Starting from the logical design of the network that you completed in Assessment item 1, you are required to undertake the physical design of the network taking into consideration the feedback that you received in Assessment Item 1. In order to undertake your physical design, you may need to make further justifiable assumptions. You also have to complete your final network design report.
In this process, you are expected to participate in the weekly discussions and find the answers to the recommended discussion questions. Discussion questions have been selected and created not only to gradually increase your knowledge and skills in this course but also to help produce the final network design report. The students who do not attempt weekly discussion questions would very likely produce a report that would not satisfy the requirements and/or that cannot be justified.
In technology era, computer network plays an effective role and helps organization to communicate form source to destination end in effective and successful manner. A computer network is group of computer devices such as hardware devices that is connected with the help of communication channel to offers resource sharing and communication among wide range of organizations as well as clients (Shinde, 2009). Thus as per the case study it has been seen that the organization that is based upon the Australia specializes in designing and creating an effective network local as well as global. This organization presently won the contract to design an effective as well as secure computer network of new Philippines based hotels. The hotel has five floors and each floor contains 80 rooms. The organization has to develop network in such a manner that each staffs of hotels communicate effectively with each other’s. Furthermore as per the given case study, it has been gained that the organization needs to create network for one big island and three small surroundings islands. As per the study, it has been seen that the main islands have LTE (long-term evolution) and connected with other island using optical fiber that contains 200Mbps speeds.
The aims and goal of the present project is to design an effective as well as most secure network of hotels that is situated in Philippines. Furthermore, the objective of present project is to evaluate the design with the help of testing procedure and analyze the effectiveness of proposed network. As per the given scenario, it has been obtained that company has hotel and that hotel have 5 floors and each floor have 80 rooms we need to design network for 5 floors and also need satellite tower for wireless devices. In addition to this, in present research researcher build such type of computer network that helps the organization i.e. hotels to communicate with one staffs members to others though wireless communication process.
The main goals of the organization or business to build a secure network that helps the organization to communicate with source to destination ends in effective as well as successful manner. In addition to this, the organization wants to communicate with their staffs members, tourists as well as torus guides should have phone communication and internet access from anywhere on these island. Furthermore, it has been seen that an area where hotel is situated known for shark attacks and the surfers should be make available with wireless communication devices that helps them to communicate with the lifeguard’s easier manner. The goal of this business is connectivity between hotel all 5 floors and big island with three small island. The terrains of all four island need to Access Island currently uninhabited. The network design contacted of your company includes the designs of the network for the hotel on the big island and the internet and phone service on all four islands the tourists and hotel staff and tour guides should have internet access and phone communication from anywhere in the island to the rest of the world.
In order to design an effective as well as secure network firstly designer needs to implements and plans needs to software as well as hardware requirements. In order to build an effective network organization needs to routers, computers, switches and others devices that helps them in communication process. In addition to this, it has been observed that the company wants to secure their clients as well as their own data and information; thereby to gain this company needs to implements firewall techniques. Furthermore, the company requires to server that helps the organization to communicate with each other’s in effective manner. Moreover, organization needs to purchase internet protocol address that helps them to communicate with one device to others in easier manner.
If you keep in mind the changes in business strategies and enterprise networking discussed in the previous sections, it becomes possible to list some typical network design business goals:
Proper execution of network management system can be cooperative to gain weighty profits from business perspectives. Some of those assumed benefits are as follows
A network management system can have profound company-wide benefits. After all, your network consists of more than just computers. You also must consider your phone system, fax machine, printers and plotters, payroll system, and even your invoicing system. And if your business operates in more than one location, you’ll be dealing with several computers and peripherals at each location. With a network management system solution, every piece of equipment communicates with your computer system. More importantly, you can control your entire business operation from a central computer. Not only is a network management solution cost effective – it can also dramatically improve efficiency and productivity. Here are three ways in which your business will benefit from a quality network management system:
Save Money – Instead of several IT managers monitoring each network at every location, you’ll only need one sys admin at a single location to control and monitor your entire network. As a result, you can spend your hiring dollars where you need it – on research & development, customer support, advertising, new equipment, and additional inventory.
