The theory is considered as the most impressive part regarding the development of various creative ideas as well as construction activities from the renaissance of the human civilization. There are a vast range of conceptions regarding the nature of the theory in the generic terms. In addition to that, the scope of the respective theories immensely contributes to the development of the conceptions of the natures of theory (Martindale, 2013). However, the most vital concepts of theory which are used by the scholars in the field of accounting are normative, positive as well as interpretive. Moreover, the paradigms of the respective researches also play a greater part in respective of selection between the methods of the research i.e. qualitative as well as quantitative. The selection of the research methods are also accounted on the basis of the assumptions that can be either epistemological or ontological.
According to Stam (2010) the theory can be considered as ‘systematic representation’ of the expression of the valid problems of the research. The expression is the problem highly represented as far as possible in the context of natural science, mathematics, social science as well as logic. In addition to that, Stam (2010) also illustrated that the major purposes of the systematic representations are delineating phenomenon features, prediction provision as well as problem explanation. Moreover, theory can be opinionated in three distinct options which are realism, instrumentalism as well as reductionism (Stam, 2007). The ability of the theory is considered as mere observables in the reductionism point of view. At the same time, the theory is considered as tools for performing various research activities in the instrumentalism viewpoint. On the other hand, the theory is considered as the real world phenomenal statements in the research prospect in the realism point of view. In this context Stam (2007) also identified that theory interpretation behaviorist is highly responsible for separating the observations from the concept of theory after the emergence of ‘deductive-nomonological’ framework. At the same time, behaviorism got extinct due to the inferential statistics practice which led to the practice of theoretical models (Stam, 2007).
Moreover, in the similar context Gelso (2006) has illustrated that a theory can be referred as the prime statement of the relationship which are expressed between as well as among the variables. It can be also verified by various scholars that any discipline can be explained through several organized logic based laws as well as relationship which are referred by theory. It is also illustrated from the traditional sense of theory that it consists of four distinct components which is greatly influential for the constitution of theory. These components are relationship, definition, predictive claims and domain (Spielberger, 2013). These components are capable of answering various natural language questions such as what, who, where, when, why, how, would, could and should. In addition to that, scholars have been able to point out various effective attributes of theory which measure their performance. These attributes can be also referred as the criteria as well as virtue of the theories. These criterions include falsification, testability, explanation, prediction, internal consistency, parsimony, generalizability, uniqueness, empirical riskiness, conservatism, abstraction as well as fecundity (Benjamin, 2014).
It is described in the context of nature of theory that it must surpass level of simple proposition in order to present an extensive scientific value. The major purpose of any perfect theory is effective description as well as explanation of the phenomenon. It also must focus on limiting the examination as well as stimulating ongoing investigation. In addition, Gelso (2006) stated that the theory must consolidate various contradictory propositions which will be highly consistent. The major functions of theories are demitting, descriptive, integrative as well as generative.
Theory can be distinguished in various forms of ideologies based on the level of complexity and diversity of the definition as well as associated criterions. However, the type of the research can be derived on the basis of various classification factors which are functions, purpose, goals as well as boundaries. According to the above mentioned classification system the theory can be distinguished in five forms which are inductive grounded theory, hypothetical deductive method, social constructionist theory, meta-analytic theory as well as case study theory (Corbin & Strauss, 2014). It is also suggested by various scholars that the theory can be also classified on the basis of their function which are demitting, descriptive, integrative as well as generative.
The descriptive function of the theory mainly deals with the causal explanation of the phenomenon which means answering the ‘why’ of the things. The demitting function, on the other hand, limits the process of examination in the ‘what’ context of phenomenon. At the same time the generative function of the theories focuses on inspiring the heuristic value of the researches which greatly assists in respect to expansion of the knowledge (Spielberger, 2013). The integrative function of the theory is also efficient for dealing with the diverse and disparate activities with the provision of an organized as well as collective visual. Moreover, theories can be classified based on their perspective of the phenomenon. These perspective based classifications are interpretive, critical theory as well as empirical-analytical.
In addition to that, theories are also classified by various renowned scholars on the basis of their purpose. These classifications are theory as enlightenment, theory as narrative as well as theory as covering laws (Derlaga & Berg, 2013). However, every scholar eventually agrees that the theories can be categorized in two most basic formats which are hierarchical theory as well as concatenated theory. The major purposes of the theories are identified as the attempt of predicting as well as understanding the behaviors. The scholars have been also able to identify most important goals of the theories which are providing the description of behavior, explanation of behavior, determination of behavior as well as prediction of behavior.
The constitutions of theory is classified in several different point of views which are highly based on competing conceptions, intellectual curiosity, variety of approaches as well as conflicting assumptions. The assumptions as well as goals of the research are the major parameters those indicate the exact approach of the research work. There are three major perspectives in respect to the constitutions of theory in overall academic research world (Watts & Stenner, 2012). These perspectives are inductive-synthesis, hypothetical-deduction as well as critical theory. The hypothetical deduction theory is termed as various crucial theories such as positivism, nomothetic, empirical-analytical, and post-positivism as well as hierarchialism.
On the other hand, the inductive-synthesis theory is termed as grounded theory, idiographic, interpretive as well as constructivism theory. At the same time, the critical theory is also referred by the neo-Marxist, radical as well as social justice theory (O'keefe, 2015). These three kinds of perspectives are highly popular in respect to the growing practice in the academic research sector.
Perspectives of Theories
Realism - The knowledge is typically founded on the observational data
Relativism – Stakeholders in any kind of setting are able to determine the subjective as well as objective meaning which in turn compose the reality (Scott & Storper, 2015)
Reactionism – The values of powerful as well as resourceful entities are major factor in respect to shaping the reality
Testing various hypothesis
Obtaining all data and matching with the inferred theory in a precise manner.
Data is used for emerging
Perceiving the forces from the context of background.
Evaluating the meanings
To predict and explain as well as discover the universal truth and laws in generic fashion
Perceiving the nature of occurrence in a particular situation along with describing the point of views of actors as well as their significance
Uncovering hidden interests as well as contradictions,
Deductions → Data →
Postulates → Data
Identification as well as reveal of social, economic as well as political inequities (Grusec & Lytton, 2012)
Unit of Analysis
Operational variables and concepts
Nonverbal as well as verbal actions
Contradictions regarding relationship
Both Qualitative and Quantitative
The assumptions as well as goals are highly crucial for identifying the proper direction of the research approach. The perspective of hypothesis testing is broadly practiced while the research is attempting to discover various different laws as well as truths which can be generalized in the context of overall population (Payne, 2014). On the other hand, The inductive grounded theory is used while the research goals is mainly focused on perceiving various occurrence due to the stakeholders operational activities. The inductive reasoning is considered as the idiographic which considered as the means for relating the theory to the particular situation. Moreover, the inductive reasoning is also quite exploratory as well as open-ended regarding its nature. In order to conduct the inductive synthesis research the data collection plays a major factor (Bhaskar, 2013). Any kind of research work cannot be done without the support of evidence, thus data collection is the first priority for formulating any kind of theory.
On the other hand, deductive reasoning is highly focused in respect to the confirming the hypotheses with the help of proper scientific testing. Therefore, the deductive reasoning works on a very narrow subject to maintain its relevance. In the academic research sector the deductive reasoning observed to be maintained by nomothetic nature (Gelman & Shalizi, 2013). The major purpose of the hypothetical deductive research theory is seeking the explanation of individuals, broad class situations as well as behaviors. The major advantage of the deductive reasoning is that it is capable of greater range of explanation of various things. The approach of this particular theory can be differed from the connection of data, theory as well as analysis. The theory also illustrates the most potential way for collecting the data in an efficient way. The major purpose of the deductive reasoning is to identify whether the research work has supported the hypothesis with empirical evidence (Sprenger, 2013). Moreover, it also focuses on the attempt to prove the hypothesis as false with the help of various factors as well as coefficients.
The critical theory is highly focused on uncovering various facts as well as information which are highly influential regarding the power relations. These facts are generally obscured for transforming the inequities in respect to social, economic as well as political context. According to the critical theoretic perspective of the issues of dominance, exploitation as well as subjugation is the major indicator which displays the inequalities along with facilitating the emancipation (Bouzat, 2014). These phenomenons of the critical theoretic perspectives are highly crucial for spreading the awareness amongst the social actors.
