managers and engineers. This can be done through supervision and the managers as well as engineers can detect the techniques or the tasks that are being wrong due to a lack of skills. After assessing the limitations, the managers can train the workers in the areas that they lack. Additionally, based on the present usage of the skills and the skill type, the total work of the employee and the work experience of the employee can be improved in a positive manner (Musyafa, Ansori and Anugrah, 2022).

Models to Show Labor Productivity of Masonry Work

Conclusions

Out of all the solutions, the best possible solution to the problem of low productivity of the masonry workers is to train them in skills by hiring on-site engineers or managers. This is because the supervisor and the managers can encourage the workers with proper training and proper positive reinforcements so that the workers are actually encouraged to improve and get their deserved remunerations.

The owners first have to recognize the fact that there is no one way to research and create construction project management. The owner might decompose the whole process into different stages based on the skills of the workers and the size of the project and have the most efficient result. However, outside financial planners also have a hand in the project. This, therefore, needs the operation management to be present from the inception of the job in order to give a good working environment for the workers.

The new service which can emerge from this result of the project is the service of on-site engineers and trainers. These trainers can bifurcate the skills that the workers have and train them according to their skills and the things that they need to learn. This is not only going to increase their productivity but also give more employment to other people.

Construction firms such as Parkwood Homes and Lindbacks also talk about the improvement o the workers and their environments in order to increase productivity. if the workers are trained properly and are given the proper remunerations then the productivity of the projects will increase automatically and make the projects of masonry and construction a success.

The nonprobability of the sampling procedure has been kept in this research study which also contained limitations. At the start of the test, the work sampling test had been sent to five engineers in order to request their help in collecting proper data. However, these results only required limited corrections and revisions. the working conditions of the masonry workers as well as their morale and their health had been checked before they were examined on their job front. The second limitation of the research was that the working conditions of the workers had not been investigated in the context of their involvement (Reddy and Chambrelin, 2021). Based on the limitations, future studies and research can be conducted to improve the results of the research related to brick masonry workers. The effect of the experience of the workers and their skills on the productivity of the brick masonry wall can be quantified properly (Adebowale and Agumba, 2022). The main results of this study might have a big help in the construction industry and the stakeholder for the projects. The solutions and the above-mentioned recommendations can help in selecting proper workers according to the skills and the experience that they have (Suryani et al, 2021). These are the limitations and the possible solutions given by the research papers. There is still a lot of improvement which is needed in the construction sector and more research should be conducted (Alaloul et al, 2021).

References

Adebowale, O.J. and Agumba, J.N., 2022. A scientometric analysis and review of construction labour productivity research. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

Alaloul, W.S., Alzubi, K.M., Malkawi, A.B., Al Salaheen, M. and Musarat, M.A., 2021. Productivity monitoring in building construction projects: a systematic review. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.

Arfah, A. and Putra, A.H.P.K., 2019. Analysis of productivity and distribution of female workers in FB's industries. Journal of Distribution Science, 17(3), pp.31-39.

Bhatti, I.A., Nagapan, S., Bhatti, N.B., Lakhiar, M.T. and Mahar, M.M., 2019. Building construction labour productivity in arid climate environment. Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences, 9(2), pp.125-130.

Bilau, T.O. and Bamgbade, A.A., 2021. Effects of Skill Gap on Labour Productivity on Construction Sites in Abuja.

Flouris, A.D., Dinas, P.C., Ioannou, L.G., Nybo, L., Havenith, G., Kenny, G.P. and Kjellstrom, T., 2018. Workers' health and productivity under occupational heat strain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2(12), pp.e521-e531.

Johari, S. and Jha, K.N., 2020. How the aptitude of workers affects construction labor productivity. Journal of Management in Engineering, 36(5), p.04020055.

Karthik, D. and Rao, C.B.K., 2019. The analysis of essential factors responsible for loss of labour productivity in building construction projects in India. Engineering Journal, 23(2), pp.55-70.

Khanh, H.D., Kim, S.Y., Khoa, N.V. and Tu, N.T., 2021. The relationship between workers' experience and productivity: a case study of brick masonry construction. International Journal of Construction Management, pp.1-10.

Musyafa, A., Ansori, I.H. and Anugrah, M.R., 2022. Experiment to Determine Worker Needs Index in Brick Work with Space Mold Tools. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials (pp. 1151-1160). Springer, Singapore.

Paikun, P., Fatimah, C., Nugroho, N.S. and Kusmana, D., 2021. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY RATING MODEL FOR LIGHT BRICK WALL INSTALLATION IN RESIDENTIAL PROJECTS. ASTONJADRO: CEAESJ, 10(2), pp.260-270.

Reddy, G.V.K. and Chambrelin, K.S., 2021, November. Application of Time and Motion study for Brickwork activity in Residential building. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 1197, No. 1, p. 012038). IOP Publishing.

Suryani, F., Widiasanti, I., Satrio, D., Yunianto, A., Mulyono, T. and Luthfiana, Y., 2021, March. A dominant factor of human resources performance of construction management in supervising high rise building construction phase. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 1098, No. 2, p. 022038). IOP Publishing.

Vidakovi?, D., Hadzima-Nyarko, M. and Marenjak, S., 2020. The contribution of workers’ attributes on sustainability of construction project realization goals—Survey on the impact on productivity in Croatia. Sustainability, 12(23), p.9946.

Viviani, C.A., Bravo, G., Lavallière, M., Arezes, P.M., Martínez, M., Dianat, I., Bragança, S. and Castellucci, H.I., 2021. Productivity in older versus younger workers: A systematic literature review. Work, (Preprint), pp.1-42.

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