Save Time – A network management system will allow you to give each of your IT provider's direct access to any information they need to do their jobs efficiently. Say goodbye to walking reports around the office from one data entry location to another. Also, you won’t have to worry about any more missed emails or interoffice memos. Each of your team members can enter and retrieve data right from their own workstation, and access can be controlled by your network manager.
Increase Productivity – With a quality network management system, you can monitor all aspects of your office network including hardware, software, and peripherals. All of these components need to be able to communicate with each other. Should one go down, the whole system could be impacted? The minute there’s an issue, your network management system detects it so that there’s no data loss or productivity slowdown.
In general, the network design problem consists of the following three general elements:
The goal is to minimize cost based on these elements while delivering service that does not compromise established availability requirements. You face two primary concerns: availability and cost. These issues are essentially at odds. Any increase in availability must generally be reflected as an increase in cost. As a result, you must weigh the relative importance of resource availability and overall cost carefully
The primary purpose of the company to build an effective network design that helps the company to communicate with the staffs as well as tourism in most effective manner. In addition to this as per the case study it has been seen
That the areas where hotels situated known for Shark attacks thus with the help of implements an effective network or wireless communication devices the staffs member communicate effectively if any problem happened in those areas.
With the economic downturn that followed the Internet boom, there is an increased need to choose technologies that solve business problems. Although many companies made "technology for technology's sake" choices during the boom, this is no longer the case. Business leaders are more involved in Information Technology (IT) decisions than they once were, and IT managers rely on business managers to help them prioritize and fund IT projects. Network upgrades are made not because some new technology sounds interesting to the engineers, but because it will help an enterprise increase profits, productivity, market share, and cash flow. Network designers must choose solutions that solve a business manager's problem.
Network applications have become mission critical. Despite this trend, large budgets for networking and telecommunications operations have been reduced at some companies. Many companies have gone through difficult reengineering projects to reduce operational costs, and are still looking for ways to manage networks with fewer people and reduce the recurring costs of WAN circuits.
As the head count at many corporations remains flat or shrinks, there's a renewed focus on using network applications to increase individual productivity in all departments, not just within the networking and IT departments. One result has been the emergence of web-based productivity tools. Most enterprises streamline their business processes, applications, and protocols, and standardize on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP and web-based applications for selling products and supporting customers have risen in popularity, as have web-based applications for supporting employees and suppliers. Streamlining processes and protocols has also led to an increased use of IP telephony and to the continued convergence of voice and data networks. To save money and to reduce the need for specialized data or voice engineers, companies continue to adopt IP telephony technologies.
Until recently, telecommunications and voice networks were separate. Telecommunications engineers knew little about data networks, and networking engineers didn't know the difference between a TDM and a Tandem Switching System (TSS). In today's environment, voice, data, and video networks are merging.
In traditional voice and data terminal/mainframe networks, data flow and throughput were predictable. Closed communications systems were the norm, and data sources were well known. In today's networks, Internet surfing is ubiquitous. It is hard to predict data flow and the timing of bursts of data when users are jumping from one website to another, possibly downloading videos or animation files. In addition to web surfing, the move to a network organizational model where the network is used by both inside and outside users affects network data flow. Network design practices must keep pace with these changes in business practices.
Notebook computers have finally become small enough to carry around, and workers now expect to get work done at home, on the train, in hotels, in meeting rooms, at customer sites, and even while having their morning latte at the local coffee shop. These days almost every notebook computer ships with wireless networking built in to facilitate users getting work done outside the office.
It shouldn't matter (to the user anyway) where data is and in what format. Network users expect network performance to be uniform, regardless of where the user or data resides. A user should be able to read e-mail on a cell phone, for example, and read voice mail from a web browser while sipping coffee in an Internet cafe. Users should have secure and reliable access to tools and data wherever they are. The challenge for network designers is to build networks that allow data to travel in and out of the enterprise network from various wired and wireless portals without picking up any viruses and without being read by parties for whom it was not intended.
One of the biggest trends in network design is virtual private networking, where private networks make use of public service networks to get to remote locations or possibly other organizations. Customers getting involved in VPN projects have concerns about security, reliable and predictable performance, and data throughput requirements. VPNs are covered in Chapter 5, "Designing a Network Topology."