The hypothesis is most referred to the educated guess in respected to the process of activities of the work. The educated guess of the hypothesis consists of several major predictive values in order to define the working of the phenomenon. The activities are mostly described by the knowledge from the previous experiences. On the other hand, the theory is considered as the collaborative as well as substantiated explanation of a range of hypothesis in order to conduct the research process in an effective fashion (Kumar, Kumar & Sisodia, 2013). The hypothesis is considered to be a major component of overall theory which can be tested in respect to perceive their relevance or falsification. On the contrary cannot be tested in respective of their falsification as well as relevance. In this context the experiments can prove the hypothesis as a false assumption (Betz, 2013). However, theory cannot be proven as false assumption as theory itself has been tested more and more. The hypothesis is able to replace the theory after considerable amount of testing and proven most relevant on that topic. Therefore, it can be said that the hypothesis can be transformed in to theory after necessary scientific experimentation as well as modification.
The paradigm can be considered as the framework of the belief system as well as point of views of the entire world which is implemented from defining methods as well as values of the research process. This framework can be based on the theoretical as well as philosophical context. The paradigm can perform as a set of reference at the time of research activities. The paradigm can be also quite effective for illustrating the scopes as well as boundaries of the research work (Kao, 2016). The paradigm is capable for defining the differences to the possible as well as impossible facts. In addition to that, it is highly able to deduce the level of importance. The overarching philosophies in the academic sector can be highly related to the paradigm of the research. Moreover, the paradigm can produce an impressive level of significance as well as perspective of the relative theories. The paradigms are also noted to be most efficient of mixing the implementation of paradigm, methods, theory as well as standards. In addition to that, the paradigm is known by the embodiment of theories which are considered as quite implicit.
The model can be recognized as the most effective tools of the research work which are highly useful for facilitating the construction of the theory. On the other hand, the theory is highly popular as the conceptual framework (Witzel & Warner, 2015). The model is basically used for representing the visual construction of the theory as well as various components of the respective theory with the help of a graphic as well as written format of the representation. On the contrary it has been disclosed by (Ning & Liu, 2014) that the model is not able to explain various activities in the research work as well as from the real life. Basically, the model is highly popular for its immense capability of exploration the theory on diverse academic research topic.
In order to explore the respective theory the model provides along with illustrates the process of exploration. While the theory mostly deals with the statements which are immensely generic, the model is mostly focused on being the most useful tool for perceiving the activities in research work or real world (Reznicek et al., 2015). At the same time the theory itself belongs from an abstract conceptualization whereas the model is highly realistic mostly mathematical. The modeling, on the contrary of theory, greatly depends on the experiments. Theory does not need the support of experimentation as it is already an established concept.
In the academic research sector the theoretical concept is considered as the major building block of the entire research work. The theory is mainly constructed upon these particular block developed by the theoretical concept. The major purpose of the concept is providing the most effective process for interpreting as well as describing the data which are highly required for the research work. The theoretical concept mostly works by studying, comparing along with relating the items with the other research components. While the concept is considered as the abstract notion, the theory is recognized as various explanations regarding any specific topics.
At the same time, unlike theories the concept tends to change as well as morph during the research activities (Bernstein, 2014). Theories other hand are considered as the educated guess which do not need any major change. Whilst the concept is based on the general idea without any kind of evidence, the theory is highly formulated on the basis of significant level of support of evidence based explanation. In addition to that, the concept is itself unorganized regarding its nature whilst the theory is highly organized during the research activities.
The relationship between the research as well as theory is itself a most diverse subject part of the academic sector. According to the majority of the scholars agree on a single perspective that the theory can be considered as the currency while the scholarly research is considered. However, there are lots of scholars who think that this particular concept fails to meet the principle of theory (Spielberger, 2013). The principle of theory illustrates that the actual theory needed to effectively contribute in the body of knowledge. In addition to that, the contribution must be performed through a certain domain or discipline.
According to Marcum (2012), the contribution process is undertaken by the quantitative as well as qualitative research through a bi-dimensional means. These dimensions are identified as utility as well as originality. The originality dimension basically rotates around revelatory and incremental approaches. At the same time, the originality dimension deals with practical along with scientific approaches. As stated by Deep, Murthy & Bhat (2015), it is identified in various studies that the development of the theory which is known by theoretical design as well as utilitarian practice which is known by pragmatic design consists of significant tension within them.
In the context of contribution the quantitative research contribution is considered as highly generalizable irrespective of the dimension of the research. The quantitative research yields an impressive amount of predictability s well as power because of the extensive amount of hypothesis testing (Deep, Murthy & Bhat, 2015). The respective theory testing contributing activity is mostly based on the nomothetic perspective. On the other hand, the qualitative research contribution is mostly considered as mostly narrow in respect to its scope. However, the respective contribution highly important as well as equal in comparison with the quantitative research contribution. In addition to that, the qualitative research contribution is highly imperative at the time of exploration of the difficult as well as quantifiable topic.
The qualitative research contribution is itself based on the idiographic nature, albeit it is grounded in the realistic societal prospects. It has been identified by Seshia (2016) that there are various areas of academic research which are highly influenced by the fundamental contributions of the qualitative research. It is also considered that the qualitative research contribution has the ability to develop the basic science in the domain of behavioral as well as social sphere. Moreover, it is also effective for eradicating the changes where the prior research constructions are considered. It can also provide an efficient direction in regards of outcomes as well as predictors.
Figure 1: The Research Cycle
(Source: Polozov & Gulwani, 2015)
The extensive study on the contribution on the research has identified that there are mostly three major ways by which the theory can be enriched by the contribution of research. The foremost way is contributing to the explanatory power of research. As stated by Reigeluth (2013), this way the research can gain an effective advantage as unique revelatory knowledge which will in turn enrich the overall research knowledge. This unique revelatory research also has the ability to shift the paradigm. However, it has been observed that the research knowledge has a major tendency to focus on more increment contribution to the research. According to Betz (2013), it immensely deals with the development along with increasing the numbers of lexicon of various research facts.
The second type of contribution to the research is highly considered as the long-venerated process. This particular contribution process is mostly concentrates on invoking the theme in the literature of the research project. As opined by Kumar, Kumar and Sisodia (2013), the contribution method is based on the assumption that significant progression as well as knowledge advancement toward the theory is the major factor for the preference of the theory. This particular assumption is highly popular as Dublin’s ground breaking work in the entire academic research sector. It has been suggested that the theory must consists of pragmatic or scientific usefulness which will be highly influential for gaining the sufficiency. This attribute will therefore able to improve the perception of the practitioners as well as the research practice.
In the same context, the third contribution to the research can be considered as the establishment of the best practice within the research work. According to the various scholars it is established truth that any good theory is based on the practical fronts (Tyson, 2014). In addition to that, (Agger, 2014) has been able to also identify the attributes of the good research as the grounded practice in empirical research along with grounded practice in past experience. These practices are highly effective for making the standard of the best practice as these practices are rooted into practicality (Devetak, 2013).
The given research topic is related with the process of hiring ex-offenders an attempt to minimize the squandering of human capital. The research topic is mostly depended on various hypotheses regarding the activities of ex-offenders as well as their employability skills. As illustrated by Bouzat (2014), every hypothesis must be evaluated in order to identify their possible consequences so that the research can obtain the most critical outcome. In this context the hypothetico deduction theory is highly suitable for the current research work. The true scientific approach of hypopthetic deduction model effectively helps to enrich the understanding of the research.
The hypothetico deduction is highly capable of generating an intense discussion as well as debate in order to properly understand various aspects of the employment of ex-offenders. In addition, it is also helpful to measure various consequences of the hypotheses developed on ex-offenders employment issue as well as their contribution in the human capital efficiency. As opined by Benjamin (2014), the hypothetico deduction is also quite capable enough to observe the subject with a greater intensity. This way the research can be properly evaluated with a significant elaboration which in turn enhances the understanding. The elaborated evaluation process greatly helps in generation of practical as well as testable hypothesis. Hypothetico deduction model is quite efficient for maintaining the relevance as well as falsification of the research methods. The excessive study of the hypothesis testing immensely helps in respect to providing a greater understanding to the research.
