Tourism is considered as a tool that influences employment opportunities and strengthen financial infrastructure of a country (Sinclair-Maragh and Gursoy 2015). Tourism stimulates the growth of a nation in a positive manner. Tourism plays a key role in the growth of the financial infrastructure of many countries. Those countries earn a huge revenue from the tourism industry. Tourism support the economic as well as social growth. According to some reports 698 million people travel to other countries by spending U$$ 478 million (Juvan and Dolnicar 2014). It helps the host country to earn huge amount of money which will improve the quality of the life of local people. Many government take notable initiatives to improve the quality of tourism industry, as it possess a bright future, especially in developing countries. In this modern and competitive era, people want to escape from their busy schedule to their favorite destination for some time. This has provided a great opportunity to the tourist destinations and people around the industry. There is a huge conflict among the analysts about the impact of tourism. According to some analysts tourism can be used as a weapon to for national and regional development (Juvan and Dolnicar 2014). On the other hand, some analysts claim that tourism has several negative impacts on the society. Tourism mainly affects the life of the local residents of tourism destinations. It is often evident that tourism influences the daily life of the local people, such as- modification in the family structure, increment in the crime rate (Kim, Uysal and Sirgy 2013). Tourism puts significant impact on the culture of the society. It involves the change in food habits, dressing styles. Tourism provide a great opportunity to the local people to know about the different life styles, food habits, foreign cultures. As opined by Sharpley (1999) that it is hard to differentiate between the positive and negative impact on the society. The paper has focused on the socio-cultural effect of tourism. Mathieson and Wall (1982) have applied three way lens such as- the tourists, the hosts, the relationship between tourists and hosts to observe the effect of tourism. This paper has mainly concentrated on the hosts and the relation of hosts and guests. The framework demonstration effect has been used in the research. The research is mainly based on Pattaya, Thailand. The research has primarily focused on the foreign tourists, instead of domestic tourists, as it will provide more prominent picture about the effect of tourism. The analysts have concentrated on the effect of tourism on the values of local residents. Although, attitude, behavior and consumption pattern can be used as a subject, values consist of various sub elements that will be helpful to identify the impacts of tourism. The researchers have provided platform to the local natives of Pattaya to express their views on how, why and when it occurs. The paper has enlightened the concept of tourism and its relation with the value change of the local residents. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of tourism on host countries and people live in those countries.
According to Cohen, there are three key elements that are greatly influenced by the development of tourism, such as- commoditization, authenticity and demonstration. According to Smith, the effect of demonstration is seldom. There is a huge gap between the practical evidence and theoretical analysis. According to some studies, there are few common effects of tourism, like introduction with foreign cultures, life style and vision towards life (Zeitun and Tian 2014). Due to direct communication between the hosts and foreign tourists, hosts get attracted towards the life styles of foreign countries. It influence the local people to adopt the foreign culture to improve their life style. Eventually, it changes the structure of the family and relationships. Cyprus has claimed that there is no positive impact of tourism on the life of local residents. Many analysts have claimed that tourism indirectly increases the crime rate in the society (Zeitun and Tian 2014). In order to live a better life people are often influenced to commit various crime. Eventually is set a wrong example among the tourists of entire world which is harmful for the socio-economic structure of any tourist destination. According to some reports, tourism has a mixed impact on the social structure. It influences the society in both positive and negative manner (Khoshkam, Marzuki, and Al-Mulali 2016). There are some analysts that claim the impact of tourism is lesser than other influential factors like radio, television and internet. The improvement in economic infrastructure, education, migration are another major factors that influence people to adopt better life style. Meethan in his study, has stated that globalization has a great impact on human lives. It introduces local people with the outer world that has changed the family structure as well as social structure of the country. Globalization has brought many remarkable changes in the society. As opined by Burns (1999), that the effect of tourism on the demonstration is inadequate. There are many general statements about the effect of tourism made by several analysts. Meethan has also not scrutinized empirical evidences while making statement. However, in this paper all the empirical evidences has been closely scrutinized. The paper has interpreted all the opinion that has been provided by the local people of Pattaya. Local people of Pattaya, Thailand has played a significant role in this study. The paper is committed to identify the effect of foreign tourists on nation’s socio-cultural infrastructure. The primary objective of the paper is to understand to what extent tourism can affect the life of local residents.
Juvan, E. and Dolnicar, S., 2014. The attitude–behaviour gap in sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 48, pp.76-95.
Khoshkam, M., Marzuki, A. and Al-Mulali, U., 2016. Socio-demographic effects on Anzali wetland tourism development. Tourism Management, 54, pp.96-106.
Kim, K., Uysal, M. and Sirgy, M.J., 2013. How does tourism in a community impact the quality of life of community residents?. Tourism Management, 36, pp.527-540.
Sinclair-Maragh, G. and Gursoy, D., 2015. Imperialism and tourism: The case of developing island countries. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, pp.143-158.
Zeitun, R. and Tian, G.G., 2014. Capital structure and corporate performance: evidence from Jordan.