The current study helps in understanding the meaning of personnel management and human resource management and analytically examines the benefits of studying the similarities and differences between the two concepts. As such, personnel management essentially refers to a managerial function of a particular business organization that can deliver the personnel required for diverse organizational actions and to handle the association between employers and employee (Klikauer 2014). In itself, human resource management indicates towards management of the entire human resource, designed to optimize performance of employees and focussed on different strategies as well as systems (Parry 2013). The present section also elucidates in detail that the human resource management refers to a long established activity within the management framework of the business concern.
Moving further, the present segment analytical examines the given statement in the present case to determine the benefits as well as the theoretical perspectives related to the debates on the personnel management and human resource management. Subsequently, the current study helps in comprehending the similarities as well as differences between the two different concepts in terms of scope, approach as well as application. Thereafter, the study also helps in comprehending the way of transformation of organizations from personnel management to human resource management. However, the comparison of the two different concepts also refers to line management in employee administration, motivation of the employees as well as commitment together with addition of value. Prior studies helps in understanding the fact that the human resource management is essential an extension of the personnel management, therefore are similar in great deal of aspects with certain transformations in it with time. Thus, the present segment also helps in presenting the evolution of personnel management to human resource management, thereafter from human resource management to society for human resource management. Specifically, the first section of the study explains the critical examination of the given statement and highlights different benefits of studying the similarities and differences between personnel management and human resource management, review of prior literature on evolution of the practices.
Critical examination of the above statement highlighting different benefits
Literature Review and analysis
Nature of Topic
Analysis of the give statement of the study reveals the fact that work of personnel comprises of strategic concerns. However, the current emphasis is mainly on strategic issues that purely reflects alterations in the environment to which the personnel manager acclimatizes by strengthening and developing the overall competence necessary for the upcoming situation (Marchington 2015). Besides this, the mentioned statement in this case indicates that human resource management can be considered to be a lasting procedure of personnel management as it is not considered to be dissimilar. Besides this, there is question as regards alterations as well as changes in human resource and personnel management (Klingner et al. 2015).
Human resource management can be considered to be a discipline or else a practice in the management of people in the business organization and this has transformed into different arena. As rightly put forward by Bassey et al. (2014), management of human resource includes principles as well as techniques for particularly management of people in specifically different competitive business concerns. Human resource management thus essentially describes the overall process of progression of human resource management, appreciate the role of diverse theories in shaping the practices of management of people. In other hand, Human resource management can be regarded as a practice that happens at any place where members of the family assume different roles as well as responsibilities for the purpose of accomplishment of different objectives (Schuler et al. 2013).
Human resource management can be regarded as a new version and an extension of personnel management. The debate about human resource management and personnel management helps in understanding the difference in the goals as well as values of the two concepts. As such, this debate focuses on comparative analysis of variance in the objectives, professionalism, different relations, and processes employee administration together with information and communication (Armstrong 2016).
The human resource management (HRM) and personnel management (PM) essentially helps in understanding integration of necessarily the policies of both the concepts associated to accomplishment of organizational objectives from the comparative analysis of the similarities. However, the debates also helps in gaining competitive understanding regarding two different concepts. For instance, the objectives together with the values of personnel management refers to the incremental interventions in the process of drawing, retaining, motivating different members of the staff. On the contrary, the goals as well objectives of the corporation include strategic emphasis, maintenance of competitiveness, profitability, strategies of survival, maintenance of competitive advantage as well as flexibility of the entire workforce (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). As such, the line managers are essentially liable for different matters of the workforce. Nevertheless, the personnel management emphasizes on maintenance of limited trust, conflict as well as differentiation in addition to control orientation.
Again, the analysis of the differences from the debates help in comprehending harmony, mutuality of trust, dynamic involvement of different members of the staff. As far as benefits from the analysis are concerned, the management of employee helps in narrowing concentration and getting converted to individualized attention. However, the process of management of employee in human resource management are essentially broad as well as focussed on team (Sparrow et al. 2016). Again, the debate helps in understanding that the information as well as communication system also differs in terms of control of information, process of communication, bureaucratic control. Meanwhile, the study of the differences indicates towards the fact that the information and communication procedure in case of human resource management is transparent, objective, honest and trustworthy. Thus, it can be said that the debate on personnel management and human resource management also helps in concentrating on the variances between the two concepts (Drucker 2014).