Hypothetico deduction model is highly popular theory in the context of academic research sector. Like all of the research theory the hypothetico deductive model cannot answer all of the questions in an effective fashion. According to Corbin and Strauss (2014), it has been identified in literature review of hypothetico deduction model that the respective theory consists of major two different questions which cannot be answered properly. One of the unanswered questions of hypothetico-deductive model is Verification error. The hypothetico deductive model is highly depended on the manual hypotheses developing project. In this scenario the hypothesis building allows a greater chance of personal error. This error can be highly crucial in respect to the verification of the hypotheses based on the collected data in the research work.
The hypothetico deductive theory is highly focused on fitting the results with the research work in order to match the theory which is already preconceived. For example, the research work based practice can be formed on the basis of personal understanding of the results. Therefore, the results can be influenced by the poor understanding of the subject matter. As stated by Spielberger (2013) the extensive study of the literature of hypothetico deductive produced a greater range of example for the verification error. Another most important controversy regarding the hypothetico deduction is that the theory cannot derive the difference between the acceptance of entire theory by hypothesis testing and different parts. This way hypothetico deduction model is unable to properly evaluate the parts of the research works. Therefore, the outcomes of the research work get hindered by hypothetico deduction theory (Sprenger, 2013).
The relationship between theory and application has been transparent in the recent times. The research process implements effective theories which help in developing the research process as a whole. It also helps in the strategic implication of the strategy and the theories which help in improving the skills of the research work and helps in the development of the research process as a whole (Bratton & Gold, 2012). The inductive theory helps the research through collecting the date in the research process and helps in developing a new innovative theory within the research process as a whole. The research process collects the necessary data by the need for the analysis and helps in gaining a new thought process by the researcher as well. The inductive synthesis theory helps in theory building process within the research development and helps in completing the research work as a whole.
The Hypothetico deductive theory helps the researcher to improve the theories and data process which further helps in the development of the research work as well. The Deductive theory helps to conduct the research process with existing theory (Schreier, 2012). The deductive theory includes the collection of data according to the existing theory. The hypothetico deductive theory helps in the theory testing research which helps in the research process as a whole. The implications of the deductive research help the researcher to deduce the hypothesis from theoretical prepositions already existed in the theory (which is needed to be tested) and the data collected for the research in support of the applied research subject as well. The research hypothesis helps in the research process through real life implications as well and also help in designing the method of the research process as well. In this research process, the hypothetico deductive research helps in the design research methods and also in the data collection process which helps the researcher to analyze the data also to evaluate the empirical findings of the research study (Cooper et al., 2012).
Critical Analysis of the theory helps in the improvement of the data collection and also helps in the development of the research process as a whole. The data collected by the researcher while conducting the research process need to be evaluated and analyzed accordingly to get exact results of the research process as well. The critical analysis also helps the researcher to evaluate the data which further helps in the improvement of the research process (Rummery & Fine, 2012). The critical analysis helps in the development of the research process and also helps in completing the research work as well. The critical analysis also helps in improving the data of the researcher and helps in finding the appropriate results for the research work. The theory also needs to be analyzed critically which helps the researcher to implement various strategies and theories within the research work which further helps in the development and improvement of the research work as well. The critical analysis also helps in evaluating the research work more accurately.
The relationship between the theory and practice plays a vital role in determining the improvement of the research process. This also helps the researcher to understand the deep value of the theory and further helps in improvement of the skills of the researcher as a whole. The various issues faced by the researcher in the implementing the practice includes:
Problems in conducting inductive method into practice face certain challenges in collecting data which further affects the theory of the research as well. The problem that is faced is inappropriate data may lead the researcher towards providing the incorrect solution towards while conducting the research process (Hofmann-Wellenhof et al., 2012). The problems of the inductive process are the theory which is based on the data that is collected by the researcher. Thus, incorrect data will consequently lead to the incorrect research process and thus led the researcher towards facing problems in conducting the research process.
Problems in conducting the research hypothetico deductive method help in the development of the research process (Seidman, 2012). This also helps the researcher to collect the data as per the existing theory as well. The research process thus provides exact data in accordance to the need of the research process and helps the researcher towards improvement and development of the research process as a whole. The researcher thus faces various challenges in conducting the hypothetico deductive method (Savin-Baden & Major, 2013). The researcher needs to analyze the data by the existing theory which further helps the researcher in conducting the proper research process. The hypothetico-deductive process also helps the researcher to analyze the data and helps in testing method of the research process as well. This also helps in the development of the research process and helps in providing the exact data towards the research work (Pickard, 2012).
The critical analysis of the research work helps the researcher to improve the skills of the researcher and also helps in improving the research work as well. The researcher in implementing the theory faces certain challenges in implementing the theory in the research process. This led towards the time management of the researcher which helps the researcher to complete the research process accurately (Timmermans & Tavory, 2012). The challenges faced by the researcher in a critical method is time analysis which further delay the research work as a whole. This also led towards the critical evaluation and thus led the researcher to face challenges as well.
The concepts of theories refer to the representational theories. This help the researcher to analyze the data and helps in conducting the research process as well. The concepts of theory also help in the improvement of the research process and also help in the implication of the theories in the research process as well. The theory within the research process helps the researcher also to evaluate and analyze the data and helps in providing the exact data as well. This also helps the researcher to implement the theories in real life which further helps in improving and developing the research process as well (Potter, 2012). The theory of concepts thus helps in the overall development and also helps in providing the exact data in the research process as a whole. The concept of theory also led the researcher to meet the limitation while conducting the research process (Harper, 2012). The limitations also led the researcher towards challenges that is met while providing the data in the research process as well. This also helps the researcher in improving the skills of the researcher and helps in providing the accurate data solution as a whole. Thus, the concept of the theory helps the researcher towards developing the research work and helps in improving the skills of the researcher as well. Thus, it also helps in improving the real life implications as well.
The theory also helps the real life implications which further help in the improvement of the productivity of the organization as a whole (Johnson et al.,2012). This also helps the organization to increase the growth rate of the organization and thus help the research work towards development as well. Thus, it helps the researcher towards providing the exact data and theory towards improvement as well.
The grounded theory refers to the study of the concept. This theory also refers to the practical implication of the theory and the research process which helps in analyzing the data as a whole. The grounded theory helps in conducting the research process effectively and efficiently as well. The grounded theory also helps in the research process which helps in the development of the inductive theory as well (Cronin, 2012). Thus, it helps in the improvement of the research work and helps in gaining accurate data as well. The grounded theory also helps the researcher to link the data collected by the researcher with the inductive theory that has been systematically implied within the research work for further development as well. Grounded research also helps in qualitative research work towards conducting the data analysis and helps in evaluating the implication of the theory in the practical life as well (Delgado & Stefancic, 2012). This also helps the research work towards further development regarding another research type like social research. Social research also includes education field, religion, and other research methods as well. Thus, the ground theory helps the researcher to extract the theory from the other phenomenon which further helps in enriching the existing theory as well in the research system (Northouse, 2015). This also helps the researcher towards the new innovative theory which further helps in gaining accurate solution to the theory.
The grounded theory also includes the process of generating the theory which is held in comparison to the analysis, thinking and transformation of information within the research process (Gy, 2012). This also helps the researcher to emphasis more towards the information gather during the interactive approach in the research process and helps in collecting the data as well. This also helps in the continuous interactions of the parties which further help the researcher to conduct the research work accurately (Thornberg, 2012). This also helps the researcher to evaluate the theory and analyze the work which further helps in the analyzing the data as well. As per the Zhigang’s perspective the grounded theory in considered as the bottom-up approach which helps in developing substantive theory within the research process and help to analyze exact figure as well. This also helps to reflect the researcher regarding the social phenomenon which is basically based on the systematical data collection and helps in research development as well. The ground theory also helps in the linkage between the relative theory and the concept to improve the analysis and also helps in the development as well. The ground theory also helps in the empirical evidence within the research (Charmaz, 2014). The main feature of the ground theory helps the researcher to innovate a new theory and idea which has been abstracted from the data analysis and the experience of the researcher as well. This also helps the researcher to implement the theory in the real life and helps in conducting successful research work as well. This also helps the researcher to analyze the data and helps in improving the skills of the research work as a whole. The grounded theory approach also helps in the innovative thinking of the approach and helps in improving the process as well. The approach is regarded as the paradigm which is based towards the post-positivity and helps in emphasizing more towards the current theory which has also been constructed as well (Charmaz, 2012). This helps the researcher more towards improved analysis and helps in the development as well.