Network architectures are taking on a virtual and ubiquitous form for users, while remaining highly structured and managed from the network engineers' point of view. The designer is challenged to develop secure, resilient, and manageable solutions that allow users to work efficiently, wherever they are physically located.
Network security has filtered to the top of the list of business goals at many companies. Although security was always important, it has become even more important as networks become indispensable and as tools for breaking into networks become ubiquitous. Enterprises must protect their networks from both the unsophisticated "script kiddies" and from more advanced attacks launched by criminals or political enemies. There is also a continued requirement to protect networks from Trojan horses and viruses. Many enterprise managers now report that the network must be available 99.999 percent of the time. Although this goal may not be achievable without expensive redundancy in staff and equipment, it may be a reasonable goal for companies that would experience a severe loss of revenue or credibility if the network were down for even very short periods. This goal is linked to goals for security, as the network cannot be available if security breaches and viruses are disabling network devices and applications (Chao & Liu, 2007). When security and operational problems occur, networks must recover quickly. Networks must be resilient. More than ever, IT and business managers require high-availability and resiliency features for their network equipment and protocols, as they realize the extent to which network downtime can jeopardize business success. Thus the primary objective of the organization is to secure network in effective and efficient manner.
One of the first steps in starting a network design project is to determine its scope. Some of the most common network design projects these days are small in scope—for example, projects to allow a few people in a sales office to access the enterprise network via a VPN. On the other hand, some design projects are large in scope. Ask your customer to help you understand if the design is for a single network segment, a set of LANs, a set of WAN or remote-access networks, or the entire enterprise network. Also ask your customer if the design is for a new network or a modification to an existing one.
Explain to your customer any concerns you have about the scope of the project, including technical and business concerns. Subsequent sections in this chapter discuss politics and scheduling, which are tightly linked to the scope of a network design project. (Many network designers have learned the hard way what happens when you don't help your customers match the schedules of their projects to the scope.)
Make sure your customers tell you everything they can about the network and the design project. You may want to poke around outside the stated scope of the project; just to make sure nothing essential has been omitted. Double-check that you have gathered all the requirements and that you have accurate information about sites, links, and devices. If the project addresses network security, make sure you know about all external links, including dial-in access.
When analysing the scope of a network design, you can refer to the seven layers of the OSI reference model to specify the types of functionality the new network design must address. For example, you might decide that the design project is concerned only with network layer concerns such as routing and IP addressing. Or you might decide that the design also concerns the application layer because the focus is on voice applications, such as Interactive Voice Response (IVR), which directs customers to the correct location in a call centre, or unified messaging, where e-mail can be retrieved via voice mail and text messages can be converted into speech. Figure 1-3 shows the OSI reference model.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model
In addition to using the OSI reference model, this book also uses the following terms to define the scope of a network and the scope of a network design project:
Segment:- A single network based on a particular Layer 2 protocol. May have one or more Layer 3 protocols associated with it, although most networks are standardizing on IP.Building network. Multiple LANs within a building usually connected to a building-backbone network.Campus network. Multiple buildings within a local geographical area (within a few miles), usually is connected to a campus-backbone network.Remote access. Networking is the solutions that support individual remote users or small remote branch offices to accessing the network.WAN. A geographically is dispersed network including point-to-point, Frame Relay, ATM, and other long-distance connections.Enterprise network. A large and diverse network, are consisting of campuses, remote-access services, and one or more WANs or long-range LANs. An enterprise network is also called an internetwork.
For "Name of Application," simply use a name that your customer gives you. This could be an industry-standard name, such as Lotus Notes, or it could be an application name that means something only to the customer (especially for a home-grown application). For new applications, the name might be a code name for a software-development project.
For Type of Application, you can use any appropriate text that describes the type of application, or you can classify the application as one of the following standard network applications:
File transfer, sharing, and access
Database access and updating
Video on demand (VoD)
Scheduled multicast video
Surveillance and security camera video
Internet or intranet voice (IP telephony)
Internet or intranet fax
Sales order entry
Inventory control and shipping
Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
In order to build an effective network design organization needs to implements high-speed communication technology that helps them to connect one device to others in effective manner. Furthermore, in present scenario it has been seen that the organization want to communicate with four island where main island connected with others using fiber optics. Thereby to communicate between one devices to other organization implements routers that helps them to communicate between different network. Furthermore, developer users switch routers as well as several peripheral devices within the network that helps them to protect as well as communicate from one island to others in easier manner. Wireless communication from source to destination end has been done effective manner with the help of antenna (Goralski, 2009). Routers work within the Network with the help of IP address and the organization gain unique IP address from internet service providers. In addition to this router, helps to transfer the packets from one end to other end using shortest route. Switch helps to communicate one devices to others using MAC address.