As rightly indicated by Renwick et al. (2013), personnel management can be regarded as principally an administrative record maintaining function that intends to institute as well as maintain specific equitable terms along with conditions of employment. On the other hand, Wilton (2016) advocates that the human resource administration assimilates different traditional functions of personnel management with different corporate objectives and strategies and carries out supplementary people oriented organizational development actions. In this way, it can be hereby inferred that the given statement in this case rightly describes human resource management as a continuing procedure of human resource management. Storey (2014) argues that though there is similarities between the two concepts, there exists considerable differences between both personnel management and human resource administration from the viewpoint of scope, approach as well as application.
Similarity in scope
Critical examination of the given statement helps in understanding the scope of different services. As such, human resource administration is essentially wider in scope than management of personnel. However, the scope of personnel management comprises of different functional actions that includes planning of manpower, strategies of recruitment, analysis of job, evaluation of job, administration of payroll (Purce 2014). In addition to this, the scope of personnel management also takes into account appraisals of performance, compliance with specific laws of labour, administration of training and development as well as associated tasks. Renwick et al. (2013) opines that human resource management comprises of all these activities but goes into add other activities such as function of leadership, motivation factors, development of a culture of organization, appropriate statement of shared values and many others. Nevertheless, approach of human resource management essentially remains assimilated to the core policy of the company as well as vision. This in turn helps to optimize the utilization of human resource for the purpose of fulfilment of different goals of the organization. Thus, it can be hereby inferred that the philosophical as well as strategic context of human resource administration helps in making it more focused, pertinent as well as effectual compared to the approaches of personal management (Jackson et al. 2014). Meanwhile, analytical examination reveals the fact that there are certain variances that lie in the approaches as personnel management attaches importance to different norms as well as established practices whereas human resource approach ascribes greater significance to values as well as mission.
Nevertheless, there exists difference in tactics and differences in the proactive nature of human resource management associated to the reactive nature of management of personnel. Again, the personnel management remains remote from the core organizational actions, operates independently and assumes a reactive approach to alter different corporate objectives as well as strategies. However, the human resource management stays assimilated with strategy of corporation and assumes proactive approach to bring into line the entire workforce towards attainment of goals of corporate (Budhwar and Debrah 2013). Personnel management can be considered an independent function of the staff of a particular corporation with less involvement from different line managers and no linkage to the core procedures of the corporation. On the contrary, human resource administration remains assimilated with the core policies of the corporation as well as business functions. Furthermore, analytical assessment of the statement also helps in focussing on the factors of application of the both the concepts. This in turn reveals the fact that personnel management strives to settle all the aspirations as well as views of the entire workforce with the interest of the management by way of collective bargaining, negotiations undertaken by trade unions in addition to other identical procedures (Khanka 2013). However, this directs towards the fixation of different work conditions that are applicable for everyone and not essentially associated to the entire goals of the corporation (Dowling et al. 2013). On the other hand, human resource management dispenses greater pressure on handling with members of the staff of business concerns independently and attaches more significance to different customer oriented developmental actions as facilitates all the staff members individually.
Thus, the above analytical assessment of the statement helps in gaining an overview regarding the discussion on personnel management versus the human resource administration and evaluation of the similarities as well as differences between the two. Analysis of the debate and discussion thereby helps to substantiate the fact as mentioned in the statement that human resource management can be considered as a continuing procedure of personnel management and cannot be considered to be an entirely different concept.
Criticisms and theoretical perspectives associated with debates around new concepts of Human Resource Management within the organization
As rightly indicated by Legge (2013), during the period 1970s, people management or else personnel management has evolved in different ways in different developed free nations and is therefore referred to as the personnel management. This essentially replicated chiefly the Taylorist Corporation of work that in turn has developed for exploitation of the available technology for the entire mass production of different industrial goods (Hendry 2012). In addition to this, the concept of personnel management also acknowledged the process of institution of diverse collective industrial associations detecting the overall role as well as power of trade unions. However, the unexpected success of personnel management made it a standard model for different large organizations, specifically for diverse service industries as well as public segment such as recruitment as well as selection. However, a revolution occurred during the period 1980s that apparently reversed the established approaches of the overall personnel management particularly in favour of human resource administration. However, there are several normative models, academic as well as professional management works of human resource management (HRM) as well as best practices of HRM that has observed the revolution that occurred in the traditional personnel administration.
Particularly, several empirical evidences by Storey (2014) mention that there has been a revolution in the process of personnel management although it is not complete from the perspective of organizational culture or else practice of management. As correctly indicated by Wilton (2016), novel techniques of particularly people management have developed within the purview of the human resource management. Particularly, the changes has occurred in terms of scope as well as manner of utilization along with the intent behind the employment that varies in the two different approaches. For instances, different psychometric testing as well as personality profiling was existent for long time but in personnel management these techniques were applied for only executives of the organization along with other highly compensated personnel (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). However, different firms that has adopted HRM have incorporated these techniques for all appointments.