The grounded theory also emphasis towards the development of the theory and helps the researcher in collecting the data regarding real life relevance and also helps in data analysis comparison as well. The ground theory plays a vital role in determining the research process and also helps in a comparative analysis as well (Kolb, 2012). As per Glaser and Strauss, the method has been contrasted and also helps in the strategic method for generating theory as well. The ground theory also helps the researcher to obtain accurate evidence and helps in the establishing the theory as well. The theory also helps in verifying the method and data and helps in the research process as well. The ground theory also helps in the development of the concept of theory which helps in the improvement of the process of the research. This also helps the researcher to render the social interaction of the reality and also the structural context as well in the research process (Thornberg, 2012).
The ground theory implements three phases towards the research design, data analysis, and data collection phase. It also helps the research process in reviewing the closure and the technical literature which further helps in the development and the improvement of the research work as well. The ground theory also states that it deals with constant comparison and theory sampling within the research work (Cronin, 2012). Thus, it helps the researcher to analyze and collect the data simultaneously and also helps in gaining decisions regarding the selection of data to carry out the research process. Therefore, the Ground theory also helps in determining the research methods which further helps the researcher towards improving the sampling method as well. Thus, it also improves the sampling data and helps in developing the research work as well.
Grounded Theory helps the researcher to analyze the data and also helps in improving the data as well. The grounded theory in the past five years emphasis mainly towards the paradigms that have been founded since 1967. The grounded theory also helps the researcher towards the systematical approach in last 5 years towards the qualitative data analysis (Northouse, 2015). This also helps the researcher in the specific style of research which further helps the researcher towards pragmatic theory of action as well. The grounded theory also helps in the codes and coding of the methods as well. Thus, it helps the researcher theory neither deductive nor inductive but the combination of an abductive method as well. The data analysis thus helps in the data sampling, data analysis, and theory development as well (Harper, 2012). This also helps in the research process through different stages and also helps in developing the research phenomenon as well.
The Ground theory also helps in the research process and involves three elements that need to be implemented by the researcher in the process. The grounded theory also helps in the research process which further includes the various stages of the research process as well. The various stages of Ground theory also include certain steps that help in the data analysis as well. The various steps that include are data collection, Coding, note making and Memos and Theoretical Notes, Memos, sorting and writing as well (Johnson et al., 2012). Thus, these stages help the researcher in data collection method and also help in coding the data and processing the data as well. This also helps the researcher in constructing the theory and various other categories which further help in the development of the research process as well. The sorting of the data also helps the researcher to receive the theoretical saturation which also helps in the improvement of the research work as a whole. Thus, the various stages also help the researcher towards improving the data analysis and helping in improving the data collection method as well (Timmermans & Tavory, 2012). Thus, it helps in gaining accurate data as a whole.
The Grounded theory also helps the researcher through analyzing various research questions and helps in developing the various strategies as well. The researcher thus enjoys certain advantages in analyzing the implementation of Ground theory is to provides a rigorous and systematic procedure of the theory (Thornberg, 2012). It also helps in the enriching the data as well for the individual and the real life within the workplace as a whole. Thus, the Grounded theory provides with the qualitative method which further helps in the improvement of the research work as well. This also helps the researcher to improve the data and helps in gaining high quality of data collection towards the research process as well. The ground theory also helps in the development of the data collection and helps the researcher towards further development as a whole. The researcher also implements the effective data process which helps in gaining the accurate data and analyzing the process further in determining the process accurately (Bratton & Gold, 2012)..
The implementation of the Ground theory also led the researcher to face certain challenges regarding reliability and validity in the process. The research process needs to get validated, and thus, the trust and validity play a vital role in determining the accuracy of the data collection method as well (Schreier, 2012). The Grounded theory also led the researcher to prevent the research work from being induced bias and thus prevent as well to detect the research work as a whole. The other challenges faced by the researcher as well regarding results and consequences of the result i.e. the nature of the qualitative results as it prevents the researcher and led towards difficulty to implement the method in the research process as a whole (Cooper et al., 2012). Thus, the grounded theory helps the researcher to improve the skills and potential and also help in overcoming the challenges in implementation as well.
The researcher thus implements various effective methods to extract exact data in the research process (Kolb, 2012). This also helps in gaining more data and helps in increasing the possibility of the data collection method as a whole. The research process with the implementation of the effective Ground Theory helps in analyzing the data and thus procuring the data exactly in the research process as a whole. The researcher also implements the effective theory to improve the data and the research work which further helps the data towards improvement as a whole Wuest, J. (2012). Thus, the researcher with the effective implementation of the various theories and strategies improve the research work and also develops the research work as a whole.
Hypothetical Deduction, critical and Inductive – synthesis are the three theories that have been used in this research paper. Main focus of this research work thus is to find out the actual application of these three theories in reality. After going through several other research works, it can be seen that the application of this Hypothetical Deduction are divided into five stages are these have been mentioned here (Locke & Latham, 2013). From several hypotheses and evaluate each hypothesis critically, select a hypothesis to be tested, generate the predictions from the hypothesis along with using the experiments to check whether the predictions are correct or not. The fifth stage states if the predictions are correct, then the hypothesis is confirmed and if not, the hypothesis is disconfirmed (Boreham, 2013).
It can be stated that automatic induction of recursive programs from the input/output examples is one of the active areas of the research work since the beginning of sixties and of interest for AI research as well for the software engineers. It can be stated that the most influential approach was developed by summers (1997), which put inductive synthesis on a firm theoretical foundation. These traces can be easily integrated into one conditional expression that represents a non-recursive program. Therefore, the use and application of this theory is easily understandable (Brams, 2014).
After discussing the nature of these theories, it can be seen that these theories are largely used in several literature review. Clapham et al. (2012) have stated that one component of reviewing the literature is to determine what theories might be used in order to explore the question in a scholarly study. It can be stated that in the grounded theory research work, it is commonly discouraged to conduct an in-depth literature review before the data collection procedures and analysis. Moreover, it can be stated that engaging with the literature regarding the researched area in the stage of the research is demonstrated as a constraining exercise rather than a guiding one (Holler, 2012). Therefore, it can be stated that this can be a puzzling notion for the researcher engaging with the grounded theory methodology, especially when the researcher is expected to produce a literature review in the preliminary stages of the entire research procedure. However, some researchers have stated that presently it is common to import the theory from outside a field in regards to throw the lights on that field and this is certainly so in the case of the research design (Holler, 2012).
Locke and Latham (2013) have stated that effective interventions and the sound research both largely depend on marshalling the most appropriate theory and the practice strategies for a particular given situation. It can be stated that simply and abstractly, theory and the design might be thought of as two entities assuming several other relationships. Yet, when two entities are connected with each other and one is considered as a theory of the other, not every possible relationship is viable or acceptable (Marcum, 2012). However, in some of the cases, the connection between the theory and practical situation differs from each other and this affects the final outcomes sometimes. On the other hand, it can be seen that applications of these theories sometimes go beyond the application. Not every time, the theories are applicable properly, however, sometimes these above mentioned theories are properly used in order to align with the situation carefully (Marcum, 2012).
Pearson (2013) has stated that main difference between the deductive and the inductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed as well as tested theory, an inductive approach is concerned with generation of the new theory emerging from the data. It is required to mention that one particular inductive approach that is often referred to in research literature is grounded theory and in many research works, this is largely applied and used.
In designing the new algorithm, the researchers begin with considering a number of the examples and then try to generalize them. These examples are generally input-output examples or the sample computations through explaining the behavior of the algorithms. The target of the research work in most of the cases tends to understand and formalize the procedure of this generalization and eventually to design practical synthesizers. After going through these peer reviewed journals, it can be stated that most of these research papers have justified the selection of the research hypothesis (Pearson, 2013). Detailed discussion and the analysis of these research works have cleared the viewpoint that there exist a strong relationship between the theory and the application of these theories with the addressed scenarios in the research work. It has been found that the hypothetico deductive theory have helped the research works to enhance the theories and data procedure that further assists in the overall development of the research works as well (Sprenger, 2013).