The main motive to design this logical network is to offer access system services to the users. Use of different kinds of web servers is helpful to mitigate the network abuse from the business system. Implementation of this kind of network system contributes to sending useful data and information to the different ports and devices of the network system. Present aim of the Hotels organization to build such type of network that helps their staffs as well as tourists to communicate effective manner. In order to perform this job organization implements router devices that help them to connect different devices or network within one network (Goralski, 2009). The main purpose of selection of router devices is that it connects different type of computer network with one and helps the organization to send data and information from source to destination end effective as well as easier manner with the help of shortest path algorithm. Apart from that the organizaiaton implements antenna that helps them to communicate wireless devices i.e. as per the study it has been observed that the areas where organization i.e. hotels situated are suffered from shark attacks thus for some reason if any problems has been indentified then staffs members easily communicate with each other using wireless devices. To protect the network in secure manner organization implements firewall techniques that helps them to secure their network from unauthorized users in easier and effective manner.
Border Gateway Protocol:
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a routing protocol used to transfer data and information between different host gateways, the Internet or autonomous systems.BGP is a Path Vector Protocol (PVP), which maintains paths to different hosts, networks and gateway routers and determines the routing decision based on that (Kuhn, Sriram, & Montgomery, 2007).
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF):
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined asOSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4
Enhance Interior Gateway Routing Protocol:
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance vector routing protocol based on the principles of the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). EIGRP is a successor to the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Both are owned by Cisco and operate only on their devices.
Routing Information Protocol:
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic protocol used to find the best route or path from end-to-end (source to destination) over a network by using a routing metric/hop count algorithm.
Generally the firewall has two network interfaces: one for the external side of the network, one for the internal side. Its purpose is to control what traffic is allowed to traverse from one side to the other. As the most basic level, firewalls can block traffic intended for particular IP addresses or server ports In order to secure network well effective manner the company implements firewall techniques that helps the company to secure their network from unauthorized users (Judd, 2009). Furthermore with the help of proxy sever the organization also secure their network successfully manner. Moreover, network access control procedure employed in bolstering the computer network security. It helps the organization to employ the mechanism of not allowing or blocking free available network.
The network is a strategic element in your overall information system design. As such, the cost of your network is much more than the sum of your equipment purchase orders. View it as a total-cost-of-ownership issue. You must consider the entire life cycle of your networking environment. A brief list of costs associated with networks follows:
Empirical workload modeling consists of implementing a working network and then monitoring traffic for a given number of users, applications, and network topology. Try to characterize activity throughout a normal workday in terms of the type of traffic passed, level of traffic, response time of hosts, time to execute file transfers, and so on. You can also observe utilization on existing network equipment over the test period.
If the tested network's characteristics are similar to a prospective network, you can try extrapolating to the prospective network's number of users, applications, and topology. This is a best-guess approach to traffic estimation given the unavailability of tools to characterize detailed traffic behavior.
In addition to passive monitoring of an existing network, you can measure activity and traffic generated by a known number of users attached to a representative test network and then extrapolates findings to your anticipated population.
One problem with modeling workloads on networks is that it is difficult to accurately pinpoint traffic load and network device performance as functions of the number of users, type of application, and geographical location. This is especially true without a real network in place. Consider the following factors that influence the dynamics of the network:
IP big island: 220.127.116.11/23
Usable range 18.104.22.168 usable host
Subnet ID: 22.214.171.124/23
Broadcast ID: 126.96.36.1996/26
IP big island: 188.8.131.52/23
Usable range 184.108.40.206 usable host
Subnet ID: 220.127.116.11/23
Broadcast ID: 18.104.22.1686/26
Small island1 LAN: 22.214.171.124/26
Broadcast ID: 192.168.168.64/276
Small island2 LAN: 126.96.36.199/27
Routers and switch:- Network routers helps in forwarding and delivering packets form sources to destination end effective manner with the help of transmission control protocol or internet protocol. Furthermore, router has an effective ability to provide security on the network by authenticating and verifying clients accessing the computer network devices. Switch provides the communication between devices using MAC address. Scalability, cost as well as reliability are obtained effectively manner with the help of switch devices.