As rightly put forward by Armstrong and Taylor (2014), personnel management essentially originated in specifically UK during the nineteenth century amongst diverse factory state of affairs during the Industrial Revolution. However. Unrestricted capitalism in the industrialization in UK was restrained by Factory Acts during 1840s and this forced factory owners to take into account the overall welfare of the workforce (Armstrong 2016). However, the rise of the trade unionism particularly during the 20th century led to the evolution of the personnel management. This incorporated then process of negotiation as well as communication with the collective representatives of specifically the workforce. Moving further, the personnel management incorporated the scientific management and the process of industrial activities performing in line with the Taylorist lines directed to the increase in rigorous selection of personnel managed by particularly the management of the business corporation, in place of traditional mechanisms that depended on the foreman otherwise gang masters to select workmen (Bassey et al. 2014). This too led to increased interest in managing as well as delivering required training for employees for enhancement of skills and competence of the workers of the organization. However, following the World War II, social science was implemented to the human relation school and began to exert immense influence on work in different areas of design of job. This essentially to alleviate the ill effects of the scientific management whilst achieving productive as well as economic advantages.
Klingner et al. (2015) advocated that although these development did not affect the personnel management, the new concepts altered the culture of the entire culture of work and work environment in which the company operated as well as evolved. However, the implementation of the social science concepts in personnel management essentially encouraged the utilization of sophisticated techniques of recruitment as well as selection that exerted effect on personnel management along with strategies as well as business practices. Nevertheless, the personnel management concepts was also widely criticized. Wilton (2016) referred personnel management as a specific set of unrelated actions, notwithstanding individually significant actions. As rightly mentioned by Purce (2014), the critique by Peter Drucker can be regarded to be an early appeal to be returned to all the line managers of a business organization as it was later advocated by different models of HRM. Prior literature indicates the fact that there exists considerable break of personnel management concepts from the HRM concepts. Changes has occurred in a number of factors that led to the new management thinking. Earlier academic studies reflect the fact that the concerns regarding the human effects of taylorism as well as Fordism for several decades directed towards the rise of the Human Relation School (Marchington 2015). Significantly, the traditional schemes of different work organisation using personnel management policies were inherently unable to generate superior quality of output essential or competing in a worldwide marketplace. In addition to this, technology also acted as an important factor in transforming managerial unease towards human resources. As such, utilization of technologies in different competitive markets reflected the fact that business corporations encountered continual change in technological aspect that in turn referred to the requirement for continuous knowledge acquisition by members of the staff of the organization (Schuler et al. 2013). In itself, the incorporation of technological aspects directed the employers to evaluate training needs of all the employees individual and deliver the needed investment in altering as well as upgrading abilities and talents.
Employee management technique or else mechanisms can augment production, reduce delivery cost of service and ensure sustained availability of competent members of the staff in the business concern. Therefore, it can be hereby inferred that the Taylorist/Fordist corporations more effectually was no longer feasible. Technology as well as superior-educated workforce led to the management of the people passively. Thus, the concept of competitive advantage stemmed not only from the investment on capital but from concepts of human resource management (Armstrong 2016). Primarily, the novel human resource strategies were related to non-unionised as well as greenfield sites. Taylorist or else Fordist theories that was dominant in different Business concerns was influenced by the new concepts and approaches in different sorts of corporations.
However, the managerial perspectives towards relationships within business concerns are considered to be important in the analysis of human resource management. Earlier, the pluralist perspective reflected the Western industrial place of work post the World War II and this theory depended on the supposition that the entire society comprises of different groups that have their own interests as well as beliefs (Schuler et al. 2013). Essentially, the unitarist standpoint in purest form was conventionally witnessed in mainly private companies, but human resource management is usually related to unitarism. The viewpoints of postmodern intellectuals refer to the enlightened practices of management as well as philosophies namely Human Relations School. This necessarily led to the empowerment of the employees as well as sharing of profit (Jackson et al. 2014). This eventually leads to the overall augmentation of the society in which the organization thrives and makes way for the social human resource management.
Conclusion and recommendation
In conclusion it can be said that changes occurred in terms of characteristics of both personnel management and human resource management. The critical analysis thus reveals the fact that psychological agreements are essentially founded on compliance from the standpoint of employees in terms of personnel management, whereas it is based on willing commitment of the workforce in case of HRM. However, the job design is based on Taylorist as well as Fordist models in case of PM, while it is team based in case of HRM. In case of recruitment process of HRM, sophisticated treatment is applied for all the employees whereas sophisticated recruitment policies is implemented for senior members in case of PM. Again, the employee perspective is essentially pluralist in case of PM and unitarist in case of HRM.
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