After going through these research works, it has been seen that this theory of the research work assists in enhancing the data procedure and assists in helping in the overall development of the research works. Some issues were found at the time of aligning the theories with the addressed issues in reality (Locke & Latham, 2013). Some theories are based on some hypothetical perceptions and this causes issue in analyzing the research work. However, it can be concluded that all these research works have properly used the theories and thus it can be easily said that the theories have linked the addressed scenario appropriately (Marcum, 2012).
CerdaStrenstrom and Curtis (2014) had developed a research work on the employability of the offenders. The objective of this research work is to find out the moderating impact of offenders characteristics and find out the mediating impact of various components of employability. The major research problem of this article is to find out the role of nature of offense and qualification of work on apparent employability of ex-offenders. The foremost research question for this research work is given below:
The research hypothesis of this research work is given below:
H0: Different offender characteristics havesmall impact on the employability level
H1: Different offender characteristics have major impact on the employability level
The research problem of the study developed by Atkin and Armstrong (2016) is that a large amount of ex-offenders have to face different types of challenges while returning to the community. The major research questions related with this research study are:
Hypothesis of this research work is
H0: Employers are willing to hire ex-offenders
H1: Employers are reluctant to hire ex-offenders
Brown (2011) had developed a research work on vocational psychology and ex-offender’s reintegration. The major research problem as indicated by this study is that ex-offenders are unable to gate steady and rewarding employment. Their incapability to find out stabilized economic resources is the major contributors to the recidivism among ex-offenders.
The major research questions for this study are like:
In another research work Blessett and Pryor (2013) had mentioned that ex-offenders always remain absent in the discussion of diversity management. The major research questions of this research work are like:
Hickox and Roehling (2013) had developed a research work to find out the major considerations of criminal records while hiring ex-offenders in service. The major research question related with this study is:
CerdaStrenstrom and Curtis (2014) had developed their research work to find out the separate moderating impact of every offender characteristics and the effective mediating employability components for work qualifications. Atkin and Armstrong (2016) have developed a research work to find out the impact of parolees on community impact towards hiring ex-offenders. The major purpose of the research work developed by Atkin and Armstrong (2016) is to find out the barriers to legitimate employment. It indicates how technological advancement has become a barrier to the employment rate of ex-offenders. This research work also helps to find out how the negative perception of ex-employers plays important role on determining their employability rate. This study also helps to find out the attitude of employers towards hiring ex-offenders.
The major purpose of the research work developed by Brown (2011) is to find out the relationship between unemployment, psychological health and public safety. Brown (2011) stated that working plays a central role in the psychological well-being of an individual. With the help of work, peoples are able to interact with others Most of the researchers have discussed about various demographic groups in employee diversity management such as genders, ages, religion, sexual orientation and disabilities. None of them has mentioned about ex-offenders. This population always remains invisible. Hence, Blessett and Pryor (2013) had developed a research work to shed light on this invisible group. Thus theoretical paper is developed to highlight those reasons for which ex-offenders are not getting selected for employment. On the other hand the purpose of the study developed by Hickox and Roehling (2013) is to promote effective and fair implication of criminal record information to make employment decisions.
CerdaStrenstrom and Curtis (2014) used a 2x2 between-subject design for their research work. In this study participants are given the instruction that they will be considered as an employer who is trying to hire new employees for a job. Then the respondents will provide their perception about employing ex-offenders in their organizations. The respondents are randomly assigned to four individual circumstances in which they read a depiction of imaginary job applicants and give their perceptions. Atkin and Armstrong (2016) used a purposive sample of individual, to hire new personnel at more than 720 businesses. This survey analysishas been done in12 zip codes in Texas in order to find out the attitude of people while hiring ex-offenders.In order to conduct the survey in these 12 zip codes of Texas, help has been taken from the executive Director’s officer of the Texas department of criminal justice. In order to study larger demographic locations the two highest offender concentrated zip codes of Dallas, Houston were selected for the survey. Reliability analysis and Confirmatory factor analysis had been done to ensure reliability of the data findings. The research had separately sent survey packet to all the respondents andrequested them to fill up the survey and mail it back. Interview had been arranged over phone. 10 to 15 minutes interview sessions had been arranged with different hiring managers.
Brown (2011) had used secondary data collection method to conduct this research work. The author had gathered knowledge from various previous research works. For example, in order to analyze the relationship between unemployment and poor mentalhealth, help has been taken from the research work done by Bartley (1994) and Dolley, Fienlding and Levi (1996). On the other hand, form the research work done by Eland-Olson et al. (1983), it has been found that ex-offenders have to face a post-release depression, if they remain unemployed for more than 1 years after their release from jail. It has been found from the research work done by this research work ex-offenders spent that most of the life without any purpose. It increases their ineffectiveness as individual human being. It has negative impact on their motivation towards work.
It has been found that Blessett and Pryor (2013) had also used secondary research approach to develop their study. There are various concepts have been discussed related with ex-offenders employment rate. With the help of various previous research works, the vulnerability of ex-offenders status has been analyzed. The barriers that ex-offenders have face while entering in the society is also discussed in this study. With the help of previous research works, it had been analyzed in this study, that there are three major counterproductive approach towards helping ex-offenders to find a job. They are such as government policies, employment screening laws and political discourses. Hickox and Roehling (2013) had developed their research work in three major stages. At the first stage, risks associated with hiring ex-offenders have been analyzed. Secondly, the fairness and effectiveness related with criminal record information in employment decisions have been discussed. In the third stage empirical research work has been developed to find out employer’s perception about hiring ex-offenders.
The research work done by Cerda Strenstrom and Curtis (2014) has some issues related with its validity of its findings. There are various organizations like Tesco, Wal-Mart do not employ ex-offenders irrespective of their job-experiences. It has been found from the research work done by Atkin and Armstrong (2016) that 54% of the total respondents are willing to hire ex-offenders. The outcome of this research work is in contrast to the study developed by Albright and Denq (1996). According to their study only 12% employers are tending to hire ex-offenders. Brown (2011) had argued that government has to take less punishable approach for ex-offenders and needs to develop policies to include this population in employment. However developing this kind of policies can increase the amount of crime rate in a country as well. Despite of the fact that the research work done by Hickox and Roehling (2013) shows guidelines given by Equal Employment Opportunity commission has rejected the blanket policy that has barred the hiring of ex-offenders. However, it has been found that still majority of the employers have developed their own policies to restrict the hiring of ex-offenders.
From the research work done by CerdaStrenstrom and Curtis (2014), it has been found that the characteristics of offenders can be categorized as work qualification and type of offense. The employability skills can be divided as thinking skills, basic skills, dangerousness and personal qualities. The terms of offense have significant impact on the employability level. For example, N3 offenders have higher employability rating than violent offenders. It has also been found from this research work that qualifications of employees increase their chance of hiring for N3 offenders. However, it can be analyzed from this study that employers are not inclined to hire violent offenders irrespective of their job qualification. Atkin and Armstrong (2016) indicated that justifiable employment upon release has been cited as one of the most significant aspects of reintegration of offenders in the society. It has been found from this study that the geographic clustering does not affect the employment rate of ex-offenders.
It has been found from the research work done by Brown (2011) that unemployment rate and rate of offense is interdependent. It has been already proved that getting a suitable job is tough to find for ex-offenders. However, this study suggests that the increase of unemployment rate give rise to criminal activity in a community. In addition, it has been found from the research work done by Blessettand Pryor (2013) that there are various reasons for which crime rate has been increased in the urban areas of America. They are such as lack of education and qualification, economic instability, violence, abandonment. These factors also have overwhelming contribution in recidivism of ex-offenders experience even after their return to home.
It has been stated in this research work that ex-offenders have to face significant number of barriers even after release while they are trying return to the community. This research work suggested more sympathetic and less penalizing approaches to help ex-offenders back in the society. Form the findings of this research work it can be suggested that inclusion of ex-offenders at workplace can increase its diversity.The finding of this research work suggest that ex-offenders who are able to successfully gat a work are able to do that due to their capability to overcome the stigma of incarnation with the help of their existing social networks. It has also been found from this research work that more than 40% of the employers like to hire ex-offenders for low-skilled jobs.
