Discuss about the Native Title Rights As Ingredient In Improving Well-Being Of Indigeneous Australians.
The purpose of this essay is to explain about the importance of native title rights in enhancing the physical as well as mental well-being of Indigenous Australians. In Australia, native title rights refers to general law Aboriginal title doctrine, which means the indigenous individuals have rights as well as interests to their respective lands that occurs from traditional customs and is recognized by Australian law (Bauman and Lauder 2013). This means that this property right highlights the relationship to land that is the foundation of indigenous people well-being. The rights that have been awarded through claims of native title are central to the Indigenous people’s ability in expressing and satisfying their linkage to this nation. As indigenous people in Australia do not have equal chance to be healthy as non- indigenous people, the Australian government faces longstanding challenge to improve indigenous people health status.
Native Title rights as key ingredient in improving the physical and mental well being of Indigenous Australians
It has been opined by Howitt (2012) that, the native title rights influence the Indigenous people of Australia to maintain their way of living, which is liberated from oppression and injustice. This native title right also has the potentiality in increasing the health as well as well-being of Indigenous Australians by positively affecting the determinants of people’s heath. Some economist argues that the potentiality of native title for improving Indigenous people well-being has not been realized. However, the holders of native title do not have sufficient resources in dealing with the lands that these people desire. Native title rights also highlights on the changing requirements as well as aspirations of Indigenous people in the market economy (Jamieson et al. 2012). The claimants of native title have access to vital economic leverage through native title rights. This resulted to negotiation of several agreements across this nation for various purposes that include registered agreements of land utilization. However, the people in Australia benefits from the facts that they are vital stakeholders as well as players in the future economic development.
Sources of economic inequality that led to poor physical health of Indigenous Australians and link to dispossession of land rights
The present health status of indigenous people in Australia reflects that the health status of Aboriginal people has been poor as compared to other people in the nation. As a result, there remains huge inequality gap in this country (Maclean et al. 2013). For example, it has been estimated that there has been 17 years gap of life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous people of this country. The socio-economic disadvantage that has been experienced by Indigenous Australians places them at huge exposure risk to behavioral as well as environmental factors of health risk. This is because the greater proportion of indigenous people living in this condition does not have good health. Moreover, indigenous people in this nation also do not have equivalent access to basic health care as well as health infrastructure. Over the years, there has been less progress in reducing the gap of inequality between indigenous and non- indigenous people.
Besides this poor physical health has huge linkage to dispossession of land rights. It has been stated by (), that the land rights are insufficient for improving health. This system of land rights are directly linked with both the physical and mental well being of Indigenous people. Most of the regions in Australia have few forms of legislation of land rights (Jorm et al. 2012). Land is considered in two different ways under Aboriginal Land Rights (ALRA). Firstly, land has been automatically transferred at the enactment time. Secondly, if the Indigenous people or government owns a particular land, the a claim might be placed before the commissioner of Aboriginal land. However, if this claim has been recognized, then the title to this land is given to the Aboriginal land trust in order to benefit the landowners (Parker and Milroy 2014). This ALRA has also enabled these Indigenous Australians to live as well as work in this nation and this in turn positively affected their physical and mental well-being and health. Ownership of legal rights by the Indigenous people has also helped the CLC ( Central land council) in developing and implementing programs to work in this nation. The CLC working with other companies on certain activities facilitates in promoting caring for nation. Furthermore, they also provide huge opportunity for Indigenous Australians for working on nation and expressing their linkage to the nation. The ALEA refers to the one of the vital social justice reforms that has been ratified in this nation (Shepherd, C.C and Zubrick 2012). However, the results under this ALRA might not affect or fully realize enhancement to health as well as well-being of Indigenous people.
Strategies to improve the physical health of Indigenous Australians
The strategies that will help in improving the physical health of Indigenous people in Australia are explained as follows:
Prevention of chronic diseases- The Australian government should introduce some initiatives across Health Portfolio for preventing chronic disease among the indigenous people. Therefore, sustainable change in health system helps in closing the life expectancy gap among the people.
Improving access to effectual health services- The Australian government should commit in enhancing access to effectual services of primary health by adopting the initiative of expanding delivery of health care services. This initiative will facilitate in delivering health improvements, provide core services and develop service delivery framework.
Improving access to information relating to health that includes eHealth helps in recognizing lack of transportation might cause additional barrier for getting access to health services for the indigenous people.
Funding as well as supporting enhancement of health organization that has been controlled by Aboriginal community facilitates in improving physical health of Australians.
Implementing cultural safety as well as care agendas quality for this indigenous people across the health system can also help in improving in well being of indigenous people.
Improving workforce capacity- The Australian government should commit to support indigenous people for remaining in health workforce and also ensure that other health professionals enhance their knowledge regarding health issues (Smylie and Firestone 2016). This strategy will provide network for indigenous doctors and community and will also help in establishing association of health worker.
From the above essay, it can be concluded that indigenous awareness of health as well as well-being has been holistic and must include life factors. These factors mainly include problems regarding physical health, social disadvantage and cultural dislocation. The indigenous people have recognized interest in half of land area through land utilization agreements and native title rights. However, native title rights act as main ingredient in improving physical and mental well being of Indigenous people in Australia. As economic inequality leads to poor physical health of people, few strategies will help the Australian government in improving their physical health of indigenous people.
Bauman, T. and Lauder, G., 2013. Pathways to the co-management of protected areas and native title in Australia(Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 117-22).
Howitt, R., 2012. Sustainable indigenous futures in remote Indigenous areas: relationships, processes and failed state approaches. GeoJournal, 77(6), pp.817-828.
Jamieson, L.M., Paradies, Y.C., Eades, S., Chong, A., Maple-Brown, L.J., Morris, P.S., Bailie, R.S., Cass, A., Roberts-Thomson, K. and Brown, A., 2012. Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations. Medical Journal of Australia, 197(1), pp.16-18.
Jorm, A.F., Bourchier, S.J., Cvetkovski, S. and Stewart, G., 2012. Mental health of Indigenous Australians: a review of findings from community surveys. Medical Journal of Australia, 196(2), p.118.
Maclean, K., Ross, H., Cuthill, M. and Rist, P., 2013. Healthy country, healthy people: An Australian Aboriginal organisation’s adaptive governance to enhance its social–ecological system. Geoforum, 45, pp.94-105.
Parker, R. and Milroy, H., 2014. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health: an overview. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice, 2, pp.25-38.
Shepherd, C.C., Li, J. and Zubrick, S.R., 2012. Social gradients in the health of Indigenous Australians. American journal of public health, 102(1), pp.107-117.
Smylie, J. and Firestone, M., 2016. The health of indigenous peoples. D. Raphael (3rd ed.) Social determinants of health: Canadian perspective, pp.434-469.