Telephones plays an significant roles in gaining and obtaining the distance end node intended for an effective communication. In order to communicate more effective in present network developer users the telephones devices that are connected or communicated with wireless devices.
Systems analysis students are familiar with the concept that typical systems are developed and continue to exist over a period of time, often called a systems development life cycle. Many systems analysis books use the acronym SDLC to refer to the life cycle, which may sound strange to networking students who know SDLC as Synchronous Data Link Control, a bit-oriented, full-duplex protocol used on synchronous serial links, often found in a legacy Systems Network Architecture (SNA) environment. Nevertheless, it's important to realize that most systems, including network systems, follow a cyclical set of phases, where the system is planned, created, tested, and optimized.
Feedback from the users of the system causes the system to then be re-created or modified, tested, and optimized again. New requirements arise as the network opens the door to new uses. As people get used to the new network and take advantage of the services it offers, they soon take it for granted and expect it to do more.
In this book, network design is divided into four major phases that are carried out in a cyclical fashion:
These major phases of network design repeat themselves as user feedback and network monitoring suggest enhancements or the need for new applications. Figure 1-1 shows the network design and implementation cycle.
Now that you and your client clearly understand and agree on the test scope, objectives, and criteria for success, it is finally time to roll up your sleeves and start working on the test plan. As always, it is important to collaborate with the stakeholders on the test plan to determine specifics regarding the application characteristics, behaviors, and new features that are expected of the new system. The prototype network system, equipment specifications, test cases, test tools, data to be collected, and results format must also be discussed and agreed upon. This is an important step in the process because it requires many decisions and significant teamwork.
For most types of tests, a working prototype network system of the intended design will serve as the platform upon which functionality, operation, and performance of the new system will be evaluated. A prototype network system is commonly illustrated in a set of network topology diagrams that represent a miniaturized version of the end-state network.
A test case in the context of internetworking is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether or not a design element (network service, component, or feature) is working correctly. Test cases are the essence of the test plan, and they are sometimes collected or aggregated into test suites. Identifying the right test cases and expected output is an art form in itself, often requiring a series of conversations with the project stakeholders, architects, and operators of the network?
A simple description of the test cases you expect to run, and accompany the network topology diagram you have prepared, is sufficient to begin the test plan dialog. Your client may already have some ideas of the kinds of tests they want to see, so you should request their input right away. However, some clients have no idea on how testing is conducted; in these situations, you need to rely on your own testing experience and an understanding of the design goals, test triggers, and motivations for the testing.
Test Suite #
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing
Default Route Announce
Redistribution BGP to OSPF
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Routing
Data Center iBGP Optimizations
CE-PE eBGP Optimizations
BGP Policy (Communities and Local-Pref)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Remarking at CE-PE to MPLS
QoS Transparency Across MPLS
Cisco Wide Area Application Services (WAAS)
PIM Sparse Mode
AnyCast RP with MSDP
Cisco Performance Routing (PfR)
Interop with WAAS
Cisco Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GET VPN)
Group Member at Branch and WAN Distribution
Cooperative Key Servers
Branch Router Performance (RFC 2544)
WAN Route Saturation
Circuit Path Failover
Line Card Failover
Route Processor Failover
MPLS Cloud Hard Failures
MPLS Cloud Soft Failures
Testing of pc connectivity
Testing using packet tracer
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Fleck, B. and Potter, B. 802.11 Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts: O'Reilly; 2002.
Flickenger, R. Wireless Hacks. Cambridge, Massachusetts: O'Reilly; 2003.
Kaeo, M. Designing Network Security. Indianapolis, Indiana: Cisco Press; 1999.
O'Hara, B. and Petrick, A. IEEE 802.11 Handbook. Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE Press; 2005.
Peikari, C. and Fogie, S. Maximum Wireless Security. Indianapolis, Indiana: Sams Publishing; 2002.
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