From the research work developed by Cerda Strenstrom and Curtis (2014) it has been foundthat, there are mainly two major characteristics of offenders that have impact on their employment status. They are such as work qualification and the type of offence committed by them. In present labor market, there are some common traits required for a job. They are such as personal qualities, basic skills, thinking capability. This research work depicted that employers are less willing to hire ex-offenders than any other backward groups. After analyzing the severity of offence it can be stated that, in case of N3 offenders work qualification matters. However, in case of violent offenders, no organization is like hire them irrespective of their job experiences.
After analyzing the research work done by Atkin and Armstrong (2016), it has been found that, in the present competitive labor market, even the low wages jobs required a certain level of reading, writing skills. It has been found that more than 65% of the ex-offenders are school dropout and 50% of them are illiterate. This research work also helps to analyze that, in case of employment rate, ex-offenders lack behind other backward groups due to their inefficiency in communication. This research work also helps to understand those areas in which ex-offenders are being hired. They are such as cleaning, food service, automotive, construction and maintenance.
It has been found from the research work developed by Brown (2011) that due to the failure of ex-offenders to get legitimate employment opportunity, most of the employees return to prison within only 3 years of their release. With the increase of competition in the labor market ex-offenders are not able to jobs in which they are interested. It increases their frustration level, for which they often commit major offences again. Hickox and Roehling (2013) help to analyze that information about criminal activity should be used effectively and fairly to take right decisions about hiring ex-offenders.
After analyzing all the five research works, it has been found that there are certain factors that need to be discussed to understand the depth of this research topic. They are such as barriers of employability among ex-offenders and employer’s attitude towards hiring ex-offenders. All these factors have been discussed below:
From the research work done by Atkin and Armstrong (2016), it has been found that more than 60% of the ex-offenders are financially supported by their family members upon their release from the prison. However, 90% of the ex-offenders come to understand the importance of employment as the paramount of their success in society. Atkin and Armstrong (2016), stated that majority of the jobs in the current competitive labor market requires specific skills depending on the type of work, certification or specialization about the work and a certain level of work experience. Even it has been found that low wage jobs require a certain level of arithmetic, reading and writing skills. Atkin and Armstrong (2016) affirmed that Most of the ex-offenders have lack of experience and educational qualification, which become major barrier in their employability. There are mainly two types of barriers have been founds that ex-offenders have face in society related with employment. They are such as supply side barriers and demand side barriers.
As Reynolds Craig and Boer (2013) mentioned that there are some major characteristics of ex-offenders that often become barrier to their employability. It includes factors such as limited cognitive and education skills, limitation of work experience and issues related with mental and physical condition. According to Newell (2013), there are more than 65% of the ex-offenders are dropout from high schools and 50% of the ex-offenders are functionally illiterate. It has been found that the poor and illiterate persons who are engaged in criminal activities have lesser work experience than those illiterate persons who are not engaged in criminal activities (Blessett & Pryor, 2013). Hence, when these ex-offenders try to reenter the labor market after their incarnation, their limited work experience and poor skills limits their employability and earning potentials (Stahler et al., 2013).
In addition it has been found that majority of these men suffer from different types of server diseases and contagious infections. As Rossi Berk and Lenihan (2013) stated that among all the ex-offenders there are 2% to 3 % suffer from HIV, 18% suffer from Hepatitis C. There is 15-25% ex-offenders suffer due to various types of mental disorders. As Varghese (2013) mentioned that spending majority of the time behind the bar create depression and anxiety among ex-offenders.It has been found that majority of the female employees have to suffer from different types of depression and most of them are sexually abused (Sheehan, McIvor & Trotter, 2013). All these factors become a major threat to the employment status of ex-offenders.
In addition, it has been found that majority of the ex-offenders belong to minority groups. As Schmitt and Warner (2012) mentioned that, approximately 50% of the ex-offenders belong to African-American and 20% of the ex-offenders belong to Asian minorities. It has been found that crucial parts of these minorities havesuffered from discrimination in the labor market. This has become one of the major barriers of ex-offenders who belong to minority groups.
In addition to those above discussed barriers, there are two major barriers have been found, which are generated by the employers. They are related with personnel characteristics of ex-offenders vs the factors related with the status of ex-offenders (Maruna & Immarigeon, 2013). It has been found that the work experience and skill level of ex-offenders are generally conflicting with the skills and expertise required by employers for a certain job. As Salem et al. (2013) mentioned that more than 90% of the unskilled jobs required at least school level qualification. Even for this job which requires little formal skills, employers desire to have at least basic job readiness from their employees. It has been found that ex-offenders who are vulnerable to abuse or who have severe health problems have low level of job readiness (Martinez & Abrams, 2013). For this reason they are likely to have fewer job offers from various employers. There are various other factors that have affected the employability rate of ex-offenders. Most of the employer’s attitude towards hiring ex-offenders varies greatly with the change of race, location and gender of ex-offenders. After analyzing all these five research study, there are some major characteristics of employers can be found from them. As Fitzgerald et al. (2013) stated that, it has become a universal tendency of employers to check background of employees. Employers are less likely to hire ex-offenders that any other incapacitated group, such as welfare receivers (Carter & Pycroft, 2013). On the contrary, it has been found that the attitude of employers towards ex-offenders vary with the nature of their organizations and the characteristics of the job for which they are trying to hire employees. As Saliba (2013) mentioned that, the attitude of employers change with severity the offense committed by the offenders and significant work experience gathered after release from jail.
All the five research works have mainly discussed about the barriers that ex-offenders have to face while they are looking for the opportunity of employment. The unknown factor about this research topic is the positive development on the employment rate of ex-offenders. As Lewis et al. (2013) stated that, in future the labor market will be tighter. In future employment will require higher level of education and cognitive skills. However, in this condition employers will be look for new sources of recruitment as the traditional sources of employees will become in-sufficient. For example during 1990s employers were unable to hire sufficient unskilled employees (Chui & Cheng, 2013). For this reason, employers were becoming more inclined towards hiring employers from new sources such as immigrants, welfare recipients and minorities (Connor & White, 2013). This situation may occur again in future, which will increase the employment rate of ex-offenders.
There are various organizations such as Center of Employment Opportunity in New York (CEO) has understood that employing ex-offenders will help to reserve human capital. These organizations are able to convince employers that ex-offenders are an effective source of employment under right circumstances (Bushway & Apel, 2012). These organizations train and screen workers expansively before they are trying to get a job in private sectors.
As Shivy et al. (2012) stated that, there are various policies have been developed by the policy makers to decrease the barrier in the labor market for ex-offenders and improve their earning and employment opportunity. Various policies have been developed to make it easier for employers to hire ex-offenders. As Ramakers Wilsem and Apel (2012) stated that, it is required to review the legal constraints of employmentof ex-offenders and improving the quality of the public information on the history of criminals. It is also required to increase financial support for those agencies who are trying to link ex-employers with the present labor market. It has also been analyzed that increasing financial remuneration for ex-offenders can increase their attraction towards accepting low-wageemployment.
The purpose of this research work is to find out the how ex-offenders can be involved more in the present labor market so that human capital does not get wasted. At first, all the barriers need to be analyzed that ex-employers have to face while looking for a job. The attitude and behavior of employers towards ex-offenders in the present market condition also needs to be evaluated. In addition, this research work will look to develop efficient strategies so that employment rate of employees in the present labor market can be improved.
In order to conduct this research work in appropriate manner, positivism philosophy will be used along with descriptive research design and deductive research approach. As Corbin and Strauss (2014) positivism philosophy holds on physical world (society). With the help of positivism philosophy information about the research topic can be gathered with the help of sensory experience (Billig & Waterman, 2014). It is a philosophical approach that recognizes only those aspects that can be scientifically verified and which can be logically proved. It helps to take decisions on logic rather than moral consideration.
With the help of descriptive research design, participants for a research work can be depicted effectively. As Meeker and Escobar (2014) mentioned that, there are three major ways descriptive research design can be utilized. They are such as observation, case study and survey analysis. As interview and survey analysis will be used for this research work, descriptive research approach seems to be the most appropriate one for this study. In order to data for this research work, primary data collection method has been used. As Panneerselvam (2014) stated that, with the help of primary data collection technique data can be collected from a mass population.
Both quantitative and qualitative data collection method have been used for this study. As the major purpose of this study is to find out the perception of employers about ex-offenders employment, qualitative data analysis (interview) can be fruitful for this purpose. Telephonic interview will be taken from 5 recruiting managers to ask about their point of view about employing ex-offenders in service. On the other hand, a survey analysis will be done on 100 respondents, where they will act as an employer. They will face 4 different situations, where 2 normal candidate and 2 ex-offenders will apply for a hypothetical job. This survey will provide the perception of respondents about employment of ex-offenders.
In order to gather in-depth knowledge about the research topic telephonic interview of 5recruiting managers have been taken. Their point of view will help to analyze why employers are normally reluctant to recruit ex-offenders. Depending on the issues appropriate recommendations can be given so that employment rate of ex-offenders can be increased in future. On the other hand, with the help of survey analysis the perception of common people among ex-offenders can be derived (Panneerselvam, 2014). From this perception an idea can be gathered about different types of barriers that an ex-offender has to face while incarnating in the society. The major weakness of this study is that, as this survey will be conducted on only 100 respondents, the outcome may differ from the actual situation. As the respondents are given 4 fictitious conditions, the result may differ from the actual situation.
For this research work, primary data collection method has been selected, as it will help to gather perception of a mass population directly. With the help of survey analysis, the perception of common peoples about ex-offenders and their employment opportunities can be gathered. This data is scientific, fact oriented and less partial. On the other hand, taking interview from managers can help to understand the present situation of the current labor market. It will help to understand the main reason behind inclination or reluctance of employers to hire ex-offenders for a job.
In any research that includes human subjects and participants raises complex ethical issues along with legal, social and political issues. According to (American Psychological Association, 2016), research ethics includes three most important principles and objectives that are highly important to follow at the time of those researches. First objective is to ensure that the research will be conducted in a way that it will serve the interests of the individuals, groups and society as a whole. Second objective is to protect the participants in the research. Last but not the least; the third objective is to evaluate specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness by looking at problems such as risk of management, protection of confidentiality and the method of informed permission. However, as mentioned by (National Academy of Sciences, 2009), there are five principles of ethics in a research that are reducing the risk of harm, collecting consent of information, protecting confidentiality, avoiding deceptive practices and allowing the right to extract. There are some other parts of ethics that are important while doing a research that will be discussed in this study.
Plagiarism means taking someone else’s work without their permission and passing them off as one’s own. According to Jickling (2015), plagiarism is considered as tool to steal the ideas or words of another person without his approval. In any research, plagiarism is considered as one of the biggest and complex ethical issue that is faced by the researchers while publishing and submitting their work. In fact, in most of the cases the boundaries of referencing, quoting, adopting and copying are not clear. However, recently some scandals related to plagiarism have made it clear that is a serious ethical issue that must be minimized or removed from any study. Plagiarism in any form is totally not acceptable as it is seen as a serious breach of professional conduct. If plagiarism is found in any work then the consequences will be severe. Lots of cases are seen where the authors are banned from publishing anything as a result of plagiarism in their writings (Nind et al., 2014). In educational institutes if a student commits plagiarism, the authority makes sure that the student gets zeroin that subject.
However, sometimes it becomes important to copy and paste some of the texts in the writings to express and meet the requirements of the research. Therefore, if a student is forced to do a word-to-word copy beyond a short phrase, then that student must put that section within a quotation. That student can also put proper referencing before the copied content. This not only frees the content from plagiarism but also allows the student to give credits to the original writer of that content. This same rules and regulation applies for the applications and proposals and to clinical research proposals.
Plagiarism not only violates the rules and regulations of standard code of conduct that governs all the researchers but also constitutes a contravention of the law by infringing on a copy right held by the original author or publisher. As mentioned by Gillan & Pickerill (2012), an author, does not matter if he is a student or a professional writer, will have to cite the work of others even he or she was a co-author or editor of the work.
In spite of these rules and regulations, in many cases plagiarism is found. Mostly in universities, the papers submitted by the students are found highly plagiarized. Therefore, some websites are present that can help the students to figure out how much plagiarized their contents are. Turnitin is such a website where students can upload their work and check the percentage of content that is plagiarized. However, mot of universities understood that it is nearly impossible to keep content free from plagiarism (Liaw & Tam, 2015). Therefore, the authorities of universities have allowed plagiarism to a certain level. For example, some universities allow 10% percent plagiarism and some allow 5% plagiarism. Anything over that will be considered as crime and the authority will be eligible to take legal actions against that student.
Most of the organizations must take some kind of risk assessment before starting their researches. According to Stichler (2014), timing of this risk assessment however varies between different organizations. Some organizations conduct risk assessment before a proposal is signed off and some of the companies carry out risk assessment only after funding has been secured for the research. For the projects of the students, it is unusual to undertake a formal risk assessment. However, it is highly important to discuss the potential risks in a project that might create negative effects in the future with the supervisor. Business organizations require risk assessment as they invite some responsibilities and liabilities for the activities they perform while conducting a research. Some of the key risks for an institute are mentioned below,
Reputational damage includes damage to the public acuity of the institution as a result of carrying out an unethical way of conducting a research. Another issue, which is also unethical, is the damage of reputation in the eyes of funders. For example, if a given task is not completed within a given time limit or is of poor quality then it will be considered as unethical to the funders. On the other hand, if a project is not completed under the proposed budget, then it will also be considered as ethical issue. Another type of ethical issue that might rise while doing risk assessment is damage in the eyes of the research community (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). If collected data through a research is of poor quality or the data is fabricated and shows false and fake information then it will create ethical issues.
If a researcher fails to deliver a work within the given time limit then the organization who gave the responsibility of the research might take legal actions against those researchers. Any contract that is made while doing the research is signed between the funder and the institution, not between the funder and the individual researcher (American Psychological Association, 2016). Therefore, if something goes wrong the institute carries the responsibility and that is why they take legal steps when a researcher fails to delivers his job within time. Before doing any type of research, it is a good idea to seek advice and help from a research manager in the institute who has the experience of filling out a risk assessment form. In case of a research in a university, it is recommended for the students that they should consult with their respective teachers.
Consent is considered as a central act in any research ethics based on the rules and regulations of Nuremberg Code introduced in 1947. According to Jickling (2015), Helsinki Declaration of 1964 stated that consent will be valid when it will be informed properly and will be given freely without treats or persuasion. Both Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Declaration are known for being the foundation of principles of consent in today’s research. The ESRC framework for research ethics has two primary principles that cover of research consent by facilitating freely given and fully informed consent. These principles are also known as valid consent in some other parts of the research.
According to Nind et al. (2014), principle two of this framework states that subjects of research will have the full right to know the purpose, methods and envisioned possible uses of the research in which they are taking part. Besides, they would be also eligible to know about their participation and what risk, if any, are involved. Principle four declares that during any research participants will have their rights to participate in the research in a voluntary way. In no scenario they would be forced to participate. Even after participating, the subjects would have theirs rights to quit the research in any period of time.
Another informed consent is respect to people’s consent that serves to prevent harm and abuse, for example a researcher has exploited or deceived the participants in a wrong way. However, it is evident that the definition of harm is different for participant and a researcher. However, this difference can be reduced by clarifying the matters with each other within due time. As mentioned by (Gillan & Pickerill, 2012), therefore, consent can be known as a process, not a simple yes or no. In this process potential participants will be able to decide if it is worth taking part in a study. They will also be responsible for evaluating the risks that might present in that study. Some researchers stated that this behavior of consent is rather extreme for the small studies; however, respect for consent sets standards of respect that carries the relationship between a participant and a researcher.
Committee of Ethics that handles the ethical part of a research always love to follow ESRC principles of freely given and fully informed consent. They also advise to their researchers to follow these principles without any mistake. However, in some cases, ESRC FRE allows exception in those researches where covert and misleading research is mandatory (Liaw & Tam, 2015). In these cases the researcher will have to think carefully about this research that whether the misleading part would be necessary, if yes, then why.
Any researcher should be prepared to justify his approach to research ethics within their design. If any of the researchers deviate in any way from these above-mentioned principles then they will be challenged during the ethics review process. Therefore, it is highly recommended that a researcher must prepare their cases with extra care and should give plenty of time for dialogue with the ethics committee. If a researcher thinks that, he will not able to maintain the principles of ethics during this research, he should not continue as in future legal obligations might ruin his career.
Confidentiality refers to a process that serves to protect any identifiable information about individuals that are collected during the process of research. Any researcher will be bound to protect any personal data of the participants and will not disclose it to anyone without permission.
The process of confidentiality is closely related to anatomy. However, according to Stichler (2014), anonymization of data cannot minimize all the issues raised under the concern of confidentiality. On the other hand, confidentiality also serves to protect any information gained from a participant. In a research, confidentiality means not to discuss any information given by an individual with others and presenting findings in such a way that will ensure that individuals cannot be identified.
According to Gillan & Pickerill (2012), privacy is another important factor also protects research participants by giving them right to gain respect for their autonomy, their right to self-determination and general welfare. Privacy is also considered as a function that a researcher must follow in order to decide which information should be shared and which information should not with others. In case of public health sector, an extraordinary importance is provided while protecting an individual’s private health information (PHI). HIPAA, which is known as a privacy rule, was implemented successfully with intent to protect individuals’ ability to obtain health insurance coverage.
In case of qualitative research where interviews are conducted, consequences are serious if the researcher breaches rules and regulations related to privacy. The easiest way to protect participants includes the method of collecting anonymized data. However, it is also true this this process is not always possible to implement. For example, after information is anonymized, it will be hard for a researcher to link new information to individuals within a dataset or to return results to participants. The other alternative is to collect data in identifiable form and take precautions to re-identify the data as soon as possible.
This method is a perfect way of protecting participants from identification. However, the processes such as indirect identifying, coded, and anonymized information for research might still possess risks of re-identification. Especially in those cases where it is not useful to use anonymous data for research, the ethical duty of confidentiality becomes paramount. Researchers are requested to consult with their REB if they are uncertain about whether information proposed for use in research is identifiable.
The ethical duty of confidentiality are mentioned below,
Privacy and confidentiality is a thing that researcher will have to maintain in any scenario. Any violation is critical as it invades on a person in many forms including embarrassment, shame, and stigmatization. At one end, privacy is defined as the right of persons to limit access of their personal data by other persons and on the other hand, confidentiality is known as the treatment of information that is given to a researcher in trust. Participants expect that the information they are sharing will not be shared to others without their consent. Before staring a survey, the person who is in charge will have to convince the participants that their data will be kept in strict confidentiality and in no circumstances those data will be shared with any person. Verbal communication will help to convince the participants however, it is also important to show the same in the survey questionnaires. Therefore, something can be added in the survey questionnaires like mentioned below so that participants can see that while taking the survey and can become sure that their data is protected.
“Please help by completing this questionnaire for the completion of my research project. I assure you that any information that will be gathered during this survey will treated with strict confidentiality since it is for the purpose of this study only.”
In a research, another important process in known as data handling and reporting that ensures that the collected data is saved and put in an archive in as safe place during and after the study is completed. While reporting and handling the data, it is important to make sure that policies are rightfully developed to govern the handling of both electronic and printed materials. Electronic formats such as laptop, video tapes CD, DVD are memory cards are some of the accessories that are used to store any type of research data. Therefore, in order to proceed with the research in an ethical manner it highly important to keep these materials out of the hands of any third person. Non-electronic materials include printed files, notebooks of laboratory, and journal articles. This process of research is also known as elementary as it serves to protect the data, especially confidential ones. When the data would be disposed which are electronic, proper measurements must be taken to ensure that the stored data is protected, not changed, deleted or lost. Only the authorized users and personnel will be allowed to access the information.
The most important thing that a researcher must consider while handling data is, the data is stored electronically in systems and individual files that are locked with log in and passwords. Besides, the system where data is stored, it is important to install an antivirus there so that the data stays safe from any type of virus attack. Backup of the data must be kept in order to in order to protect the information in case of data loss or system failure. Data configuration management can also help to develop a proper storage and retrieval processes. On the other hand, it is also essential that after the research is completed a proper disposal system will exist which will dispose any data that contains confidential material. This will make sure that the materials cannot be reconstructed for any type of unauthorized use. In case of qualitative research, it is paramount to questions from a questionnaire that is approved by the authority. Those questions will be developed based on objectives and will not contain any subjective question. Participants will have to right to ask any question for clarification during the survey process or after the survey process. Besides, they will be given the authority to leave the survey at any moment without any explanation.
It is important to understand the value of the information that will collected during the research process. If the importance cleats then it will easier to develop a security protocol to protect data from any outsider. However, handling data ethically is not an easy task to do and it requires proper planning, training, supervision and developing an accurate method which will make sure that the data is simple. It will also help to protect the integrity of the information that collected during the research process. Therefore, the person who will lead the research will have to understand and consider the probabilities of mistake and negligence as each and every research is bound to have errors.
Most of the errors take place at the time of experiment, data recording and interpretation of the customers. In order to avoid these problems some precautionary measurements can be taken to ensure the authenticity of the data and to make sure that discipline is maintained while doing the research. In the end, it is evident that a researcher will have to make sure that the research work for any thesis or dissertation is totally organized and peer reviewed which will reduce the chances of error.
In addition to that, the exploration of the innovative idea or observation will be needed for greater risk taking scenario. In this scenario the undeveloped experimental as well as theoretical techniques play a highly important role in respect to conducting the research work. However, the risk taking cannot be justified for unnecessary activities within the research. This will eventually generate an extreme amount of negligence in respect to conducting the research. On the other hand, limited working hours as well as resources causes a numbers of honest mistakes at the time of research work. Mostly, this mistake occurs at the areas like designing the experiments, results interpretation, calibration of instruments, recording of the data as well as other aspects.
In order to avoid the mistakes the research work must adhere to the methods as well as practices which are developed by scientific disciplines. These disciplines are highly effective in respect to minimizing the possibility of mistakes as well as maintaining the scientific standards. Negligence can cause a significant amount of unnecessary risk to the reputation, colleagues’ work as well as public’s confidence.
One of the most important aspects while doing a research is to working with a mentor. Mentoring is defined as a tool of motivation that supports a person so that he can maximize his efforts, develop new and existing skills and improve their daily schedules so that they can become what are necessary to conduct a research assigned on them. Mentoring is also considered as a tool that allows building a partnership between different people from the same field. Mentoring totally depends on mutual respect and trust (Liaw & Tam, 2015). A mentor works to support an individual to become self-aware so that he can take full responsibility of the research work that he is doing.
Normally, mentors are the people who have already worked in the same field or have done some researches on the same topic. Therefore, they will know how to proceed with the study and how to gather data. They will also help to execute proper evaluation of the collected data which will contain minimum or no error. Besides, as ethics is one of the most important areas of any research, a mentor will also guide to maintain all the ethics while doing a research or a study that will include human interactions such as surveys and interviews.
Each researcher has an ethical commitment towards the people who are frequently participating in his research in order to make the study a successful one. Participants, who are willingly sharing their time, must be taken care of by assuring them that their data will be kept safe at any cost. On the other hand, researchers will have to carry out the duty to ensure that their study or research will never effect or harm any participant that took part in the near future. They will have to maintain the code of ethics as stated with strict discipline. However, only maintaining confidentiality is not the only task a researcher will perform. They will have to make sure that whatever they include in their study will be free from any plagiarism.
At any circumstances they will not copy and paste any data from any previous research. If they are forced to do that they will have to make sure that they put proper citations before those data in order to respect the author. Besides maintaining all these ethical rules and regulations, he will have to complete the research minutely without out making any errors. If the data that is collected and evaluated is incorrect then the chances will be high that his submission will be cancelled. The same will happen when doing the research, any of the above mentioned policies are violated. Therefore, it is highly recommended that while executing a research, the person in charge will have to work with a mentor or at least collect valuable suggestion from his mentor which will help him to provide a research without violating any ethical rules and regulations.
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